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EDUCATIONAL 

RECORDS 


NATIONAL ASLCHIVlS Of INDIA 


SELECTIONS 

FROM 

EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

OF THE 

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 


Volume I 

Educational Reports, 1859-71 


BEING TWO NOTES ON THE STATE 
OF EDUCATION IN INDIA COMPILED 
BY A. M. MONTEATH IN 1862 AND 
1867 AND PART TWO OF EDUCATION 
IN BRITISH INDIA PRIOR TO 1854, 
AND IN 1870-1871 BY A. P. HOWELL 


With a Foreword 



PUBLISHED FOR THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF INDIA 
BY THE MANAGER OF PUBLICATIONS 

Government of India 

DELHI 

i960 




GOVERNMENT OF INDIA PRESS 
NEW DELHI 
i960 


ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

June 1958 — June i960 


Chairman 

K. G. Saiyidainv 

Secretary to the Government of India* 
Ministry of Education, 

New Delhi. 

Members 

M. Mujeeb, 

Vice-Chancellor, 

Jamia Millia Islamia, 

New Delhi. 

E. A. Pires, 

Principal, 

Central Institute of Education*, 

Delhi. 

J. P. Naik, 

Secretary, 

Mouni Vidya Peeth, 

Gargoti, 

Kolhapur, Bombay. 

K. D. Bhargava, 

Director of Archives, 

Government of India, 

New Delhi. (Secretary^: 



FOREWORD 


As early as 1920, the Central Bureau of Education, Government 
of India, published a volume of Selections from Educational Records 
which covered the period from 1781 to 1839. In 1922, another 
volume was published and the period from 1840 to 1859 was covered. 
In the following year, however, the Central Bureau of Education 
was abolished as a measure of economy and consequently, further 
publication of Selections from Educational Records was discontinued. 

2. For some reason or other, this important scheme remained in 
cold storage for a very long time until it was taken up by the Ministry 
of Education in 1958. Under the policy now adopted, the Govern- 
ment of India accepts the responsibility to publish such Selections 
from the Educational Records in the National Archives of India as 
have some historical significance and it has been decided that such 
Selections for the pre-Independence period should be published in 
a phased programme spread over a number of years. An Advisory 
Committee has been constituted for the purpose and the work of 
making selections from Educational Records has been taken up 
from where it was left in 1922. Thanks to the labour of this Com- 
mittee and of the Directorate of National Archives, I have great 
pleasure in presenting this first volume of Selections under the pro- 
posed series to the students of educational history within the short 
period of about two years from the initiation of the project. 

3. This volume contains three reviews of the state and progress 
of education in India compiled in 1862, 1867, and 1872 respectively. 
The first of these reports was prepared by Mr. A. M. Monteath, 
Under Secretary to the Government of India in the Home Depart- 
ment, and refers to the period 1859-62. Its main object was to enable 
the local Governments to form an idea of the information required 
to be included in their reports on the working of the new educational 
scheme introduced under the Educational Despatch of 1854. The 
second report relates to the year 1865-66 and was also compiled by 
Mr. Monteath in 1867. The third report was compiled by Mr. A. P. 
Howell, Under Secretary in the Home Department. It relates to 
the year 1870-71. The original report also contains a section dealing 
with the development of education in India upto 1854 and several 
voluminous appendices. In the interest of economy, however, these 
two portions have not been reproduced here. 

4. The first of these three reviews was never published; and 
although the other two were published, they are now absolutely out 



Vi 


FOREWORD 


of print and students of educational history find it very difficult to 
have access to their copies. In making such selections, lengthy 
reports as well as reprints of published documents are ordinarily 
excluded. But certain considerations led! the Advisory Committee 
to make an exception in the case of these reports. It was felt that 
their publication would make accessible to scholars a continuous 
series of quinquennial reports on the progress of education in India 
from 1854 to 1871— a period about which so little is generally known 
at present. Another consideration was that these reviews contained 
within themselves the essence of the educational records of the 
period. No selection, however skilfully made, can be expected to 
deal with all the questions that can be referred to hi a review; and 
hence it was felt that the publication of these reviews would add 
substantially to the available historical literature oh the development 
of education in India. 

5. It will not be out of place to say a few words regarding the 

significance of the three reports which have been included in this 
volume. As stated earlier, they provide quinquennial reviews of 
education between 1854 and 1871. The period from 1871 to 1881 
is fully covered by the Report of the Indian Education Commission 
and thereafter, quinquennial reviews of the progress of education 
have been published for 1881-82 to 1886-87, 1887-88 to 1891-92, 1892- 
93 to 1896-97, 1897-98 to 1901-02, 1902-1907, 1907-1912, 1912-1917, 

1917-1922, 1922-1927, 1927-1932, and 1932-1937. The next period of 
ten years has been covered by a decennial review and a quinquennial 
review has been published for che period ending in 1951-52. Jt will 
thus be seen that, with the publication of these reports, students of 
educational history will now have the advantage of quinquennial or 
decennial reviews to cover a century of educational progress from 
1854. 

6. The reports have been reproduced as they are and no attempt 
has been made to correct the textual or other errors occurring in 
them. 

7. I take this opportunity to convey the thanks of the Ministry of 
Education to the Members of the Advisory Committee who have 
supervised J;he publication. I also express my thanks to Shri K. D. 
Bhargava, Director of Archives, and to his colleagues, Shri S. C. Gupt$ 
and Shri S. K. £axena, under whose able guidance, a skeleton staff 
has worked hard to collect material for this and subsequent volumes. 

New Delhi , PREM KIRPAL, 

15^ August 1960. Educational Adviser 

to the Government of India. 


coisfTEisrrs 


FOREWORD by Shri Prem Kir pal, Educational Adviser to the 
Government of India • ' 

NOTE ON THE STATE OF EDUCATION IN INDIA 
( compiled xn 1862) 

by A. M. MONTEATH 

Prefatory Remarks ’ * * * 

SECTION I 

Controlling Agencies with General Financial Statistics 

SECTION II 
Universities 

General Remarks 

Calcutta University •••'**' 

Madras University 

Bombay University * 

Standards of Examination in the above 

SECTION III 


Colleges 


General Statistics and Remarks 
Colleges 

Bengal • • * 

North-Western Provinces 
Punjab . 

Madras • * * 

Bombay . 


SECTION IV 
Schools 


General Statistics and Remarks 

Higher Class Schools 
Bengal . 

North-Western Provinces 
Punjab . 

Madras 

Bombay 

Middle Class Schools 

Lower Class Schools 
General Remarks • 
Bengal 

North-W estern Provinces 
Punjab . 

Madras • 

* • • 
Bombay * „ 


Page 

v 


3 


5 

6 

12 

13 

14 


14 

17 

30 

33 

34 
36 


40 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

49 

50 
52 

56 

57 
60 



viii 


COMMENTS 


SECTION IV — contd 
Schools — contd 

Normal Schools 

Bengal . . • . . 

North-Western Provinces 
Punjab . 

Madras 

Schools for Special Education 

SECTION V 

Private Institutions Under Government Inspection 
General Statistics and Remarks ....... 

Indigenous Schools 

Bengal ■ 

North-Western Provinces ...*•■* 

Punjab 

Madras * 

Bombay - 

Aided Schools 
Bengal • 

North-Western Provinces . . 

Punjab 

Madras * . 

Bombay 

General Remarks .......... 

SECTION VI 
Female Education 

Female Education 

Bengal • 

North-Western Provinces . . . * * r ' 

Punjab . 

Madras * 

Bombay 


Page 


64 

64 

64 

66 

68 


69 

7i 

74 

76 

76 

78 

78 

80 

81 

81 

82 

82 


85 

87 

88 
88 
89 


Summary . 89 

SECTION VII 

Scholarships 

General Remarks • • 90 

Scholarships 

Bengal . 90 

North-Western Provinces 9 5 

Punjab 96 

Madras . • • . • 96 

Bombay ........ ♦ * • . 97 

General Statistics • Q7 


CONTENTS 


IX 

Page 


SECTION VIII 

Employment of Students in the Public Service 

General Remarks 

Employment of Students 

Bengal - * , . * * 

North-Western Provinces •••*’** 
Punjab . • • • • * ’ ‘ ’ 

Madras * • * * * * * 

Bombay • 

SECTION IX 

English Language in Indian Education 

General Remarks . 

English Language 

Bengal * 

North-Western Provinces. 

Punjab . . • • * * 

Madras 

Bombay * 

SECTION X 
Book Departments 

Book Departments 

Bengal ' 

North-Western Provinces . 

Punjab . . . * - . ' • 

Madras 

Bombay 

SECTION XI 
Local Income 

Local Income 

Bengal ... 

North-Western Provinces 

Punjab 

Madras 

Bombay 

Summary 

NOTE ON THE STATE OF EDUCATION IN INDIA 
I865-66 

by A. M. MONTEATH 
( numerals in parentheses indicate paragraph s) 

Introductory (1) . . ' 


SECTION I 

General Resume of Educational Operations in. the several Presidencies 
and Provinces (2- 26) * ? . • « * * 


97 

100 

101 

102 

103 

104 


105 

106 

107 

108 
no 

III 


2X2 

112 

*13 

113 

1 14 


115 

1 16 

117 

118 
XI9 
1 19 


123 


123 



X 


CONTENTS 


SECTION II 

General Financial Statistics (27-28) 

SECTION III 
Universities 

Preliminary Remarks (29-31) . 

Calcutta University (32-36) 

Madras University (37-42) 

Bombay University ( 43 - 47 ) • 

Concluding Remarks (48) 

Colleges for General Education 
General Remarks and Statistics (49-55) 

Colleges 

Bengal (56-63) 

North-Western Provinces (64-66) .... 

Punjab (67-68) 

Madras (69-71) 

Bombay (72-77) - 

SECTION V 

Schools for General Education 
General Remarks and Statistics (78-84) . 

Higher Class Schools 

Bengal (85-90) , 

North-Western Provinces (91-94) , 

Punjab (95-99) 

Madras (100-105) 

Bombay (106-112) • . 

Oude (113-118) ....... 

Central Provinces (1 19-122) * 

Mysore (123-125) 

British Burmah and the Berars (126) . • . • 

Middle Class Schools 
Bengal (127) 

North-Western Provinces (128-129) • • . • 

Punjab (130-133) 

Madras (134-135) . • . • 

Bombay (136-142) 

Oude (143- 144) 

Central Provinces (145-147) ••••., 

Mysore (148) 

British Burmaji (149) • . • • * . 

Berars (150) 


. 9 . 


SECTION IV 


Page 


132 


134 

135 
141 
145 
147 


147 


150 

153 

154 

155 

156 


163 

165 

167 

169 

171 

*74 

176 

177 

178 


179 

179 

181 

182 
184 

186 

187 

188 
188 
1 88 


CONTENTS 


xi 

Page 


SECTION V — contd 

Schools for General Education— contd 

Lower Class Schools 

Geneial Remarks (151-152) 

Bengal (153-172) • • . • 

North-Western Provinces (173-180) 

Punjab (181-183) ■ • . . • . . . 

Madras (184-187) 

• Bombay (188-189) 

Oude (190-192) 

Central Provinces (193- 194) . 

Mysore (195) . 

British Burmah (196-200) . 

Berars (201) 

Female Schools 

Bengal (202-207) • 

North-Western Provinces (208-210) ...... 

Punjab (21 1-217) 

Madras (218) 

Bombay (219-220) . . . 

Oude (221) . 

Central Provinces (222-223) ...... 

Mysore (224)* . 

British Burmah (225) 

Berars (226) 

Conducing Remarks respecting classification of Pupils into Hindoos, 
MahomedanSj etc. (227-228) . . . . 

SECTION VI 

Institutions for Special Education 
General Statistics (229-230) 

Institutions 

Bengal (231-234) 

North-Western Provinces (235-237) . 

Punjab (238-241) . . 

Madras (242-244) ....... ] 

Bombay (245-246) . 

Oude (247) 

Central Provinces (248-249) ....... 

Mysore (250) 

British Burmah (251-252) .... 

SECTION VII 

Oriental Classical Languages and Oriental Institutions 
General Remarks (253-259) . 

Oriental Institutions 

Bengal (260-278) 

North-Western Provinces (279-282) , , 

Madras (283-286) 

Bombay (287-289) 

Movement towards encouragement of Oriental Literature in Lahore (29c) 



xii 


CONTENTS 


Page 

SECTION VIII 
Scholarships 

General Remarks (291-292) .... .... 253 

Scholarships y 

Bengal (293-296) 254 

North-Western Provinces (297-298) . 259 

Punjab (299) ' 260 

Madras (300-301) . . . . . - • • • 260 

Bombay (302-305) .... .... 262 . 

Oude (306-307) * . • • 263 

Central Provinces (308) - • . . 263 

Mysore (309) ..... ■ 264 

SECTION IX 

Employment of Students in the Public Service 
General Remarks (3 10-3 14) .... .... 264 

Employment of Students 

Bengal(3i5) 266 

North-Western Provinces (316) . . .... 267 

Punjab (317) ..... .... 267 

Madras (318) ..... * 268 

Bombay (319) * 268 

Oude (320) ...... .... 270 

Central Provinces (321) .... * 270 

Mysore (322) * • 270 

SECTION X 

English Language in Indian Education 
General Remarks (323) .... .... 271 

English Language, etc., 

Bengal (324-328) * 271 

North-Western Provinces (329-330) . . . 272 

Punjab (331-332) ’ 273 

Madras (333-334) 273 

Bombay (335-337) .... .... 275 

Oude (3 3 8 ) ...... .... 276 

Central Provinces (339) .... • 276 

Mysore (34°) * 277 

SECTION XI 
Book Departments 


Book Departments 


Bengal (342-343) .... 

• 

. 

. 

* 


277 

North-Western Provinces (344-345) 

. 

• 

* 

* 

* 

278 

Punjab (346-347) .... 

. 

• 

• 

• 

* 

279 

Madras (348-349) .... 

. 

• 

• 

• 

• 

280 

Bombay (35°-35 T ) * * * 

* 

* 

9 

f 

f 

281 


COhrt 4 ENTS 



SECTION XI —contd 
Book Departments — contd 

Oude (352-353) 

Central Provinces (354-355) 

Mysore (356-357) • . 

British Burmah (358) . . , . 

SECTION XII 

Grant-in-aid-Rules 


Page 


282 

282 

283 
283 


General Remarks (359, 367, 368, 369 and 376) 
Grant-in-aid Rules 


284, 287, 288,295 


Bengal (360,371) 

North-Western Provinces (360) 

Punjab (360) . 

Madras (362, 363, 372 and 373) 

Bombay (364, 365, 374 and 375) 

Oude (360) 

Central Provinces (361, 376) 

British Burmah (360) , . . , . 

Special Rules for European and Eurasian Schools (366, 


284, 288 
284 
284 

285, 286. 290, 291 
287, 294 
* ■ ’ 284 

284, 295 
284 

377 and 378) 287,296,297 


EDUCATION IN BRITISH INDIA 

1870-71 


by A. P. HOWELL 


Introduction and Statistics of Area and Population 
SECTION I. Ways and Means 


SECTION 


II. Government Agency 

MENTS AND SCHOOL 


or the Educational Depart- 
Committees . 


SECTION III. Private Agency or the Grant-in-Aid System 
SECTION IV. Educational Machinery or Schools 


Indigenous . . 

Lower ...» 

Middle 

High . . . ’ ’ ; 

Norma! and Special, including Schools of Art 
SECTION V. Colleges . 

SECTION VI. Universities ... 

SECTION VII. Scholarships .... 

SECTION VIII. Standards and Studies 
SECTION IX. Book Departments 
SECTION X. Miscellaneous Notices 

index ... 


301 

302 

3i5 

327 

340 

340 

358 

401 

412 

429 

453 

484 

515 

524 

539 

556 

575 



'STATE OF 


125 Dir. of Arch.— I. 


NOTE 

ON THE 

EDUCATION IN INDIA 

( compiled in 1862 ) 



NOTE 

ON THE 


STATE OF EDUCATION IN INDIA* 


IN PARAGRAPH 11 of the Resolution recorded on the 


ii. The Secretary of State requests that a 
comprehensive Report may be furnished regarding 
the operation of the orders 
Paragraph 64 contained in the Despatch of the 
late Court of Directors, dated 
19th July 1854 ; such report to comprise, among 
other things, <c full statistical information as to the 
number of Schools established since 1854, whether 
by Government or with the aid of Government ; the 
number of pupils on the books, and the condition of 
the attendance ; the cost of the several Schools ; and 
the whole expense incurred by the Government under 
the various heads of Controlling Establishments, 
Instructive Establishments, and Grant s-in-aid ; and 
also, as far as practical, the number and character of 
Schools unconnected with Government aid or 
control.” The Governor General in Council desires 
that each Director of Public Instruction may be 
called upon to furnish such a Report for his own 
jurisdiction as is required by the Home Government. 
These Reports, with such observations as may be 
recorded upon them by the local Governments, will be 
afterwards incorporated into a General Report to be 
transmitted to England. 


Secretary of State’s 
Education Despatch 
of April 1859, the 
several local Govern- 
ments were called 
upon to submit the 
information requir- 
ed by the Secretary 
of State relative to 
the system of Educa- 
tion established 

under the orders of 
1854, showing the 
practical results at- 
tained and the cost 
incurred by Govern- 
ment for them. The 


mode in which the results and the cost should be exhibited was 


also indicated. 


These Reports, it was intimated, would be incorporated into a 
General Report to be transmitted to England. Owing, however, 
to the various lights in which the local Governments viewed 1 the 
requisition, and to the very different modes in which they construct- 
ed their replies to it, the formation of an amalgamated Report was 
impossible. 


In the Bengal Report voluminous Tabular Statements, almost 
exactly similar to those prescribed for the yearly Reports, were sent 
with the views of Dr. Lees in full (SO pages) on the subject of 
Education generally, past and prospective. 

The Report from the North-Western Provinces, on the other 
hand, occupied 11 pages, in which some statistics were given and 

♦Education Proceedings A 25 February 1864, No. 30 & K.W. ' 



2 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

a reference made to the Annual Reports from 1856-57 to 1858-59 
for the rest of the required information. 

The Madras Report was confined to Tabular Statements, which, 
however, were constructed on so different a principle from those of 
other Presidencies, that their use, for the purpose of amalgamation, 
was but little. 

The Bombay Report was also confined to statistics and Tabular 
Statements, the latter being in detail for each Inspectorship , and of 
course constructed all on different principles. Indeed this was the 
reason assigned for attempting no amalgamation of them before 
transmission to this Office. 

The above remarks will explain the impossibility of obtaining 
even the statistical portion of the information required by the 
Secretary of State from the Reports received in reply to the requisi- 
tion. 

In this Note it has been attempted to compile from the Annual 
Education Reports and other sources a Report of the kind required. 

The latest Education Reports received from the several Presi- 
dencies and Provinces are as follows:— 


Bengal 1859-60 

North-Western Provinces ..... 1861-62 

Punjab 1861-62 

Madras 1860-61 

Bombay 1859-60 


The Madras Report for 1860-61 is, however, a mere extract from 
the Administration Report, without one # of the valuable Statistical 
Tables prescribed by the Government of India, after reference to 
the various local Governments, in 1856. For the statistical portion 
of the information I have, therefore, been obliged for the most part 
to use the Madras Report for 1859-60. In the cases of Bengal, 
Bombay andi Madras, I have supplemented the information, general 
or statistical, derived from the Reports of the above years by 
reference to the Administration Reports of later dates, i.e . of 1860- 
61 for Bengal and Bombay, and 1861-62 for Madras. I have also 
taken advantage of any other later sources of information which 
have been within my reach. 

Although, therefore, in some respects the information is two 
years old, it is, nevertheless, the latest information available . 
Frequent reference, both in respect of statistics and general in- 
formation relative to the history and progress of education, has been 
made to the Education Reports and other documents of previous 
years. 


CONTROLLING AGENCIES 3 

The remarks in this Note are confined to Education under the 
five Local Governments mentioned above; no general scheme of 
Education such as that contemplated by the Despatch of 1854 having 
as yet been organized in connection with any of the minor Adminis- 
trations. 

SECTION I 

Controlling Agencies with General Financial Statistics 

“The first step,” in the words of the Despatch of 1859, “taken 
in execution of the Court's instructions was the formation of the 
establishments by means of which the desired extension was to be 
given to the work of education. An Officer with the title of 
Director of Public Instruction was accordingly appointed to each 
of the Presidencies and Lieutenant-Governorships, and to the 
Punjab, to whom the superintendence of the work of education was 
entrusted; and) under these Officers a staff of Inspectors and Sub- 
Inspectors was organized, who were in effect to act in their several 
spheres as the local representatives of the Director.” The cost of 
these controlling establishments in the several Presidencies and 
Provinces and of the instruction which they control andt supervise 
may be best represented by the following extract from the Budget 
Resolution of 12th September last:— 

“58. The following Table exhibits in one view the classified 
results of the proposed expenditure in 1862-63 in the three Divi- 
sions of the Bengal Presidency and the Presidencies of Bombay and 
Madras:— 



Bengal 

North- 

Western 

Provinces 

Punjab 

Madras 

Bombay 


Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

Direction and its subsi- 
diary charges 

44,660 

41,116 

34*970 

49,996 

41,948 

Inspection and its subsi- 
diary charges 

! i>77>488 

h37s804 

44.534 

1,06,296 

81,804 

Instruction 

10,98,924 

5,06,408 

! 

2,69,647 

5*385863 

4,02,900 

Total 

13,21,072 

6*85,328 

3*49*15* 

6*95.155 

5,26,652 



4 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


UNIVERSITIES 


5 


“59. From the above the following Comparative Table is 
deduced:— 



Bengal 

North- 

Western 

Provinces 

Punjab 

Madras 

Bombay 

Percentage of cost of 
Direction on cost of 
Instruction 

4 

8*1 

12*9 

92 

7.9 

Percentage of cost of 
Inspection on cost of 
Instruction 

16*1 

27*2 

16-5 

197 | 

15*5 


“60. It might be expected that the percentages of cost for Direc- 
tion and Inspection would vary inversely with the cost of Instruc- 
tion, the percentages for the former being higher in proportion tor* 
the smallness of the expenditure on Instruction, owing to the 
necessity of keeping up a certain amount of controlling agency, 
however limited the sphere of its operations may be. In this view 
it might have been expected that the percentages for Direction 
and Inspection would be found to be highest in the Punjab and 
lowest in Bengal, the order of all being that given in the first 
column of the following Table. In the second and third columns 
the districts have been entered in the actual order of the percentages 
as deduced from the figures of the Budget estimates. 


Order which might have 
been expected in respect 
of the rates of the percen- 
tages of the cost of Direc- 
tion and Inspection be- 
ginning with the highest. 

Actual order in respect 
of percentage of 
Direction 

Actual order in respect 
of percentage of Ins- 
pection 

panjab 

Punjab 

North-Western Province* 

Bombay 

Madras 

Madras 

Horth-Westem Provinces 

North-Western Provinces 

Punjab 

Madras 

Bombay 

Bengal 

Bengal 

Bengal 

Bombay 


“61. It will be seen that in respect of the cost of Direction, 
Madras is higher in the list than it ought to be, while Bombay is 
lower. In respect of the cost of Inspection again the North- 
Western Provinces, Madras and Bengal are higher, while the Punjab 
and Bombay are lower than might have been expected. It is 


Impossible, however, to make any precise deductions of a compara- 
tive nature, as there are of course local circumstances connected 
with the systems of Vernacular Education pursued in the various 
provinces which affect the results.” 

It might, perhaps, have been more satisfactory had the actual 
expenditure for one of the past years been given; but I have pre- 
ferred the estimates for the current year as the basis, because the 
Budgets of the current year are very much more complete and exact 
than any other financial statements to which I have had access. 
The Statements given in the Educational Reports are very unsatis- 
factory for the purposes of amalgamation, the total charges being 
.given in some while the net charges are given in others. The 
Bombay Statement, moreover, does not include the charges of any 
of the Political Districts. The figures given above are indeed not 
entirely free from the above objections ; for the Bengal charges 
appear to includ'e all charges whether defrayed from Imperial or 
Local Funds, such as fees, endowments, &c., while the charges for 
sthe North-Western Provinces, the Punjab and Madras do not, at all 
events, include the expenditure defrayed from the local rates of 
-assessment in operation in those Provinces. 


SECTION II 
Universities 


The Despatch of 1854 conveyed the orders of the late Court of 
Directors in regard to the establishment of 
Universities Universities in India. An opinion was ex- 

pressed that “the form of Government and functions” of the London 
University might be advantageously followed in their general 
features. It was stated! that the examinations for degrees should 
not include any subjects connected with religious belief, and that 
in regard to affiliation the same neutrality should be observed. 

The standards for common degrees were to be fixed so as “to 
command respect without discouraging the efforts of deserving stu- 
dents,” while in the competition for honors care was to be taken to 
“maintain such a standard as would afford a guarantee for high 
ability and valuable attainments.” Under these instructions Uni- 

Act U of t3s7— atlcitta versities have been established at 

Act XXII of 1857 — Bombay Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay, incor- 

Act XXVII of 1857 — Madras porated by the Acts marginally indicat- 
ed. Further powers for the appointment of new degrees by Bye- 
laws subject to the confirmation of the Governor General in 



6 


SELECTIONS FROIVL EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


Council in regard to Calcutta, and by the Local Governments in, 
regard to Bombay and Madras, were given to the Senates by a 
subsequent Act XLVII of 1860. 

While it has been a declared object to preserve a general harmony 
of constitution in these institutions, it has not been attempted tO‘ 
enforce a rigorous uniformity in matters in which local considera- 
tions and the judgment of the Local Governments might beneficially 
have free scope. In the three Universities, consequently, we find a 
general similarity of constitution and a considerable diversity in 
minor details and in a few not unimportant points. 

Calcutta University 

The Calcutta University scheme provides for an Entrance Exami- 
nation, and for the grant of the following degrees:- 

A r f S * . /Bachelor of Arts (B. A.) 

\ Master of Arts (M.A.) 
f Licentiate in Law (L.L.) 

T aw . . 4 Bachelor of Law (B.L.) 

^Doctor of Law (D.L.) 

Mori, >i r,p . f Licentiate in Medicine and Surgery (L.M.S.) 

Medicme . • ^ Doct0 r of Medicine (D.M.) 

rivil Fne-ineerine . f Licentiate in Civil Engineering (L.C.E.) 

Clvl S S \ Master of Civil Engineering (M.C.E.) 

Besides the Entrance Examination and the Examinations lor the 

above degrees, there are the “first examination in Arts” of a standard 

somewhat lower than that of the B.A. degree examination, and the 

“first examination in Medicine” of a standard below that of the 

examination for the degree of L.M.S. 

The Bye-laws and Regulations of the University, from which the 
above particulars are taken, were the result of a revision which, 
after the first few years’ working of the original constitution, was 
found to be necessary. The revision was efEected after a full consi- 
deration in the several Faculties, the recommendations being fur- 
ther criticised and amended by the Syndicate, and again by the 
Senate of the University. The revised Code of Bye-laws and Regu- 
lations thus matured received the sanction of the Governor General 
in Council on the 28th of March 1860. 

The following account of the changes introduced in the new 
Regulations is given in the Bengal Education Report for 1859-60:- 

“10. Considerable changes, some of them of . an organic nature, 
were introduced bv the revised Regulations. Of these the most im- 
portant were the establishment of a new examination m Arts inter- 
mediate between matriculation and the final examination for the 


UNIVERSITIES 


r 


B.A. Degree; the creation of a new and lower Degree, styled Licenti- 
ate, in each of the Faculties of Law and Civil Engineering; and the 
institution of the Degree of Doctor in the Faculty of Law. 

"11. In recommending the institution of the degrees of Licentiate 
in .Law and Civil Engineering, the Senate were chiefly influenced by 
a consideration of the great obstacle to the attainment of the higher 
degrees in these special Faculties arising from the provision that 
any candidate before presenting himself for examination must have 
obtained the degree of Bachelor of Arts— a proviso which, by in- 
volving a very considerable expenditure of time and money, had the 
effect of preventing many from obtaining any University recognition 
of respectable professional attainments, thereby obliging the Govern- 
ment to substitute College in lieu of University tests in order ta 
secure an adequate supply of men duly qualified for the public 
service. In the Faculty of Civil Engineering, the only degree which 
could be conferred was that of Master, and candidates for this degree 
were required not only to have graduated in Arts, but also to have 
been engaged for at least two years in the practice of Engineering. 
It was pointed out that these requirements, in addition to the verv 
high professional standard fixed for this degree, would have the 
practical effect of altogether deterring candidates from presenting 
themselves, the more especially as one great incentive for seeking 
a University degree, viz . the aid it may supply towards obtaining 
employment in a profession, would, under the action of the rules, 
be altogether wanting, inasmuch as every candidate must have 
actually obtained and held such employment for at least two years 
before he became eligible for examination. 

"12. At the same time it was not deemed advisable to alter these 
provisions or to lower the standard for the degree of M.C.E. It was 
the opinion of the Faculty that the degree should be retained in 
its integrity as a proof of a very high order of professional attain- 
ment, but that the University should provide in addition a lower 
degree as a test of competent professional knowledge for men of 
ordinary capacity, which might serve as a passport to professional 
practice, and might therefore be expected, for that reason alone, to 
become an object of general ambition, whilst it would at the same 
time have a tendency to facilitate the attainment of the higher 
degree. 

"13. Accordingly, the Faculty, taking as their guide the example 
of the Madras University, determined to recommend the institution 



8 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


Of a degree requiring a lower standard of professional attainment 
than the degree of M.C.E., and exempt from the condition that candi- 
dates must have previously graduated in Arts. But, considering that 
to have passed the University Entrance Examination was not a 
sufficient test of a liberal education to warrant them in conferring 
a degree, without subjecting the candidate to some further exami- 
nation in Arts, they addressed a communication to the Faculty of 
Arts, suggesting the establishment of an additional examination to 
be held two years after matriculation, and to embrace a lower range 
of subjects than the course prescribed for the B.A. Degree. Apart 
from the special object which gave rise to their proposal, the plan 
was forcibly and justly advocated on more general grounds, as con- 
ducive to the advancement of education by tending to promote 
steady exertion and keep alive the spirit of emulation. In these 
views the Faculty of Arts at once expressed their cordial concurrence, 
and they proceeded to prepare a scheme for the additional examina- 
tion, which was subsequently embodied in their own report to the 
"Syndicate. 

“14. Proceedings had thus far advanced when a proposal for the 
institution of the new degree of Licentiate in Law was advanced by 
‘Captain W. N. Lees, L.L.D., at that time officiating as Director of 
Public Instruction, and was enforced by arguments somewhat simi- 
lar to those put forward in support of the corresponding degree in 
divil Engineering. 

“15. Some difference of opinion arose regarding the propriety of 
introducing a novel degree in law unknown in Europe, and stamp- 
ing with the authority of University approbation what was alleged 
to be a very humble standard of professional knowledge, ft was 
thought by some that such an innovation would lower the dignity 
of the University, and throw discredit on its Degrees. But it was 
argued that though, as regards the Department of General Educa- 
tion, it would be highly injurious, and even suicidal to lower the 
standard of University Examinations to meet the level of Education 
in India, yet that, in the special Departments, the object of which 
is to provide tests of professional attainment conveying practical 
privileges, it was both wise and right to utilize the examining powers 
of the University so as best to provide for the exigencies of the State 
and the public advantage. 

"16, These practical arguments prevailed; the Degree was recom- 
mended by a majority of the Faculty of Law, and their scheme of 


UNIVERSITIES 


9 


Regulations, after undergoing some amendment, was adopted by the 
^Senate. 

“17. The Degree of Doctor in the Faculty of Law was established 
as a distinction to be conferred on such Bachelors in Law as might 
-obtain Honors in the Law Examination. It is, therefore, analogous 
to the Degree of Master in the Faculty of Arts.” 

The following important questions have recently been under 
consideration:— 

The erection of a University Building. 

2nd— The establishment of University Professorships or Lecture- 
ships. 

3rd— The establishment of University Scholarships. 

As the latest records do not show that anything has been yet 
decisively settled, it would be out of place in this Note, which is 
essentially a record of facts, to advert more minutely to the sub- 
ject. 

The following Institutions have been affiliated to the Calcutta 
^University:— 

Connected with Government 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

ri 

12 


*3 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

.22 


Presidency College, General and Law Departments 

Medical College 

Civil Engineering College .... 

Hooghly College 

Dacca College ..... 

Kishnaghur College . . • 

Berhampore College . 

Sanskrit College 

Agra College 

Benares College 

Ajmere School 

Saugor School ..... 

Un-comtected with Government 

Bishop’s College 

Doveton College . 

St. Paul’s School 

Free Church Institution .... 

La Martiniere College . . 

London Missionary Society’s Institution 
Seram pore College . . . . . 

St. Xavier’s College 

St. John’s College 

Queen’s College * 


Bengal 

N.V7.P. 

CJ?. 

Bengal 

N.WJP. 

Colombo 



IO 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


The following statements shew the results of the Entrance and 1 
Degree Examinations for the several years during which the Uni- 
versity has existed:— 


ENTRANCE EXAMINATION 



i 

Number of 
Candidates 

1 

Average 

Number passed 

Average 

educated 
at Govern- 
ment 

Schools 

. Ist 

Division 

2 nd 

Division 

proportion 
of passed 
to total 
Number of 
Candidates 

i *57 

244 

74-18 

ii<r 

47 

66-39 

1*5* 

464 

74-35 

29 

82 

23-92 

1859 (March) 

706 

78-75 

107 

233 

48-15 

1859 (December) . 

705 

69-50 

65 

178 

34-46 

1*60 

808 

64-72 

50 

365 

5I-36 

1861 

1,058 

56-23 

73 

404 

45-08 


FIRST EXAMINATION IN ARTS 


I86l 

l 63 

| 53-43 

15 

j 82 

58-28 


B. A 

EXAMINATION 



1 * 5 * 

13 

84*61 

0 

2 

15-38 

1859 

20 

75 -oo 

3 

7 

5C-00 

i860 

65 

64*60 

6 

7 

20-00 

I86l 

39 

82*05 

5 

10 

38-33 

1862 

34 

76-47 

1 

23 

70-58 


B. I. 

EXAMINATION 



1858 

19 

IOO 

11 

0 

57-88 

1859 

20 

100 

3 

0 

15-00 

i860 

22 

IOO 

10 

4 

45-45 

I 86 .T 

17 

IQO 

8 

6 

82-35 

1862 . . , 


IOO 

8 

5 

100*00 


UNIVERSITIES 


II 


L* L. EXAMINATION 


Average Number passed Average 

proportion proportion 

Number of educated at 1st 2 nd of passed 

Candidates Goverment Division Division t0 t ^ tal 

Schools Number of 

Candidates 



L. M. S. FIRST EXAMINATION 

1857 ... 12 IOO 6 6 100* 

J858 . 40 IOO 9 15 6o- 

1859 ... 31 100 6 6 34-70 

1860 ... 31 100 4 9 41-93 

1861 ... 16 100 o 7 43-75 

L. M. S SECOND EXAMINATION 

1861 ... I 20 | IOO 3 | 11 70 

L. C. E. EXAMINATION 

1861 ... 10 IOO 4 j 2 60 

In the Education Report of 1859-60 the following remarks are 
made as to the influence of the University on Education. Advert- 
ing to a considerable increase in the numbers of more advanced 
students attending Colleges for General Education, the Director 
of Public Instruction writes:— 

“This result would appear traceable in great measure to the 
growing influence of the University, and, if so, affords another satis- 
factory proof of the success of an institution to which admission 
-alone is found to be a highly-prized distinction, and which has a 
manifest tendency to infuse new life into our Schools and Colleges 
by awakening and keeping alive in them a spirit of generous and 
^honorable rivalry.” 



12 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Madras University 

The Madras University, judging from the Calendar of 1861-62,. 
differs from the Calcutta Institution chiefly in having no lower 
degree (L.L.) in Law and no “First Examination in Arts.” For the' 
lower degree (G.C.E.) in Civil Engineering the matriculation exami- 
nation is the only test of general attainments. 

Some changes, however, appear to have been made during the- 
past year in the Regulations regarding the examinations in the 
Faculties of Law and Civil Engineering. It is stated in the Admi- 
nistration Report of 1861-62 that “the alterations made in the 
scheme of examination prescribed for the Law Degrees were made 
rather with the view of more clearly defining them, than of chang- 
ing the course of examination previously prescribed.” 

In respect of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, it is stated in the 
same Report that “the new Regulations, like the old, provide for 
only one degree: that of Bachelor of Civil Engineering.” The word 
“like” ought surely to be read “unlike”, for in the old Regulations 
(Calendar of 1861-62) two degrees, G.C.E. and M.C.E., are provided 
for. 


Nineteen Institutions are affiliated to the Madras University, of 
which seven only are Government Institutions, the remaining twelve 
being Institutions established by Missionary and other EducationaL 
Societies. The Government Institutions are the Presidency and 
Medical Colleges, the three Provincial Schools at Combaconum, 
Bellary and Calicut, the High School at Bangalore, and the Govern- 
ment Normal School at Madras. 

The following Tables exhibit the results of the Entrance Exami- 
nations of the Madras University since its commencement in 1857* 
58, and the number who passed the Examinations for the various 
degrees:— 





*4 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Only one Degree Examination (Licentiate of Medicine) has been 
Held at which seven passed. 


The only Institutions as yet affiliated to the Bombay University 
are the Elphinstone and Poona Colleges in Arts, the Government 
Law School in Law, and the Grant Medical College in Medicine. 

It may here be noted that the Calcutta Syndicate, writing in 
February 1860, made the following remarks regarding the stand- 
ards for degrees at the Indian Universities:— 


"6. The Senate have not observed any material difference in the 
Standards of standards for Degrees in force at the Indian Uni- 

the several versities, ekcept in the Faculties of Arts and Civil 

Universities Engineering. The B.A. Degree standard appears 

to be considerably higher at the Calcutta University than at either 
-of the Universities of Madras or Bombay. The Senate are of opinion 
that the Calcutta standard is that best suited for the requirements 
of education in India, and they strongly recommend that no alter- 
ations be made which would lower it to the standard of the other 
Universities. They invite particular attention to the fact that at 
the Bombay University a degree may be granted in Arts to a person 
ignorant of every branch of Natural and Physical Science, and that 
at the Madras University a Graduate may know nothing of two of 
the following subjects:— 


Natural Science 
Physical Science 
Mental and Moral Science 


“The reasons the Senate have assigned for this opinion, as well 
as the detailed points of difference in the standards for the B.A. 
Degree at all the Universities, will be found in the Report of the 
Faculty of Arts at page 61 of the Blue Book." 

These remarks, so far as they concern the subjects of examina- 
tion for the B.A. Degree, would appear' still to hold good. 

SECTION III 


Colleges 

The following Table contains statistics respecting the Govern- 
ment Colleges in the several Presidencies and Provinces for the 


COLLEGES 15 


latest years for which information is available, as noted in each 
case:— 




Bengal 

N.W.P. 

Punjab 

Madras 

Bombay 

Total 



1859-60 

1861-62 

1861-62 

1859-60 

1859-60 


( 

' General 

7 

3 

. . 

1 

2 

13 

Number of j 

[ Education 







Institutions 1 

1 

| Special 
[Education 

3 

2 

1 

3 

1 

IO 


Total 

10 

5 

1 

4 

3 

23 

Average 

f General 

556 

908 


260 

100 

1,824 

attendance 

J Education 






888 

at them 

j Special 
L Education 

386 

176 

67 

| 207 | 

52 



Total 

942 

1,084 

- 

67 

467 

152 

2,712 



Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

j 

" General 

1360,777 

x 327,075 


53.742 

64,350 

4j°5j944 

Total cost J 

Education 







of them 1 

Special 

1,96,179 

693663 

373495 

68,631 

29.777 

4,01,745 

L Education 








Total 

3 > 56,956 

1,96,738 

373495 

1,22,373 

94 .X 27 

8,07,689 


From the above it appears that there are 23 Government Colle- 
ges with an attendance of 2,712 pupils, the total cost of the educa- 
tion so given being Rupees 8,07,689. 


Comparing the portions of the Statement referring to atten- 
dance and cost, we get the following results in respect of the cost 
per annum of each pupil:— 



Bengal 

N.W.P. 

f 

Punjab 

1 Madras 

Bombay 

1 

Average 


Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

General Edu- 
cation 

289 

139 

. . 

206 

643 

222 

Special Edu- 
cation 

508 

395 : 

559 

331 

572 

452 


From the above it appears that College education, both general 
and special, is much more expensive in Bombay than in any other 
place. General College education is cheapest in the North-Western 
Provinces; but this is probably owing, as will be seen hereafter, to its 
inferior character. Special education is cheapest in Madras, and 
next cheaper in the North-Western Provinces. In respect of special 
education, however, very much depends on the particular sort of 
125 Dir. of Arch — 2 



COLLEGES 


l6 SELECTIONS FROM EpUCATlONAL RECORDS 

special education for which the results are .given. I have, there- 
fore, made out the following classified Statement showing the 
annual cost of each pupil in the several Presidencies and Provinces 
in the three classes of special education, viz. Medicine, Civil 
Engineering and Law:— 



Bengal 

N.W.P. 

! 1 

Punjab 

Madras 

■ Bombay 

! 

Average 


Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

Medical Coll- 
eges 

574 

158 

559 

278 

572 

440 

Civil Engin- 
eering 
Colleges 

333 

541 


695 

. . 

ON 

Law Colleges . 

575 



181 


474 


Comparing the present statistics of general and special College 
education with those for 1854, we get the following result:- 




Number of 

Attendance 

Cost 



institutions 







Rs. 


j 7854 

14 

2,429 

5,49,002 

General 

\ Present . . ! 

13 

1,824 

4,05,944 


Decrease 

1 

605 

1,43,058 


r 1854 

4 

523 

2,56,038 

Special 

\ Present 

10 

888 

4,01,745 


Increase 

6 

365 

L 45 > 7 0 7 


The decrease in the statistical results in respect of Colleges for 
general education is due for the most part to the abolition of the 
Delhi College, which did not survive the Mutiny, and to the reduc- 
tion in the attendance and cost of the Calcutta Madrissa and 
Hooghly College. It will be shewn presently that during the period 
under review the endeavours of Government in respect of general 
education have been directed rather to consolidating existing 
means and improving the quality, than to extending operations. 

As regards special education, considerable advance has been 
made both numerical and real. In paragraphs 79 and 80 of the 
Despatch of 1864 the Home Government indicated the enlarge- 
ment of the opportunities of special education as one deserving 


17 

attention, and which would have their approval. The result has 
been the establishment of six new Institutions, viz:— 

2 Medical ... .at Agra and Lahore 
2 Civil Engineering . . .at Madras and Calcutta 

2 Law • • .at Madras and Calcutta 

6 


I now proceed to notice these Institutions in detail, given a 
brief account of the state and progress of each. 

Bengal 


In Bengal there are nine Colleges as per margin. All of these, 

with the exception of the 
Presidency College (Nos. 1 and 
10) and the Civil Engineering 
College (No. 8), were in 
existence prior to the intro- 
duction of the Educational 
scheme of 1854. 

The Presidency College was established in 1855 on the basis of 
the old Hindoo College. A full account of the history of the 
Hindoo College, the destruction of its exclusive character, and its 
incorporation in the plan for the foundation of the Presidency 
College, as well as a sketch of the scheme on which the latter was 
founded, will be found in No. XIV, of the Selections from the 
Records of the Bengal Government. The main features of the 
re-organization consisted in the establishment of chairs for Moral 
and) Mental Philosophy and Logic, for Natural Philosophy and 
Astronomy, for Natural History and Geology, which did not exist 
in the old Hindoo College, and also in the establishment on a 
defined footing of a separate Department for the study of Law. 
The success of the Institution has been great. It is stated to be 
the only one which really educates up to the University standard, 
and to be in a position to meet all the present requirements of the 
public. The fee was raised from Rupees 5 to Rupees 10 in 
1858-59, causing a temporary diminution in the number of students, 
which, however, was more than made up in the following year. 




General L ucation 


Date when 
founded 


x Presidency College, General Dept. 1855 

2 Dacca . . . • • 

3 Berhampore • . • I ®53 

4 Kishnaghur .... 1846 

5 Calcutta Madrissa . . . *78i 

6 Hooghly College . . . 1831 

7 Sanskrit College . . 1824 

Special 

8 Civil Engineering College . . 1856 

9 Medical College . . . 1835 

College. I, aw Dent. . _ i8^S 



ig SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

The next three Colleges on the List, viz., those at Dacca, 
Berhampore and Kishnaghur, are Anglo-Vernacular Institutions, 
which, it is admitted, partake more of the character of High Schools 
than Colleges. No material alterations have been made in them 
since 1854. Dr. Lees, Officiating Director of Public Instruction, 
writing in September 1859, remarked that “the attempt to give a 
College organization to these Institutions, or, in other words, to 
affiliate them to the University,” had “signally failed.” 

The evidence of this he stated as follows; 

“The requirements of the University BA. Course necessitate 
the instruction, in all Colleges affiliated to it, being distributed 
over four years. The average number of Students in the Mofussil 
Colleges is 34£. Of these almost the whole may be said to be- 
long to the first two years’ classes; and the few that remain in the 
higher classes are Scholarship holders. It is a rare exception for 
a pay Student to remain longer than a year, or two at most at 
College. In the Institution at Berhampore there are at present no 
third or fourth year classes, and in the Dacca College, which stands 
at the head of all the Anglo-Vernacular Colleges of Bengal, the 
third year class contains but eight, and the fourth year class but 
three Students, of whom one-half, if not two-thirds, will doubt- 
less have disappeared before the end . of the Session. The two 
classes have necessarily at present been formed into one. In 1857- 
58 the number of Students in this College was, at the beginning of 
the Session, eleven in the third year, and four in the fourth year 
class; and at the end of the Session the poll stood as follows:— 

3rd year • • 

4th year • • none 

In short, the only Students to be found in the ranks of the third 
and fourth year classes of Mofussil Colleges are Scholarship holders. 

In the same year Mr. Brennand, the Principal of the Dacca 
College, remarked as follows:— 

“In reporting on the future prospects of the College Depart- 
ment in regard to the third and fourth year classes. I may premise 
that these classes are maintained principally by the successful 
working of the Scholarship system, that they usually consist of 


COLLEGES 


19 


Scholarship holders, and of a few unsuccessful Candidates for 
Scholarships. 

“The effects of failure at an Examination are very perceptible 
on the size of the classes, the unsuccessful Candidates generally 
leave immediately afterwards and obtain employment, a few only 
remain to continue their studies in the hope, on the part of junior 
Candidates, of being more successful at the Examination for Senior 
Scholarships, and of the Senior Candidates of obtaining higher 
appointments from their having been Students of the higher 

classes.” 

A somewhat more hopeful account of these Institutions is given 
in the Report for 1859-60 as follows:— 

“It is gratifying to remark a general increase in the numbers 
of our more advanced Students who attend the Colleges for general 
education. The increase is not large, but it is general.” 

The following statistics, taken from the Administration Report 
of 1860-61, bear out the above more favourable view:— 



No. of Students on 
the Rolls on the 1st 
January i860. 

No. of Students on 
the Rolls on the 30th 
April 1861. 

Dacca . 

74 

76 

Berhampore 

1 16 I 

16 

Kishnaghur .... 

| 30 

42 


The next, three Institutions on the List, viz., the Hooghly 
College, the Calcutta Madrissa, and the Sanskrit College, are desi- 
gned especially for the cultivation of Oriental learning; and the 
history of all of them during the last few years is of the same 
character. 

In the Despatch of 1854 the Home Government temarked as 
follows (paragraph 8):— 

“8. The systems of science and philosophy which form the 
learning of the East abound with grave errors, and Eastern litera- 
ture is at best very deficient as regards all modern discovery and 
improvements; Asiatic learning, therefore, however widely diffused, 
would but little advance our object. We do not wish to diminish 
the opportunities which are now afforded, in special institutions 
for the study of Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian literature, or for the 
cultivation of those languages, which may be called the classical 



20 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


languages of India. An acquaintance with the works contained in 
them is valuable for historical and antiquarian purposes, and a 
knowledge of the languages themselves is required in the study of 
Hindoo and Mahommedan Law, and is also of great importance 
for the critical cultivation and improvement of the vernacular lan» 
guages of India. 

Almost immediately prior to the receipt of this Despatch the 
late Council of Education had re-modelled the Calcutta Madrissa.- 
A sketch of the history of the Madrissa, and' of the causes which led 
to its re-modelment, is given in a Minute by the Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor of Bengal, dated the 15th September 1858, from which the 
following is an Extract:—* 


“The Madrissa, or Mahommedan College of Calcutta, was 
Maharomedan Col- founded by Governor General Warren Hastings 
lege of Calcutta in in or der to give to Mahommedan Studenfct 

ial te iier F d” ‘a considerable degree of erudition in the Persian 
nth May 1858 and Arabic languages, and in the complicated 
system of Laws founded on the tenets of their religion,’ so as to 
enable them ‘to discharge with credit the functions and duties of the 
Criminal Courts of Judicature and many of the most important 
branches of the Police which it had (in 1781) been deemed ex- 
pedient to continue in the hands of Mahommedan Officers. 


“2. For this end a scheme of study was laid down, which, ex- 
cluding Poetry, History, Geography, and General Literature, pro- 
fessed to teach Theology and Law according to the Koran, the 
Commentators, and the Traditionists; and Science according to the 
Grieeco-Arabic system of Baghdad and Bokhara. 


“3. This College was, however, consigned to the uncontrolled 
management of Mahommedan Professors, and the consequence 
was that ‘the studies of the College became nominal, and its ample 
resources (about 30,000 Rupees per annum), were dissipated among 
the superior and subordinate drones of the Establishment. n 
, ... this seems to have been, with little variation, the 

port Sh o^Sii S C " condition of the Institution for nearly forty years 
after its establishment. In 1820 the College was 

placed under immediate English superintendence, and after that 
change the abuses, though not wholly eradicated, were less gross 
and flagrant than in previous years. 


COLLEGES 


21 


Tlie system of tuition, however, appears to have been little alter- 
ed, for the following is the description of it given in 1850 by Dr. 
Sprenger, the Principal:-“The system,” Dr. Sprenger stated, “is in 
fact precisely the same as the one which was in vogue in Europe 
during the darkest ages, and it produces the same results. The 
sophistries of dialectics learned in a sacred language puff up the 
Professors with conceit, render them hostile to every thing practical 
or founded on experience, and extinguish in them the sense of art 
and beauty, and blunt the sentiment of equity and morality.” 

In 1850 a re-modelment was effected by dividing the Institution 
into two Departments, the Arabic and Anglo-Persian. The follow- 
ing description of the state of the Institution, with special reference 
to the above re-moddmtnt, is given in thd Government of India’s 
letter of the 2nd July I860, writtert with reference to a recommen- 
dation contained in the Lieutenant-Governor's Minutb already 
quoted for the abolition of the Institution:^ 

“2. The Madrissa consists of a Senior Department and a Junior 
Department. In the former only Arabic literature and Mahomme- 
dan Law are taught; Mahommedans only are admitted to it, and 
for entrance into it a comparatively high standard of Oriental 
attainments is required. The Students of this Department are at 
liberty to attend any classes they please in the Presidency College. 

“3. In the Junior; or Anglo-Persian Department, the pupils are 
educated, as in other Government Anglo- Vernacular Schools, up to 
what is called the Junior Schoolship standard; and the Mahomme- 
dan pupils of the Department, on the completion of the course, 
are at liberty either to join the Presidency College or to enter the 
Arabic Department of the Madrissa. This Junior or Anglo-Persian 
Department has been a complete success. 

“4. With regard to the Senior or Arabic Department, one main 
object of the changes made in the Madrissa in 1854, the grounds 
for which are fully stated in the able and comprehensive Report of 
the Council of Education, dated the 4th of April 1853, was to 
substitute a more modern and rational system of instruction in the 
Arabic language and in the principles of Mahommedan Law for 
the antiquated and faulty system of the Indian Moulovies; another 

object was to discontinue altogether the teaching of false physical 
science. 

w 5. This latter object was of course easily attainable by simply 
prohibiting the Moulovies from lecturing on physical science at 
all; but the former object is stated to have entirely failed, owing. 



22 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


COLLEGES 


23 


chiefly, to the opposition of the Moulovies themselves, and in con- 
sequence of this failure it is proposed, in the Minute recorded by 
the late Lieutenant-Governor, to abolish the Madrissa altogether. 

“6. I am desired to state that the Governor General in Council, 
having carefully considered the case, does not think that the argu- 
ments advanced by the late Lieutenant-Governor for the abolition 
of the Calcutta Madrissa are tenable on grounds of sound policy, 
neither is he at all able to concur in His Honor’s estimate of the 
value of the Institution.” 

The last paragraph of the same letter contains the decision of 
the Government of India. It runs as follows:— 

“12. Upon the whole I am directed to state that the Govern- 
ment of India feels confident that the right and most advantageous 
course will be to continue to act in the spirit of the reforms of 
1854; to do this carefully and not hastily; and to give to the Prin- 
cipal, with this view, all the authority which he ought to possess 
and which he will be able to exercise with the best effect, under 
the advice and control of the present Lieutenant-Governor, who 
himself had a large share in settling the measures which were adop- 
ted for the reformation of this Institution in 1854.” 

The Secretary of State, in reviewing the above orders, remarked 
as follows:— 

”5. I agree with your Government that it is not necessary to 
afford any artificial encouragement to the study of the Arabic lan- 
guage by giving it an undue preference over English or Persian; 
and I must beg that the remarks in the Despatch of the late Court 
of Directors of the 20th January 1841 may be borne in mind, and 
that the Scholarships in the Madrissa be only given as the reward 
of merit, and that their continuance to particular Students be 
dependent on good conduct and continued industry, to be tested 
by periodical examinations. 

“6. As the arrangements now sanctioned must be considered to 
be, in some degree, experimental, a special report as to their opera- 
tion and result must be submitted after a period not exceeding 
two years from the date of your order of July last.” 

No Report has yet been received; but I learn from Dr. Lees 
that the Institution is now considered to be on a more satisfactory 
footing. The following Extract from a Report of Dr. Lees, dated 
the 1st September 1860, has been placed at my disposal:— 

“These results shew that the Moulovies of late have been more 
attentive to their duties; and I am inclined to hope that they have 


at length realized the fact that the Calcutta Madrissa is a Govern- 
ment Institution; that it is the Government and not the Professors 
who are responsible for the nature of the education given to its 
Mahommedan subjects therein; and that yet more serious conse- 
quences may overtake them than simply being required to teach 
a course of study containing somewhat more Literature than 
Logic I would not, however, be under- 

stood to mean that the Arabic Department of the Calcutta Madri- 
ssa is all that the Government could wish it, or that there is a 
present prospect of its becoming so The end can- 

not be fully accomplished until we have a body of Teachers who 
have acquired their knowledge by means approved by the Modern 
School, which they believe to be correct and in which they have 

full faith Regarding the Anglo-Persian Department I 

need not say much. Government is already aware that it has suc- 
ceeded There is one point, however, with regard 

to the Anglo-Persian Department which requires notice. The late 
Council of Education, in their letter before alluded to, contempla- 
ted that the Students of this Department, having obtained a School 
education in English, and completed their studies in Persian, 
should pass into the College or Arabic Department of the Institu- 
tion; but the hopes of the Council in this respect have not been 
realized, and it appears to me for the following reasons:-The 
scholarships obtained in the Anglo-Persian Department are Eng- 
lish, and to retain them further examinations must be passed 
in that language. In consequence again of the number of Moulo- 
vies not having been kept up, and the desire to give the College 
Department more of a College organzation, candidates for admiss- 
ion into the lowest class were required to shew an elementary 
knowledge of the Arabic language. Now as no provision was made 
for the acquirement of this in the Anglo-Persian Department, it 
was not possible for this portion of the scheme to work.” 

The following remarks are made on the Calcutta Madrissa in 
the Administration Report of 1860-61: — 

“The Report of the Arabic Department of the Calcutta Madrissa 

T’he Arabic and is g enerall Y favourable, and of the Anglo- 

Anglo Persian Persian Department especially so. Out of 

the P Madrissa.° f eight Students, composing the first class, six 

. went U P to the University Entrance Examina- 

tion and passed, four being placed in the first and two in the 
second Division, a result which was most satisfactory.” 

The Hooghly College is the next on the list. This Institution 
was founded in 1836, and is mainly supported from funds bequea- 
t e by Mahommed Mohsin, a wealthy Mahommedan gentleman 



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SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


COLLEGES 


25 


who* dying without heirs in the year 1806; left his large property, 
yielding an annual income of 45,000 Rupees, to Mahommedan 
Trustees 'for the service of God.’ Owing to the misappropriation 
of the Funds, Government assumed the office of Trusteeship. The 
right of assumption was opposed by the original Trustees but up- 
held both by the Courts in India and by the Privy Council in Eng- 
land. The period of litigation extended over many years, during 
which the annual income accumulated, forming a surplus fund of 
Rupees 8,61,100. This fund was devoted to founding and endow- 
ing the Hooghly College. It was further increased by a portion of 
the original Zemindari and by the lapse of various pensions with 
which the Estate had been burdened. Dr. Lees, the Officiating 
Director of Public Instruction, writing in September 1859, remark- 
ed as follows:— 

“Hooghly Madrissa — Its declining and approaching dissolution . 
—55. The Hooghly Madrissa, which was founded on the munifi- 
cent bequest of the late Mahommed Mohsin, is fast approaching 
its dissolution. The Anglo-Persian Department has already been 
merged into the Collegiate School, and the Madrissa proper con- 
tains but 20 Students. This subject requires attention. This 
College was founded, and is supported, by the bequest of a Mahom- 
medan. The funds should not be expended for the sole benefit of 
Hindoos.” 

From papers furnished to me by Dr. Lees it appears that this 
declension had been going, on for some years. The Students had 
year by year shewn less proficiency at the scholarship examina- 
tions, till at last Dr. Lees> writings in September 1859, reported 
that “for the last two years no scholarships have been gained by 
them, though a few have been awarded by grace in consideration 
of the fault being attributable less to the students than to theif 
teachers.” “It is a serious thing,” he added in the same letter, “when 
a College that some time back contained between two and three 
hundred Students should arrive at such a state of decay that not 
twenty should now be found within its once crowded rooms/’ 

The failure to obtain scholarships was the main cause of the 
absence of pupils, and the cause of the failure in respect of the 
-scholarship examination was attributed to the instructive staff. 

It is probably with the view of remedying the above state of 
affairs, that an increase of Rupees 11,382, for an enlargement of 
the staff of the Hooghly College, was included in the 1 Bridget 
Estimate of the current year. No proposition, however, on the 
subject has yet come before this Government. 


I observe, from the Administration Report of 1860-61, that 
between the 1st January 1860 and the 30th April 1861 the num- 
ber of Students on the roll of the Hooghly College increased from 
32 to 79. 

The last on the list of the three Oriental Colleges is the Sans- 
krit College, When the old Hindoo College was broken up, its 
sister Institution, the Sanskrit College, was allowed to stand. The 
Government of Bengal, in its letter to the Council of Education 
of the 21st October 1853, intimated, as a sort of solace to the 
minds of the Native Managers of the former Institution, that “the 
Sanskrit College shall be maintained by the Government exactly 
as it is.” In March 1859, however, the Director of Public Instruc- 
tion pointed out to the Bengal Government the following defects 
in the existing condition of this Institution:— 

“3. Its principal defects appear to be as follows:— 

“1st.— It has not been brought within the influence of the Uni 
versity, and under its present constitution it is not likely to be able 
to send up any candidates for University Degrees. 

“2nd.— It occupies an isolated position as regards other Institu* 
tions; there is no interchange of advantages, no emolution of 
teachers or pupils between it and other Schools or Colleges. 

“3rd .— Its examinations, awards of scholarships, &c., are all 
managed within itself, and so, managed as to excite little interest, 
and command little confidence, among the outside public. 

“ilk*— It is still that 'compound of a College and a Dame’s 
School’ which the other Colleges were a few years ago, but are no 
longer. 

“5th— It devotes to the teaching of obsolete science and philo- 
sophy much time which would be better given to subjects of more 
practical utility.” 

The re-organization proposed by him is thus described in the 
Education Report:— 

“16. A proposal for the reform of the Sanskrit College has lately 
been submitted to Government. Its constitution was not consider- 
ed to accord well with the existing state of things; and 'in order to 
bring the Institution more into harmony with the University 
system/ the Director of Public Instruction reconr 
Oriental Colleges mended that it be divided into a School and a 

College Department, the former to educate up to the University 



6 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Entrance Standard; the Students of the latter, while completing 
their Sanskrit course, being permitted to attend Lectures in the 
Presidency College on terms somewhat more favorable than 
others.” 

The scheme contemplated also the abolition of the study of 
“Smriti, Nyaya, Vedanta, or other systems of Hindoo Philosophy, 
and the Government of India, in sanctioning the revision, requested 
the Bengal Government to re-consider the proposal to exclude the 
study of Smriti from the curriculum. No further correspondence 
has taken place. 

The following notice is taken of the Institution in the Adminis- 
tration Report of 1860-61:— 

“The Sanskrit College was affiliated to the University in August 

last, and a small class has been formed of ad- 

Formation of a clasn van ' ce( j Students who have passed the Entrance 
for the prosecution r 

of the University Examination to enable them to prosecute the 
krit^llege 16 Sans ~ University course, while at the same time they 
may continue their Sanskrit studies further, 
especially in Hindu Logic and Law.” 

I now proceed to notice the three remaining Institutions of this 
class which are devoted to special education, viz ., the Civil 
Engineering College, the Medical College, and the Law Department 
of the Presidency College. A brief notice has already been taken 
of the establishment of the Law Department of the Presidency 
College in 1855. The Civil Engineering College was started in 
1856 with the object of affording a scientific, and, as far as possible 
from occasional inspection of works in progress and workshops, a 
practical education. It is especially designed for supplying an 
efficient class of subordinate Officers for employment in the Depart- 
ment of Public Works, the Survey, and Railways. A full account 
of its origin is given in the Education Report of the year 1856-57. 
The course of instruction extends over three years, and is adapted to 
meet the wants of each grade of the profession: it is limited by 
the requirements necessary for the degrees granted by the University 
in the Faculty of Engineering. Candidates for admission must 
have passed the Entrance Examination of the University, or be hold- 
er of senior scholarships. The Government of India at present 
guarantees 48 appointments yearly of various grades to such Students 
as pass the test for the Public Works Department laid down in 
Chapter II of the Public Works Code. A proposal for the 


COLLEGES 


27 


enlargement of this Institution is now under consideration in the 
Department of Public Works, and the estimate of the expenditure 
for the current year has been increased over that of the former year 
by Rupees 23,650 with the view, apparently, of providing for the 
introduction of the change. The following notice is taken of the 
Institution in the Administration Report of 1860-61:— 

“At the opening of last Session a class of third year Students was 
_ _ . . formed in the Civil Engineering College for the 

College. first time. This class, after completing the three 

years' course prescribed by the University, com- 
peted for the degree of L.C.E. in March last. The result has 
already been stated. The number of Students on the Rolls on 
the 30th April was eighty-three, shewing an increase of 20 over 
the number in attendance at the end of the previous Session. 
The result of the Annual Examination was that 5 Students were 
declared qualified for the grade of Probationary Assistant Engineer. 
1 for that of Sub-Engineer, 9 for that of Probationary Assistant 
Overseer, and 2 for that of Sub-Overseer.” 

The Medical College was established in 1835. In 1852 53 a 
Hospital was opened in connection with it, of which an account is 
given in the Administration Report of that year. The Institution 
consists of four classes. The “Primary or English Class” consists of 
scholarship holders, free Students, and paying Student. The maxi- 
mum number of free Students allowed is 50. Paying Students pay 
an admission fee of Rupees 15 and Rupees 5 per mensem. Forty- 
three scholarships, for which an expenditure of Rupees 400 per 
mensem is allowed, are distributed among the students of the five 
years. The courses of the other three classes, viz., the Student 
Apprentice Class, the Military or Hindoostani Class, and the 
Bengali Class, are not regulated or prescribed by the University. 
The pupils of the first are designed specially for the Subordinate 
Medical service: those of the second for the post of Native Doctor 
either in the Army or in Civil Hospitals and Dispensaries; and those 
of the third, which differs from the second only in respect of 
language, for the post of Native Doctor in the Civil Hospitals of 
Bengal. Dr. Lees, in his Report of September 1859, writes as 
follows in respect of this Institution: — 

“42. Medical Co liege —Failure of, as a means of supplying the 
wants of the Public Service — The Medical College of Calcutta still 
retains its high reputation, both as regards the ability and efficiency 
of its staff of Professors, and the sound practical course of instruction 



28 


SELECTIONS ERCOVt JJDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


given at it. As a means, however, of supplying qualified Officers 
for the service of the State it has been found wanting; and of late 
years attention has been directed to ascertaining the cause with a 
view to applying efficient remedies. Notwithstanding that Govern- 
ment in 1853 had passed a rule guaranteeing employment, on a 
salary not less than Rupees 50 a month, to every graduate of the 
primary or English class of the College, and in 1854 raised all the 
Junior Scholarships from Rupees 8 to Rupees 12 a month, the 
supplies for the Public Service by no means equalled the demand. 
The late Medical Board in 1857, in reply to a requisition of the 
Government of Bengal that no Sub-Assistant Surgeon should be 
appointed to an independent charge until he had two years prac- 
tical experience of his professional duties under the control 
of an efficient and experienced Medical Officer, reported that, were 
such a measure carried out ‘owing to the great decrease, of late, in 
the number of those who, having graduated at the Medical College, 
entered the Public Service as Sub-Assistant Surgeons,’ a considerable 
number of independent charges which had ‘hitherto been filled by 
Sub-Assistant Surgeons, must, upon being vacant, either remain 
unoccupied for lengthened periods, or be filled by Native Doctors.’ 
This led to a searching investigation into the matter by the College 
Authorities. A Committee of the College Council reported that 
the causes of failure in the supply of Sub-Assistant Surgeons for the 
Public Service arose from the paucity of Admissions and from many 
of the Students leaving College before completing their course of 
study. The Committee, who laid most stress on the first mentioned 
of these causes, attributed the result to the want of attractiveness of 
the Government Service. The Principal, on the contrary, thought 
that of the two causes assigned the latter was the most active; and 
in support of his opinion he adduced the remarkable fact that out 
of 106 Native stipendiary Students, who had entered the primary 
class of the Institution within the ten years preceding 1857, more 
than twenty per cent, had left it during the first year of study; and 
that out of 303 stipendiary and free Native Students 230 had left 
the College without completing their course. The result of these 
enquiries induced the Supreme Government to recommend to the 
late Court of Directors that pensions should be granted to Sub- 
Assistant Surgeons on the same terms as to other classes of Un- 
covenanted Public Servants; to direct, in accordance with the sug- 
gestion of the Director of Public Instruction, that the number of 
free Students at one time, exclusive of Scholarship holders, should 
be limited to 59; and that a class of paying Pupils should be es- 
tablished as an experiment. 


COLLEGES 


29 


“44. Proposal to bind stipendiary Students to serve the State 
for a limited period— It was subsequently suggested to Government 
as -not only desirable, but fair and equitable, that all Students who 
received a gratuitous education from the State, and in addition a 
personal pecuniary allowance in the shape of scholarship, should 
give their services to Government, if called on to do so; and that 
all Sub-Assistant Surgeons so situated, entering the Public Service, 
should be bound to serve the State for a minimum period of five 
years/’ 

The proposal to bind stipendiary Students to serve the State* 
for a limited period was not approved, but the institution of a 
paying class appears to have succeeded. The following account of 
the Institution is given in the Administration Report of 1860-61:— 

“In the past year a class of paying Students was instituted at 
the Medical College, the rate of payment being 
The class of paying fixed at Rupees 5 per mensem with an .entrance 
MedS\ S College 16 ^ ee Rupees 15. Thirty-one Students joined 
the College on these terms on the opening of the' 
Session in June. Of these seven have since received scholarships, 
which carry with them free tuition; one has obtained a vacant free 1 
presentation; and one has left India to complete his education in 
England. Only one has actually abandoned the study of the pro-' 
fession. 


“During the last year eighteen candidates from the Military 
The Military Class class passed their final examination and were ad- 
of the Medical m jtted into the Government Service. 


“With the view of encouraging the study of English amongst the 
Progress made in Students of the Military class, the Government, in 
the study of Eng- 1859, offered a bonus of Rupees 250 to all who, 
StudeSs ngSt the at t ^ ie enc * of their College studies, should succeed 
in passing a satisfactory examination in the English 
language. This year five students presented themselves for exami- 
nation, of whom two passed with credit, and were considered 
deserving of the bonus. 


“From the Bengali class six Students succeeded in passing their 


The Bengali Class 
of the Medical 


final examination, and are now qualified 1 for ad- 
mission into the Government Service as Native 


College Doctors.” 



30 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 
North-Western Provinces 

the North-Western Provinces there are five Government 

Colleges as per margin. The 
three first are Institutions for 
general education. The desig- 
nation of College is, however, 
scarcely appropriate, as they 
partake more of the character 
of Schools in regard to constitu- 
tion, course of study, &c. Only 
the two first on the list are affiliated to the University. The Agra 
and Benares Institutions were originally purely Oriental Seminaries, 
but were changed into Anglo-Vernacular Institutions, and latterly 
even the separate study of Oriental classics has been found to stand 
in the way of the more liberal education suited to modern wants. 
The following extract from the Report of 1859-60 contains the 
substance of a recommendation since made to, and approved by, 
the Government of the North-Western Provinces:— 

“The Government should proceed on the principle of providing 
the people with what they cannot get elsewhere, or at least of so 
good a quality. In this category instruction in the English language, 
and the study of English literature and European science may be 
included. But Arabic and Persian studies may be pursued, as well 
outside as within the College walls. It may be said, and with 
truth, that some knowledge of Arabic and of Persian Grammar is 
essential to form a good Urdu scholar. Arabic and Persian Gram- 
mar should form part of the Urdu course, so also the most popular 
Persian works, e.g., the Gulistan and Bostan. But I advocate the 
abolition of a separate Arabic and Persian Department. Let every 
Student who attends our Colleges and High Schools learn English. 
This should be a sine qua non. Mr. Fallon very justly remarks 
that the Oriental Student is not brought under the influence of 
the European Master; his moral education at the Government 
School under the Moulovee is not a whit better than it would be 
under a common Miyanji. The admixture of English and Oriental 
Students is injurious to the former. I believe that the abolition 
of the purely Oriental Department, while it might for a time 
decrease the number of Students, would bring many boys into the 
English classes.” 

Since 1860 an experiment has been tried in connection with the 
Bareilly College of a Boarding House for the accommodation of 


Date of 
Establishment 


{ Agra College. 1823 

Benares Ditto. 1792 

Bareilly Ditto. 1837 

f Thomason College, 
Special C. E. 1847 

L Agra Medical 

College. 1855 


COLLEGES 


31 


The f6Ilowin g Extracts from the Reports of 
1860 61 and 1861-62 contain an account of the scheme:- 


“30. Bareilly College : Boarding-house opened— Mr. Kempson 
lias attempted, and with considerable success, a commencement of 
-the boarding-house system. ‘With reference to the very important 
subject of Students coming from a distance for instruction, I have to 
report on the establishment of a scheme for increasing the usefulness 
•of this College in this respect by making it, if possible, a centre of 
attraction to Students in the surrounding Districts, and I believe tha t, 
by affiliating the District Schools to the College round which they 
die, and by otherwise connecting them by exhibitions, by preparatory 
studies, and by a better class of teachers, educated purposely at that 
College, the whole of our Educational system will become both more 
popular and more practicable. You were good enough, in compli- 
ance with my request, to apply to the Government, North-Western 
Provinces, for aid in this respect, and an allowance of ten small 
scholarships for District Students proceeding to the College was 
•graciously accorded, and these take effect from January 1861. Witly 
a view to furthering the same object, and partly anticipating the 
above-mentioned grant from Government, on the 1st September last 
I established a boarding-house for District Studpnts in a confiscated 
tenement, well suited to the purpose (handed over to me by the 
Magistrate of Bareilly with the concurrence of the Commissioner of 
the Division), in that part of the city in the immediate vicinity of 
the College. This was placed under the charge of the head Native 
Teacher attached to the College, Pundit Kedarnath, and he and his 
family at once took up their residence therein. 

“Nineteen boys have joined us from out stations, of whom ten 
W ? r ? a ^ n ^ ttec ^ as boarders. This connexion of the College with the 
Division is a matter of the highest importance, to both the Province 
and ourselves, if education is ever to become a national necessity, to 
spread beyond large towns, and the compounds of Government Offi- 
ces. One link, and a very valuable one, was forged when a 
Boarding House on the home Public School plan was opened at 
Bareilly; and a short time will, I trust, prove that by thus, as it were, 
affiliating the Schools of the Province, a more serious obstacle to a 
more intimate tie between the people and the Government College 
here has been removed. 


Of the popularity of the Boarding House there is no question, 
an I believe as little doubt of its permanency. It was opened by the 
a *e Principal in September 1860 with TO boarders. In December 
Bir of Arch — 3 



32 


COLLEGES 


33 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

1861 there were 20— as many as could be conveniently accom* 
modated.” 

(From the Report of 1861 - 62 ) 

*‘15. The Boarding House- The description here given of the- 
success of the trial scheme of establishing a Boarding House will, I 
hope, be regarded with interest by His Honor. I beg to recommend 
that a gratuity be again graciously accorded to the Pundit in arge 
as a mark of His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor’s appreciation of 
the services he has rendered in this particular development of ! our 
progress. There are at the present moment between 40 and 50 
boys living as boarders under his charge, and, notwithstanding 
differences of caste and creed, I hear of no disorder or disturbance. 
Not only have boys come from the surrounding Pergunnahs, but 
they come from other Zillahs, and even from the Doab. Added to- 
this, the boarders are already distinguishing themselves for diligence- 
and success. Many of them carried tokens of the same to their 
homes in the holidays, and one, who came from the Anglo- 
Vernacular School at Philibeet, has become a College scholarship- 
holder in addition to his local holding. 

“16. The movement has attracted the notice of the Native- 
gentlemen who form the Municipal Committee of Bareilly, to 
whom, as well as to Mr. Inglis, who has so successfully worked for 
the improvement of this city, my best acknowledgments are due. 
The Municipal Committee has already expended the sum of 
Rupees 2,375 on the repair of the tenement now occupied by the 
boarders, and in the construction of a barrack capable of giving 
sleeping accommodation to 30 or 40 boys. Another barrack of the 
same size is about to be erected. The construction of a fives-court 
is in contemplation, and I have hopes of ultimately seeing a play- 
ground added and manly exercises in practice. The Committee 
have likewise allotted a monthly sum for small scholarships for 
District Students.” 

In July 1860 a proposition was made by the Government, North- 
Western Provinces, for the transformation of the three Anglo- 
Vernacular Colleges into High Schools, and the establishment of 
one College at the seat of Government. The scheme, which em- 
braced also the elevation of the Saugor and Ajmere Schools to the 
rank of High Schools, was estimated to involve an increase of cost 
of Rupees 2.348 per mensem, but the Secretary of State, while 


approving of the measure, did not relax in its favor the then exist- 
ing financial restrictions. In the Budget Resolution of the current 
year the following remark was made with reference to the scheme:— 

“No provision for the proposed remodelment has been made in 
the present Budget, but the Governor General in Council will be 
prepared to allot a sufficient sum for the purpose out of the un- 
appropriated reserve, should the Lieutenant-Governor see fit to make 
such a recommendation.” 

The next of the Institutions under reference is the Thomason 
College of Civil Engineering. It was established in 1847 with the 
view of supplying a staff of Civil Engineers for the execution of 
Public Works. A brief history of the Institution is given in the 
Educational Report of 1854-55. 

The Agra Medical School, which is the last on the list of Colleges 
in the North-Western Provinces, has been included under this head, 
because, though it bears the designation of “School,” it partakes 
quite as much as the Institutions already mentioned of the character 
of a College. A full account of the progress of this Institution from 
1855, when it was experimentally founded, will be found in the en- 
closure of the letter from the Government of the North-Western 
Provinces, No. 263A of the 3rd February last. In that letter the 
Lieutenant-Governor submitted two schemes,— one for raising the 
Institution to the full status of a College; and the other for im- 
proving it on its existing basis. On the 17th of September sanction 
was given to a modification of the latter scheme, the expenditure on 
the Institution being estimated at Rupees 19,184 per annum. 

Punjab 

There is only one College in the Punjab, viz., the Lahore Medi- 
cal College. It was established in October 1860. There are two 
classes, the English class and the Hindoostani class. The English 
class opened with five students, but in 1861 was reduced to two. At 
the next matriculation examination, therefore, scholarships were 
promised to those who might acquit themselves creditably. Four 
were then admitted with scholarships of Rupees 10 each, the two 
older students having meantime obtained Scholarships of Rupees 20 
and 16. No withdrawals have since taken place. The Hindoostani 
class was from the first a salaried class, Rupees 6 being allowed to 
each Student. At the first matriculation examination 44 Students 
were admitted, which was made up at the third matriculation exa- 
mination to the full complement of 60. The staff of the Institution 
at the close of 1861-62 consisted of a Principal, three Professors, 



34 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

two Assistant Professors, and an Apothecary. The total expenditure 
for that year, including that on the College Hospital, was 
Rupees 37,495. The Institution has been greatly impeded hitherto 
by the want of proper accommodation, but this it is intended to 
provide during the current year. The Punjab Government record- 
ed the following remarks on the progress of the Institution in 
Orders of the 28th May last:— “With the limited means at disposal, 
and in the absence of proper buildings, as much has been done as 
could be expected, and on the whole the progress is satisfactory.” 
The Institution has not yet been affiliated to the University. 

Madras 

The Institutions of this class at Madras are three in number, as 

noted on the margin. The 
Presidency College assum- 
ed that name in 1855, 
having been previously 
known as the Madras 
University. In that year 
also a legal branch was added to the Institution. It is admitted that 
the Presidency College would be more appropriately designated a 
Collegiate School. It consists of two Departments, the Senior De- 
partment representing the Collegiate element, and the Junior De- 
partment representing the School element. The following account 
of the Institution and of certain changes recently effected in it is 
given in the Administration Report of 1861-62:— 

“179. Presidency College— & step in advance was taken in 
February last towards placing the Presidency College upon the 
footing which it is intended eventually to hold. This Institution 
has been hitherto, and still is, a Collegiate School rather than a 
College; the Senior Department forming what might be termed the 
College proper, and the Junior being in fact a School. The number 
of Students qualified for admission into the Senior Department, 
and indeed into the higher classes of the Junior Department, has 
hitherto, of necessity, been very limited. Of late, however, the 
number of qualified candidates both for the Senior Department and 
for the higher classes* of the Junior Department has somewhat 
increased, and after the entrance examination in January last it 
was found necessary either to form an additional division of the 
third and fourth classes of the Junior Department, or to exclude 
some fifty-six well qualified candidates, thirteen of whom had come 
from the Provinces, from a greater or less distance, with the express 

*Note. — The fifth class is the highest. 


COLLEGES 35 

view of entering the College. Under these circumstances it was 
determined to abolish the four divisions forming the first and 
second classes, leaving it to the pupils who belonged to them to 
enter the practising or Model School at the Normal School, or any 
other institution they might select. The change has reduced the 
number of Students in the College, exclusive of the Law Class,, 
Irom 300 to 187, but it is unquestionably a step in the right direc- 
tion; and as the standard of instruction advances in other Schools, 
the remaining classes of the Junior Department will be abolished 
in succession. 

“The results of the annual examination of the Students in their 
English studies were generally favourable. In Vernacular literature 
the papers wer- not well done, but the Students generally acquitted 
themselves well in translation, and the viva voce examination was 
decidedly successful. In the Law Class two courses of lectures were 
delivered, one on Hindu and Mahomedan Law, and the other on 
Equity and Procedure. The Students failed generally in Equity, 
but in the other subjects the answering was good.” 

The next Institution is the Medical College, which originated 
in the establishment of a Medical School in 1836, the designation 
of College bei ig given in 1851. A brief history of the Institution 
is to be found in the Education Report of the year 1854-55. An 
account of a re-organization effected in its constitution and working 
in 1859-60 is given in the Education Report of that year, with a 
review of the entire subject by Sir W. O’Shaughnessy and Sir 
Charles Trevelvan in Appendix E of the same Report. The follow- 
ing account oJ the Medical College is given in the Report of 
1860-61:— 

29. Medical College — The Medical College has been re-orga- 
nized during the past year. It now consists of three Departments: 
a Senior Department for the instruction of candidates for the 
appointment of Sub-Assistant Surgeon, or for a Degree in Medicine; 
a second Department for candidates for the appoint- 
ment of Assistant Apothecary; and a third or Junior Depart- 
ment, in which candidates are prepared for the grade of Hospital 
Assistant. In all the Departments candidates are admitted on the 
result of a competitive examination, and candidates for admission 
into the Senior Department are required to pass the Marticulation 
Examination of the Madras University. The Primary Medical 
School has been transferred to the College and forms the third 
Department. 

“The distributions on the score of birth, which formerly obtained 
in the Subordinate Medical Department, have been done away with 


Established 

Presidency College 1841 

Medical College 1836 

Civil Engineering College 1858 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


COLLEGES 


3<5 

arid the several Departments of the College are now open to all 
comers who are able to pass the prescribed preliminary examina- 
tions. The Professorship of Medical Jurisprudence as a separate 
Chair has been recently abolished, and the several branches of that 
subject are in future to be taught by the other Professors with the 
subjects to which they are naturally connected.” 

The Civil Engineering College at Madras is the next on the list. 
An account of its organization in 1858-59 will be found in the 
Education Report of that year. From the Administration Report 
of 1861-62 it appears that the Institution continued, throughout the 
year under review, to comprise only a second or lower Department 
intended to educate candidates for the subordinate appointments in 
the Department of Public Works. The year under review opened 
with 107 Students and closed with 90. Of these 19 obtained certi- 
ficates as Assistant Overseers 2nd Class, 5 as Draftsmen and 
Estimate-makers, and 4 as Surveyors. It is added that— 

"In the course of the year Government sanctioned the establish- 
ment of a First Department to train Assistant Engineers. Sixteen 
candidates have come forward, including 10 Commissioned Officers 
and 4 Civilians. The class will be formed at the commencement of 
the next Session.” 


Bombay 


In Bombay there are three Colleges, as 


Established 


General 

/Elphinstone College 

1835 

\ Poona College 

1851 

Special 

Grant Medical College 

1845 


noted on the margin. 
The constitution and 
management of the 
Elphinstone and 
Poona Colleges un- 
derwent a reform in 
1857-58, an account 


of which is given in the Report of that year. The Administration 
Report of 1860-61 briefly alludes to the state of these Institutions 
in the following terms:— 

"The Elphinstone College contained, at the end of the year, a 
greater number of men of promise than at any former time. The 
Government Poona College, in its several departments, shews 

Colleges increasing popularity.” 


The following account of the Elphinstone Institution, taken from 
Appendix J of the Educational Committee's Report, shews the 
mode in which its finances are regulated, and the relation which it 
bears to the Schools connected with it:— 


"The Elphinstone College and Elphinstorie Institution (i.e.. 
Central and Fort English Schools and Branch Vernacular Schools) 


37 

are supported partly by the interest of Trust Funds and Fees, and 
partly by a grant of Rs. 42,000 per annum from Government. The 
latter, however, cannot, under the terms of the grant, be drawn upon 
in any year until the whole of the former have been expended. . „ . 
During the past two years the establishments have been gradually 
raised, with a view to secure greater efficiency, till they have pretty 
nearly reached the income, including the full amount of the Govern- 
ment grant.” 

Of the above grant Rupees 24,486 were appropriated to the 
College as distinguished from the Schools in 1860-61, which, with 
scholarship grants, interest on funded capital and fees, made up the 
total cost for that year to Rupees 45,777. 

Previous to 1851 the Poona College was supported by allowances 
<mt of the old "Duxina Fund”, and Educational grants on account 
of various objects. In that year a fixed allowance of Rupees 35,868 
per annum was substituted, which, with additions in subsequent 
years, now stands at Rupees 44,004. 

The Grant Medical College at Bombay was opened in 1845. 
Until recently, however, it has been regarded as almost a failure. 

The following paragraphs from the Education Report of 1857-58. 
at the annual examination of which year not one of the candidates 
was found qualified, describe the sentiments then entertained in 
regard to the Institution:— 

"122. Government pays upwards of Rupees 23,000 a year in 
support of the Grant Medical College, besides donations of instru- 
ments, books, and other applicances, which have raised it to a level, 
in point of material , with the most famous Medical Schools of • 
Europe, and has instituted 1 a special service for the encouragement 
of those graduates who do not prefer the more lucrative but pre- 
carious career of private practice. Since its foundation the College 
has never been without able professors, including men of European 
reputation. No adequate return is at present gained from this 
liberality; and I grieve to say that a feeling of discontent, rather 
than of gratitude, seems most commonly manifested among those 
who benefit or might benefit by it. 

“123. I am inclined to think that too much eagerness has been 
displayed in striving to allure native youths to the College. Paupers 
have been bribed by stipends to accept a medical education, and 
when educated they have been too apt to consider that Government, 
instead of conmerring a favour, has bound itself by an obligation. 
The most beneficent of arts has been the recourse of young men 



3* 


j 8 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

who saw no prospect of succeeding in other lines of life; and it 
has been as yet found impossible to retain within the College walls 
qualified Students to the average number of fifty, for which there 
is instructional accommodation/' 

The following paragraphs from the last Report (1859-60) contain; 
a more hopeful account of the Institution:— 

“79. Grant Medical College — The Report of the Grant -Medical 
College forms an Appendix to this Report. Twenty-eight Students 
were examined for entrance, the largest number (with two excep- 
tions) that ever have presented themselves. The stipends have been 
converted into 'scholarships', and the removal thus far of the ele- 
emosynary character of the College has raised its reputation without 
reducing its numbers. The suspended class of the Student-appren- 
tices has been re-established. The whole number of Students was 
63. It is very gratifying to note the improvement of the candidates 
for admission in point of English scholarship, as attested! by the 
Principal. Eleven Students were examined for the final examina- 
tion, of which eight were declared qualified for diplomas, a greater 
number than passed at either the Calcutta or the Madras Medical 
College. When aspersions are thrown on the Grant College, this* 
fact should be remembered in its favor. 

“80. Still it must be conceded that the College does not attract 
a high class of Students. European medical studies have not yet 
struck root in the country; and though European medical men in 
Bombay obtain extensive practice among the wealthy natives, the 
graduates of the Grant College have not yet, I believe, obtained the 
confidence of their countrymen to any great extent. No Native 
practitioner bred at the College has embarked in his profession out 
of Bombay." 

To the above may be added the following Extract from the 
Administration Report of 1 860-6 1 :— 

“In the Grant College the usual courses of lectures were given. 
Grant College It has already been stated that seven students pass- 
ed for the Degree of Licentiate of Medicine. Ten candidates went 
up for the final (Diploma) examination, of whom 7 passed. These 
results are highly gratifying. It is proposed to open a Vernacular 
Class in the College." 

The establishment of a College of Civil Engineering, in conneo 
tion with the Poona Engineering School, was in contemplation 
before the mutiny, and had received the sanction of the Home 
Government (see Education Report of 1955-57); but the financial 


COLLEGES 

pressure which afterwards ensued prevented its completion. Mean- 
time the want has apparently been supplied by the establishment 
of a Professional College at Ahmedabad. The following paragraph 
of the Administration Report of 1860-61 is the only record yet made 
of its establishment:— 

“Arrangements have been made to open the Ahmedabad College 
Ahmedabad College in two departments. Civil Engineering (Public 
Works) and Judicial, under the superintendence of the Head Master 
of the Government English School, on the 15th June 1861. Two 
highly competent Native Tutors will be attached, one to each depart- 
ment.” 



SECTION IV 

Government Schools 

I now proceed to notice Government Schools, or more correctly Schools under Government management. 
The following Table contains statistical information respecting the several classes of these Institutions:— 



GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 


41 


From the above it appears that there are 6,166 Institutions 
under Government management, with an average attendance of 
178,768 pupils, the total cost of the education so given being 
Rupees 14,34,722. The principle on which the classification has 
been made is briefly this: The “higher class” of Schools is 

supposed to educate up to the University standard; the “middle 
class” is composed chiefly of Anglo-Vernacular Institutions, which 
do not fulfil the above condition; and the “lower class” comprises 
principally Vernacular Schools, some of which, such as the Tehselee 
Schools of the North-Western Provinces, the Talook Schools of 
Madras, and the superior Vernacular Schools of Bombay, belong 
to an upper grade, the rest being mere Village or Village Circle 
Schools. 

From an examination of the first portion of the Table which 
gives the “number of Institutions” of each class in each Presidency, 
it will be seen that Bengal contains by far the largest number (45) 
of the “higher class,” Bombay the largest number (23) of the 
middle class,” and the North-Western Provinces the largest 
Number (5,097) of the “lower class.” If the numbers of higher 
and middle class Schools in each Presidency be taken together, it 
will be found that Bengal has 46, Madras, Bombay and the Punjab 
an average of 21 each, and the North-Western Provinces only five. 
It is obvious, therefore, to remark that the great attention which, 
in the North-Western Provinces, has been paid to popular Schools 
is accompanied by a corresponding absence of expansion in the 
higher grades. In Bengal again, where the higher grade of Insti- 
tutions has succeeded better than in any other Province, the 
lower grade has been almost entirely neglected. By comparing 
the portions of the Table relating to the attendance andl cost it 
further appears that the cost per annum of each pupil in the 
several classes of Schools in the different Provinces is as follows:— 



Bengal 

N.W.P. 

Punjab 

Madras 

Bombay 

Average 


! Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Higher Class Schools 

58*2 

152-0 

45*6 

38-5 

48*7 

52*5 

Middle Class Schools 

31-2 

25*5 | 

23*0 

1$ ‘2 

25*4 

24*5 

Lower Class Schools 

4*9 

2-9 

4*7 

7*2 I 

4*9 

3*9 

Normal Schools 

T-U „ . i 

94-o 

1 

76*5 

97*9 

42*6 

I 

104-6 

J 

70*6 


The annual cost of each pupil in Bengal is above the average 
in respect of all classes of Schools. In the North-Western Pro- 
vinces it is above the average in all classes except the “lower class.” 



42 


SELECTION® TROM roUCATIONAL RECORDS 

In the Punjab it is above the average in the “lower class” and in 
Normal Schools, but below it in the higher and middle classes- 
In Madras it is above the average in the "lower class " and below 
it in all others. In Bombay it is above the average in all except 
the “higher class.” ^ 

I have found it impossible to procure correct data for making 
a comparison between the results set forth in the preceding State- 
ment and the statistics of 1854. The comparison can be made 
in respect of some Provinces, or parts of Provinces, or in respect 
of some classes of Schools; but I cannot compile a satisfactory 
Statement of the number, attendance and cost of all Schools under 
Government management in all the Provinces in that year, X 
shall, however, take frequent opportunities of comparing the present 
state with the state in 1854, in treating of the several classes of School* 
in detail, which I now proceed to do. 

SCHOOLS— HIGHER CLASS 

It has already been explained that the above designation in- 
cludes generally Institutions which profess to educate up to the 
University Entrance standard. 

Bengal 

In Bengal this class is composed of Collegiate Schools and Zillatt 
Schools. The former are Schools connected, as parts or branches, 
with Institutions of a Collegiate character; the latter are so called 
because there is generally one such School in each Zillah or District. 
They are situated at the chief stations of the Districts and managed 
by Local Committees consisting of private persons interested in 
education, and! of the principal officials at each station. The 
instruction conveyed in them is mainly English. There are 45 of 
this class altogether in Bengal, of which nine are designated 
Collegiate Schools and 36 as Zillah Schools. I am not quite 
sure that all of the Bengal Zillah Schools are ^properly classed 

under .his head. The, .recall » m £ 

miaee'foTfte Im£o£men. of Schools" in published Report 

of 1856 , it is probable .ha. some of them re . al da >” >° 

such classification. The Committee observed that m pornt of 
fact a very large number of Zillah Schools never reach the higher 

or iunior scholarship standard, and are really inferior Schools.*' 

, . i t mav be noted, recommended the division 

T f h 7-n TTh U into twl distinct grades, the one with a course 
of nine years’ study educating up to the University Entrance 
smndard, and the other with ■ >« year, course of study, educing 


GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 


43 


-Up to a lower standard. In the former the English language was 
to be the medium of instruction, except in the lower classes, while 
in the latter the vernacular was to be the medium. The pro- 
posals of the Committee were, I believe, generally approved, and 
are ln course of introduction. In the Report of 1958-59 it is 
mentioned that four Zillah Schools had been raised to the first 
^ , o e ’ no refer ence is made to the distinction in the Report 
ot 1859-60; and from the remarks made therein, I gather that the 
generality of the Zillah Schools are still regarded as educating up 
to the University Entrance standard. . 


It is stated in the Bengal Education Report of 1859-60 that 
;“the Collegiate and Zillah Schools still take rank as the best 
ipanaged and most efficient in the country, and fully maintain 
their popularity.” No attempts have been made to increase the 
number of the Zillah Schools in Bengal “on the principle that the 
Government Schools are kept up only as models and means of 
creating a desire for education.” The system adopted is, as 
■stated in the Report of 1856-57, that “where in consequence of the 
increasing demand for English Education, we find, as we some- 
times do, a difficulty in preventing the Government School from 
Being over-crowded, the fee levied is gradually raised, and induce- 
ment and opportunity are thus afforded for the establishment in 
the neighbourhood of one or more private Schools under the 
Grant-in-aid system, which Schools may in time be enabled to 
Supplant the Government School. A very' general desire is felt, 
especially in the Districts round about Calcutta, for the establish- 
ment of more Government English Schools, and where this is 
not possible, the people endeavour to get up Grant-in-Aid Schools 
upon the model of our Zillah Schools.” This principle of action 
is quite in accordance with the spirit of the Despatch of 1854, in 
which the Home Government gave expression to even a stronger 
opinion, looking forward to the time “when many of the existing 
Government Institutions, especially those of the higher order, may 
be safely closed, or transferred to the management of local bodies 
under the control of, and aided by, the State”. 

North-Western Provinces 

In the North-Western Provinces there is but one institution 
belonging to this class, viz. the Ajmere School; the Saugor School, 



44 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

which made a second, having been recently transferred to the 
Central Provinces. The Institution is noticed favourably in the 
Report of 1861-62. 

Punjab 

In the Punjab rapid advances have of late been made in the 
formation of Schools of this class. Out of 22 Zillah Schools now 
existing 20 have been placed on a footing which entitles them 
to be included in the class of Institutions now under notice. OF 
these 15 have been established since 1854-55. The following" 
paragraphs from the Education Report of 1861-62 contain remarks 
regarding the present state and prospects of these Schools:— 

“If the moderate demands for increased expenditure made in 
the Educational Budget for 1862-63 be granted, the status of the 
Zillah Schools can be greatly improved; but as they stand they have, 
with scarcely any exception, done admirably during the year under 
review, and reflect the utmost credit on their Masters. The pro- 
gress in English of many of the classes at these Schools has been 
most marked. To allow of their further development, a gradual 
increase of expenditure will, of course, be needed every -year. As 
the boys advance, more classes are formed, and' more Masters of 
higher attainment are needed. Already one English Master for 
each of the smaller Zillah Schools is found insufficient. He requires- 
an Assistant, and in some places two, to enable him to get through 
the work. By and by the monitorial system will be brought into 
play: though in teaching a foreign language, it is more difficult of 
adoption, and less useful, than in other branches of instruction. 

13. The three chief Zillah Schools at Lahore, Umritsur and 
Delhie, which as suggested by the Secretary 
of StaM in hi! N °- 14 ° f 8 * 
to the grade of Colleges April 1861, may be called Provincial or 

High Schools, have already a higher staff 
of Masters; but their number requires to be added* to, and some 
have well earned promotion to higher salaries. Mpreover, now 
that one of them possesses matriculated students, and the other two 
are preparing each a class of candidates for the next University 
Entrance Examination, it becomes absolutely necessary that two of 
them at least, if not all three, should be raised to the rank of 
Colleges at an early date, with a Principal and one or two Professors 
attached to each. The successful School as yet has been Umritsar, 
but Lahore being the Capital, and the two cities being only 


GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 


45 


30 miles apart, and now connected by a Railway, it would be as well 
perhaps to place the latter on the superior footing. This, too. 
seems to be in accordance with the views of the Home authorities! 
as expressed in the Secretary of State’s Despatch to which I have 
already referred. Sir Charles Wood says.-‘The formation of a. 
School of a superior order at Lahore, which will serve as the nucleus 
° ® College, which, under the original scheme sanctioned in 1856 

will be hereafter constituted for the Punjab, has my approval.’ ” 

It may be noted here that the Punjab Zillah Schools, like those 
of Bengal, while professing to educate up to a high standard 
^University .Entrance) begm with a low one. The curriculum is 
1 / f S,?n ^ d theoretically for boys who are supposed to have no know- 
ledge of either Enghsh or the Vernacular on entering.” During 
the first few years of a boy’s training English is taught “simply 

v ngUage . ,° n sound P rind ple that general knowledge 
must be acquired in the first instance through the medium of his 
own tongue. 

Madras 

f ere ar A e eleven Institutions of this class, of which 
, the Madnssa-i-Azam, three the Provincial Schools at Com* 
conum, Calicut and Bellary, and the rest Zillah Schools. The 

ed from^h^R^ 3 * 311 rC c garding the Madri ssa-i-Azam may be extract- 
ed from the Report of 1858-59, in which year a re-organization of 
the Institution was effected:- 8 ot 


“49. Arrangements were made during the past year for reorganiz- 

Madrissa-i-Azam Xh ^ a ” Institution 

of the Carnat, V f a - h * W3S estabIlshed h Y the late Nawab 
of Trin? 7 7 mstructlon of the Mahommedan population 

rion P T f 1Ch haS bCen ad °P ted as a Govemme P nt P Instit ” 
tion- the attend ’ ’ °u to be in a very inefficient condi- 

exceeds one h 3 if Ce ’ f ^° Ug ^ WaS extremeI y irregular, seldom 
The amount of 3 , °f t^ nUmber of P u P ils nominally on the rolls. 
SSSjr? instruction imparted was extremely limited. 

WiM teachim? fhe a k T ^ ^ ° f ' tS namCSake « Calcutta, 
^ the Mahomt.H 3 , • PCrsian bln guages, and the doctrines 

of the Mahommedan religion. All this has been altered An 

efficient Master has been placed at the head of the School; and the 



4$ SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

teachers, generally, have been replaced by more competent men, 
only two of the former staff having been retained. The course of 
instruction has been arranged on the model of that prescribed for 
the other Government Schools; Hindoostani being made the 
medium of instruction in the lower classes, and English in the 
higher, and English being taught in all. The Institution was 
opened on its new footing on the 1st May last; and notwithstanding 
the enforcement of a more strict system of discipline, and alterations 
in the course of instruction, which are naturally distasteful to the 
Mahommedans, the number of pupils has already risen to 240, who 
attend with very tolerable regularity/’ 

The following paragraph from the Administration Report of 
1861-62 may also be quoted:— 

*724, Madrissa-i-Azam— The progress of the Madrissa-i-Azam has 
been highly satisfactory. It contained at the close of the year 291 
pupils; and in respect of regularity in the attendance, there is not 
a School throughout the Presidency by which it is surpassed. The 
‘discipline also is very good, and the pupils have made very fair 
progress in their studies, although the standard attained is not high, 
being somewhat below that required for the University Matricula- 
tion Examination. On the whole the re-organization of this insti- 
tution may be looked upon as a decided success/’ 

\ 

The three Provincial Schools have been affiliated to the Uni- 
versity at Madras. The six lower classes in them are intended to 
educate up to the University Entrance standard, and the three 
higher classes to educate up to the BA. degree standard. The 
three higher classes, however, do not appear to have been yet 
actually brought into operation. 

The Zillah Schools are designed to educate up to the Univer- 
sity Entrance standard, the course prescribed in them being the 
same as that for the first six classes in the Provincial Schools. The 
Reports on the Provincial and Zillah Schools for the year 1861-62 
are described in the Administration Report as being “generally 
favourable.” 

Bombay 

In Bombay only two Institutions appear to belong to the class 
binder notice, viz., the “Central School Elphinstone Institution” 


GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 


and the “Poona College School.” These are entered in the Edi^ 
cation Report as “Schools of the higher class, teaching up to tfy 
University standard.” Although, therefore, there are three “Higr 
Schools” at Surat, Ahmedabad, and Dhoolia, and seven “SuperiJ 
Anglo-Vernacular Schools” and one “English School,” the exclusion 
of them from the higher class above indicated, and their classific^ 
tion among “Schools of the lower class including Tehseelee an/ 
Village Schools,” suffice to show that, notwithstanding their som^ 
what ambiguous designations, they do not properly fall within t^ 
class of Institutions now under review. The following paragraph 
in the Education Report of 1859-60 shews that the want of sucll 
Institutions is felt:— ' 

“51. Want of High Schools— The time has now arrived whe^ 
the want of High Schools is severely felt. Notwithstanding t^ 
earnest representations which I have so often made to Governmeru 
there are now positively fewer European teachers in the Depar\ 
ment than there were four years ago, when English education w^\ 
found* to be so deplorably low. We have only Mr. Smith, 

Rs. 300 a month, as the Central School, and Mr. Rooman at Poou/ 
on Rs. 150 a month. And I do not hesitate to say that we hay^ 
not (for we cannot afford to pay) a single Native Head Master w^\ 
is really an accurate English scholar. The young men now leavit^ 
our Colleges are, as a class, for better scholars than their senior| 
but some time must elapse before they can be made Head Master] 
and the best of them will certainly look to a much more lucrati^ 
occupation than that of teaching.” \ 


SCHOOLS— MIDDLE CLASS 

The next grade of Schools is the “Middle Class.” There j 
no such grade recognized in the Statements appended to the Edii 
cation Reports, but such a distinction seems almost necessary [ 
order to discriminate between the Schools designed for the ed^ 
cation of the rural population, and the Institutions which hold \ 
middle position between them and) those already described \ 
educating up to the University standard. By “Middle Cla$\ 
Institutions, therefore, it will be understood that reference is maJ' ! 
to all Institutions which do not educate up to the Universal 
standard, but which are above the Schools situated in villa^[ 
Tehseel or Talook Stations, &c., designed for the education of tl\ 
masses. To prevent uncertainty as to what Institutions in eai 
125 Dir. of Arch.— 7. \ 



4$ SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Province I have classed under this head, I give below a list of 
them:— 



A few remarks seem to be required on the marked disparity in 
the numbers of this class of Schools in the various Presidencies and 
Provinces. The existence of only one such Institution in Bengal 
is accounted for partly by the fact that the Zillah Schools, while 
teaching up to a high standard, begin with a low one, recruiting 
their ranks often from the Village Schools direct; and partly by the 
fact that the great bulk of private aided Schools belongs to this class. 
In the Punjab the recent measures for the improvement and eleva- 
tion of the Zillah Schools have left but two representatives of this 


GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 


49 


class. In Bombay the large number is accounted for partly by the 
fact that the Institutions, such as the three High Schools, which 
ought to have appeared in the higher class have not yet had the 
standard of instruction raised to the level of the University Entrance 
Examination; and partly by the almost entire absence of private 
aided Schools in Bombay, their place being filled by what are very 
analogous Institutions, viz, “partially self-supporting” Schools, but 
which, nevertheless, are classified as Institutions under Government 
management. The number of Schools in the Bombay Presidency 
properly coming under this head ought indeed, to be rather larger 
than smaller than the number entered by me. I have selected from 
the general heading of “Schools of the Lower Class” those designated 
as “superior Anglo-Vernacular Schools,” leaving the “inferior Anglo- 
Vernacular Schools” and all the “Vernacular Schools” to come under 
the next head. I am aware, however, that this selection is rather 
confined, for purely Vernacular education in Bombay has been 
carried to a standard far superior to that at which it has arrived in 
any other Presidency, so much so that a considerable proportion of 
the best Vernacular Schools in Bombay might fairly be classed in 
the grade now under notice. No information, however, is available 
upon which a selection could be based; and I have, therefore been 
compelled, with this explanatory remark, to leave all the Vernacular 
Schools to come under the next head. 

SCHOOLS— LOWER CLASS 

The “Lower Class” of Schools may be described generally as the 
class designed primarily for the education of the masses. In most 
places it consists of an upper and lower grade, the latter comprising 
the Village Schools, and the former Schools situated in towns. The 
distinction, however, is not in all cases easily shewn, and in fact 
the town Schools, or, as they are also termed in the North-Western 
Provinces and Punjab “Tehseelee” Schools, and in Madras “Talook” 
Schools, are frequently regarded rather as models for imitation, than 
as forming a distinct class of themselves. The state of vernacular 
education prior to 1854 is described in paragraph 16 of the Secretary 
of State s Despatch of April 1859 as follows:— 

16. In the North-Western Provinces active measures had been 
taken by the Lieutenant-Governor, the late lamented Mr. Thoma- 
son, for the accomplishment of the object. A system had been fram- 
ed by that gentleman and brought into active operation with the 
full approval of the Court of Directors, which provided for the 



5° 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


establishment of a Model School at the headquarters of each Tehsxl- 
dar, for the encouragement of the Masters of indugenous Schools to- 
improve themselves, and to adopt improved methods of teaching, 
and for the regular inspection of the whole machinery by visitors of 
different grades, superintended by a Visitor General, an office to 
which a highly qualified Civil Servant was appointed. This system 
had not been extended to all the districts previously to 1854; but 
it had been attended with such an amount of success, that authority 
was given in 1855-56 for bringing it into operation throughout the 
whole of the North-Western Provinces. In Bengal a number of Ver- 
nacular Schools had been established several years previously; but 
whether from the low qualifications of the Masters, or from t e 
want of responsible superintendence, they had failed to obtain 
popularity, and were in gradual course of abandonment. In Madras, 
in the same manner, some Vernacular Schools, which had been form- 
ed during the administration of Sir Thomas Monro, had die out 
for want of pupils, and the deficiency had not been supplied up to 
i854, although a scheme of education had just previously been fram- 
ed by the Madras Government, very much resembling in its leading 
features the plan then prescribed by the Court for general adoption. 
In Bombay the late Board of Education had succeeded, with limited 
means, in establishing many new Vernacular Schools throughout the 
Presidency, as well as in raising to some extent the character of t e 
education imparted in some of the indigenous Schools. 

In the Despatch of 1854 the Home Government declared its wish 
for the prosecution of the object of Vernacular education “in a more 
systematic manner,” and “placed the subject on a level in point of 
importance with that of the instruction to be afforded through the 
medium of the English language.” An attempt will now be made 
to describe the measures taken in accordance with the above instruc- 
lions in the several Presidencies and Provinces. 

Bengal 

In Bengal no fixed system was adopted, but various schemes were 
set on foot in different parts of the Lieutenant-Governorship with 
the object of promoting Vernacular education The measures in 
operation on the 1st of May 18$8 were described m the foLowing 
terms in a Minute by the Lieutenant-Governor, dated the 24th 
March 1859:— 

“Speaking of them generally, it may be said that 228 Schools 
have been aided by grants in 27 Districts, educating 16,633 pupils 
at an average cost to Government for each pupil of one Rupee two 
Annas and one Pie per mensem for English Schools, seven Annas for 


GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 


Anglo-Vernacular Schools, and three Annas eight Pie for Vernacular 
Schools. Further, there have been 197 Model Vernacular Schools 
*This low aver- established in 30 Districts, at a total expense of 
age is owing o Rupees 3,339-14-2 per mensem, or an average of 
the iist 8e of° n ah about 17 Rupees for each School*. There have 
such Schools been established 55 Circles, embracing 158 indigen- 
Behar, 61 IU Cuttack ous Schools established in four Districts; and there 
or Assam, have been twelve itinerant Teachers employed in 

indigenous Schools in six other Districts. In six Districts payments 
have been made to indigenous School Teachers for improvement 
in their pupils at the rate of one Rupee a month for every ten boys 
under instruction; besides rewards for success given to such Teachers 
in eleven other Districts; and ten Scholarships have been provided 
of four Rupees each per annum to meritorious Vernacular pupils 
in 32 Districts/’ 

Referring to the above statement, the Government of India re- 
marked, under date the 17tli of May 1859, as follows:— 


“2. His Excellency in Council readily admits that it is shown in 
this Minute that effective measures have not been wanting on the 
part of the Bengal Government for the encouragement of Vernacu- 
lar education among classes lower in the social scale than any which 
had been affected by the operations of Government previously to 
the receipt of the Court of Directors’ Despatch of 1854; and he will 
Iiave much pleasure in furthering the extension of those measures 
as soon as the means of doing so are again available. The Governor 
^General in Council gladly expresses his concurrence in the opinion 
of the Liutenant-Governor that, for what has been done, credit is 
due to the Officers of the Education Department in the Lower Pro- 
vinces/’ 


Very little, if any, advance in these directions has until quite re- 
cently been made owing principally to financial restrictions and 
partly to a prolonged discussion which ensued between the Bengal 
Government and the Government of India, in which the latter argu- 
ed that it was not the intention of the Home Government that the 
grant-in-aid system should be applied to the extension of this class 
of Schools, but that any measures which might be taken should be 
based on the principle of having the Schools under the direct 
management and control of the Government. The Bengal Govern- 
ment having taken a different view, had contemplated a system of 
grants-in-aid to such Schools and had asked for a relaxation of the 
Grants-in-aid Rules in its favor. 

The Bengal Government maintained that the cost of any system 
'of Vernacular instruction by the direct instrumentality of Government 



52 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 


would make its general introduction impossible. It was argu- 
ed that although cheap Schools costing, as in the North-Western Pro- 
vinces, from Rupees five to Rupees eight per mensem each had been 
to some extent found practicable in Behar and Assam, they were 
not practicable in Bengal Proper. The great problem of a sufficient- 
ly cheap system of Vernacular education through the direct instru- 
mentality of Government remained the subject of discussion and 
report till 1860, when the Lieutenant-Governor, writing with refer- 
ence to previous correspondence and especially to a recent call for 
a definite report of the measures desired to be introduced in connec- 
tion with the Secretary of State's Despatch of 1859, propounded a 
system the basis of which was the encouragement of the best of the 
indigenous Schools by rewards to the Masters, supply of books, etc., 
a proportion of model Schools being also established and arrange- 
ments being made for maintaining an efficient inspection. A more 
particular description of the scheme will be found in another Note 
prepared on the special subjects treated of in the Despatch of 1859. 
It is sufficient here to note that the Lieutenant-Governor has pro- 
vided for the introduction of the scheme in the Budget of the cur- 
rent year, on which the following order was passed in the Resolu- 
tion of the 12th September:— 

“The chief portion of the increase, however, is to be found in 
the item of Rupees 30,000, provided with the view of giving effect 
to the experimental scheme for the education of the masses, propos- 
ed by the Lieutenant-Governor in his letter No. 633, of the 19th 
October 1860, for the inclusion of which in the Budget permission 
was given in the communication of the 21st September 1861. Re- 
garding this item as a special one, the Governor General in Council 
is pleased to authorize the Lieutenant-Governor to sanction the 
necessary establishments and expenditure within the limit of Rupees 
30,000 for the current year, subject to a special report of the work- 
ing of the scheme after the close of the year.” 

North-Western Provinces 

In the North-Western Provinces the upper stratum of Vernacular 
education may be described as the Tehseelee Schools system. The 
scheme was commenced in 1850, its operations being confined to the 
first and second Circles of Inspection. The following description 
of this class of Schools is taken from the Education Report of 1854- 
55:— 

“12. These Schools, located in towns, bring within the reach of 
the children resident in the immediate neighbourhood, a more liberal 


53 

education than the ordinary Schools afford. Their location is deter- 
mined by that of the Tehseeldaree, which is ordinarily selected, not 
with reference to the size or importance, commercial or otherwise, 
of any particular town, but chiefly with regard to a convenient and 
central position in relation to the majority of the villages lying with- 
in the limits of the Tehseelee, and consequently is frequently found 
in villages which might with propriety be termed mere hamlets. 
In such cases the attendance is necessarilv small." 

The course of study is thus described in the Report of 1859-60:— 

“115. The medium through which instruction is imparted is either 
Hindi or Urdu, and in many instances both the Vernaculars, The 
course of study comprises Reading, Writing, Grammar, Composition, 
Arithmetic, Mensuration, Algebra up to Quadratics, the first four 
Books of Euclid, the History and Geography of India, General 
Geography, Ancient History, the Elements of Political Economy, 
Planetable Surveying." 

The system has spread very much since 1854. It is no longer 
confined to the first and second Circles, but has spread over all the 
five Circles. 

Below the stratum of Tehseelee Schools exist two classes of vil- 
lage Schools, viz. the Indigenous Schools and the Circuit or Hulka- 
bundee Schools. 

The former, though under Government inspection, are not under 
Government management, and a notice of them and the result of 
the efforts to improve them will more appropriately be made under 
the next Section. It. is sufficient to note here that though consider- 
able success has been achieved in the endeavour, it is regarded at 
the best as a make-shift pending the introduction throughout the 
country of the organized system of Hulkabundee Schools, which I 
now proceed to describe. This class of Schools was introduced first 
about 10 years ago. The villages were portioned off into circuits, 
in each of which a School was established under the direct manage- 
ment of Government. The salaries of the Teachers varied from 
Rupees 36 to Rupees 60 per annum; and the expense was met by a 
local contribution or cess nominally voluntary. The cess is calculat- 
ed in different ways in different districts. The Collector either de- 
termines the number of Schools on the area and population of the 
district, and distributing the cost of maintenance over the revenue 
deducts an equivalent percentage; or he may consider one per cent, 
on the revenue a fair cess and adapt his expenditure and number 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 


54 

of Schools to the amount which this percentage realizes; or he may 
take into account the wants and capabilities of the several circuits 
and deal separately with each. In all this he is presumed to have 
the consent of the people who are so assessed. It has recently been 
attempted to put the system of local assessment on a more secure 
footing. The late Lieutenant-Governor, Mr. Colvin, recommended, 
and the Court of Directors sanctioned, the imposition of a one per 
cent. School cess in all new Settlements, to be so calculated as to 
fall half on the Proprietor and half on Government. The Rules 
promulgated for guidance in this respbct are included in what are 
known as the “Seharunpore Settlement Rules”. The following re- 
marks by the Inspector of the second Circle, extracted from the Re- 
port of 1861-62, refer to the different systems on which the cess is 
based:— 

“It forms a permanent levy in some districts; in others it awaits 
the expiry of current settlements; in others the Zemindars voluntarily 
subscribe 1 per cent, on the Malguzaree Jumma ; in others the cess 
is levied so that one-half falls on the Zemindars, and one-half on 
the State; in others nothing has been done; and in all the legality of 
procedure seems to be questionable.” 

In his Report for 1858-59 Mr. Reid writes:— 

“The Circuit School system, wherever it has been introduced 
has revolutionized popular education. It has trebled or quadrupl- 
ed the attendance at School. It has introduced useful and instruc- 
tive studies, and an efficient organization in place of an utter absence 
of books without any system. It has improved the status of the 
Teacher, has rendered him independent of “individual caprice, and 
has placed the School on a more permanent footing”. In the Re- 
port for 1860-61 it is further observed that the system “is gradually 
spreading, and will before long cover the land”. The present con- 
dition of the Hulkabandee Schools is thus described in the Report 
for 1860-61:- 

“The Schools are very unequal in merit. Those in the 1st, 2nd 
and 3rd Circles are, in many instances, superior to many of the 
Tehseelee Schools in those Divisions, while a large proportion of 
them are better than the Tehseelee Schools in the Saugor and Ner- 
budda Territories. The average attendance per School, which for 
the whole North-Western Provinces is 21*6, ranges from 4:7 in Seonee 
to 42:8 in Etawah.” 


55 

The following remarks taken from the Report of 1861-62 may 
also be added:— 

“1. The results to be considered in this Section go to prove that 
the system of popular Vernacular education, which has been on 
trial for 12 or 13 years in these Provinces, and has been regarded 
with interest, or taken as a model by other Governments, is extend- 
ing its usefulness year by year. Its stability and aptitude for internal 
development and improvement is no longer doubtful, but the need 
of a vigilant system of inspection, and particularly of local encourage- 
ment, to aid the work of the Departmental Officers, is strongly mark- 
ed, and is a feature peculiar to the country. The prosperous estab- 
lishment of the Etawah District Schools is a proof of what may be 
accomplished by local encouragement; but the state of those Schools, 
as reported on by the late Inspector of the 2nd Circle in December 
1861, shows the absolute necessity of an organized departmental 
supervision. 

“2. The extension of the Hulkabundee School system over every 
district in the N.W.P. is a matter of time. When that is accomplish- 
ed, a very considerable proportion of the School-going class will be 
brought under our direct teaching. At present strange contrasts 
exist; for instance, in the rich district of Bareilly, to the north, there 
is not a single Hulkabundee School; in the poor district of Jhansi to 
the south there are 77 Schools, with 2,202 boys and a fund available 
for building purposes of Rupees 20,000. In many of the districts of 
the Doab the Schools have been long established, and are increasing 
month by month. In Furruckabad, one of the wealthiest, they are 
just beginning to exist. In some of the famine-stricken regions the 
Hulkabundee Schools maintained their vigour, whereas in more 
favoured places at the same period they apparently fell away.” 

There are not wanting, however, difficulties to contend with in 
the maintenance and expansion of this system in connection with 
the realization of the promised funds, as will be seen from the 
following remarks taken from the Report of 1860-61:- 

“105. Non-payment of the Teachers more frequent in the Saugor 
Circle.— In the Saugor Division complaints of non-payment are fre- 
quently preferred by the village School-masters. The zemindars, in 
some instances, have declined payment. It is not always easy to 
ueal with such cases. The Inspector has been requested to explain 
to his Deputies that they shall, in no instance, take any measures for 
the opening of a Village School where the zemindar does not in 
the first instance come to them for assistance.” 



56 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


The Educational Officers all look forward to the gradual exten- 
sion of the cess in the more permanent form in which it is now 
fixed in districts undergoing re-settlement. In some instances, and 
especially at certain periods of the year, it is difficult also to keep 
up the attendance. The following remarks made by Mr. Griffith, 
Inspector, 3rd Circle, in the Report of 1860-61, will illustrate this:— 

“The bulk of the Hulkabundee scholars are agriculturists; their 
time is most precious to their parents, and when the mangoes are 
ripe, or the crops are being stocked, on no account they can be 
spared: nay, each family has some cattle, and each family must send 
a child to look after them and the more so since pounds have 
been introduced in these Provinces. The agriculturist boys are 
temporary visitors, and they flock to our Schools periodically, and 
as the average is struck for the whole ye&r, it must be a low one for 
the Hulkabundee Schools, if they are reported truly, till people 
value education more than food and necessaries of life.” 

Punjab 

In the Punjab prior to the receipt of the Despatch of 1854, no 
general scheme of primary education had been attempted. There 
were only 35 Government Vernacular Schools scattered in the interior 
of districts. Early in 1856 Mr. Arnold was appointed Director of 
Public Instruction, and the organization of a general scheme was 
commenced. Tehseelee Schools were established, and the attempt 
made to preserve and improve the indigenous Schools throughout 
the country. A one per cent, cess was introduced in some places, 
and from the proceeds of it increased pay was offered to the Village 
Masters on the condition of their conforming to certain courses of 
study and rules. But this did not answer, as the villagers took ad- 
vantage of it to attempt to throw the whole expense on Govern- 
ment. The Hulkabundee system of the North-Western Provinces 
was then tried, and has, after prolonged attempts to improve the 
class of teachers, succeeded!. Recently grades of pay to the Masters 
varying from Rupees 5 to 10 have been introduced. Several changes 
have also of late taken place in the system. Up to 1860 the District 
Schools were all, as in the North-Western Provinces, under the charge 
of the Educational Inspectors aided by a large but almost worthless 
establishment of Native Deputy and Sub-Deputy Inspectors. The 
system worked badly. The Native agency, composed mostly of men 
imported from the North-Western Provinces, had no local influence; 
the returns furnished by them were untrustworthy; and their control 
was altogether very inefficient. The remedy applied to this state of 
affairs was the abolition of the greater portion of the Native Inspect- 


GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 


57 


ing Agency, and the transfer of the executive management of Verna- 
cular Schools to the District Officers. About the same time the 
charges on account of the Tehseelee Schools were transferred from 
the General Revenues to the One per cent. Cess Fund, and in the last 
Report (1861-62) a proposal has been noticed for abolishing the dis- 
tinctive name of Tehseelee School, which now indicates no real differ- 
ence in respect of status, as many of the Village Schools already excel 
the Tehseelee Schools in the standard of the education afforded by 
them. A new classification under the designations of “Town 
Schools” and “Village Schools” is in contemplation. The scheme 
of studies for Vernacular Schools has also lately undergone a com- 
plete revision. During the year 1861-62 Rupees 73,864 was expend- 
ed from the One per cent. Education Cess Fund on the erection of 
45 Tehseelee and 491 Village School Houses. 

Madras 

In Madras very little had been done by Government up to 1855 
for the extension of popular education. The operations previous 
to that year are thus summarized in the Report of 1858-59:— 

“The commencement of a system of Village Schools in a portion 
of the Rajahmundry District supported by an educational rate; the 
establishment of a few Schools of a very elementary character in the 
Hill Tracts of Ganjam with a view to the instruction and civiliza- 
tion of the barbarous tribes inhabiting those tracts; the establish- 
ment of two Vernacular Schools supported by Government in the 
District of South Arcot which may be looked upon as the commence- 
ment of a system of Talook Schools which has since been introduced; 
the institution of annual examinations open to candidates from all 
Schools, on the result of which pecuniary rewards were given; these 
comprehended the educational measures of Government at the period 
to which I refer.” 

Since that date it cannot be said that much has been effected, 
though the extension of Vernacular education has not been alto- 
gether at a standstill. The upper grade of popular Schools is now 
represented in Madras by the Schools known as Talook Schools, the 
character of which is sketched in the following terms in the Report 
of 1859-60:- 

“40. The course of instruction in these Schools rises from the 
Tamil. rudiments of the Vernacular language of 

Prose . — Panchatantra. t ^ 1e (a knowledge of the alphabet 

Poetry . — Niti Neri Villakam. ^eing required on admission) and of 
Grammar. — Pope’s Third arithmetic, which form the subjects of 

Grammar. instruction in the first or lowest class. 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


or Telugu to the course noted in the margin 

Prose, Niti Chandrica. which, if properly gone through, is suffi- 

Poetry.— >Niti Sangraham. cient to im P art a g ood scholar-like know- 

. ^ A „ - ledge of the Vernacular language of the 

Grammar. - -An d r a V yakaranam ° „ . . ° . , , 

pupils, a fair acquaintance with the 

English English language, a good knowledge of 

Prose , — Supplement to the Arithmetic and of the Elements of Geo- 


English 


Serief °° k ° f LessonS? Insh metry and Algebra, a fair knowledge of 

. _ , General Geography and of the leading 

Poetry, — -Selections m English ° T . r \ r TJ * a c 

Poetry, No. i. facts of the Histones of India and ol 

England, and some acquaintance with the 
lish Grammar published at outlines of Astronomy and the leading 
Madras. principles of Political Economy. In the 

Mathematics course of instruction laid down for these 

Schools, it is prescribed that the study of 
nTo^b^ revised PanS t ^ le English language shall be commenced 
in the 2nd jclass and prosecuted in the 
Colenso’s ; Elementajry higher classes; but owing to the 

lish work to be used as a great difficulty which is still experienced m 

Telugu° k Sch^ls^uruil °a P rocuri n g competent teachers, it has been 
Telugu version is prepared, necessary to omit that language entirely in 


Mathematics 

A rithmetic, — Colenso, Parts 

I and II to be revised. 


Telugu version is prepared, necessary to omit that language entirely in 

_ m some of the Schools, while in others the 

Geometry — Translation of _ . . 

Lund’s Geometry. teaching is necessarily very indifferent. 

History The returns show that the English langu- 

. age was taught in 62 out of the 72 Schools 
England. —Tamil translation . ° r t , 

of Morris’s History of Eng- m operation at the close of the year; the 

land.Morris’s History of En- num ber of pupils under instruction in it 

gland to be read m English _ r r Q , 

in Telugu Schools until being 1,701 out of 3,335, the aggregate 

a Telugu version is ready. number cf pupils on the rolls. In all other 

Geography. — Manual of Geo- subjects than langauge, it is prescribed 

graphy published by the that the instruction in these Schools shall 

South Indian Christian _ . t , t 

School Book Society, to be be imparted entirely through the medium 

used as a text book. of t he Vernacular language of the District; 

Astronomy.— Hall’s Outlines and this rul e has been generally observed, 
of Astronomy. except in Malabar, where the want of 

Political Economy. — Adaptation Malayalam School books has until lately 

on Matters" by 0 ^! caused the rule to be reversed in practice; 
Govinda Rau. everything, except the Vernacular, having 

been taught through the medium of English.” 


As regards the lower grade of popular Schools, but little has 
been done by Government by its own direct instrumentality. The 
elementary Schools noticed above in the Hill Tracts of Ganjam are 
still kept up, and a few Yeomiah Schools in the Nellore and Arcot 


GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 


5 * 


Districts, legacies of the former Mahommedan rule, continue to be 
maintained. The system of Village Schools supported by a local 
educational rate in the Rajahmundry sub-division of the Godavery 
district still exists. In short, no new fields of elementary education 
under the direct instrumentality of Government have been taken 
up. This is due mainly to the peculiar facilities offered in the 
Madras Presidency for the extension of such education indirectly 
through the grant-in-aid system. Missionary and Educational Socie- 
ties have there taken in hand elementary education to an extent un- 
equalled in any other Presidency, and the Government has conse- 
quently worked through them. This subject will be noticed pre- 
sently in the next section of this Note. It is mentioned here only 
to account for the small progress made in popular education by the 
direct instrumentality of Government. The educational rate system, 
which has been already mentioned, as having been commenced in 
the Rajahmundry sub-division shortly before the new arrangements 
consequent on the Despatch of 1854, was considered for some years 
to be working well, and proposals were frequently made for its ex- 
tension to other parts of the country. But the uncertain nature of 
the support on which it rested has latterly become apparent. The 
idea that the cess was purely voluntary has been, if not entirely 
exploded, at least considerably shaken. It has since been reported 
to have been organized with the aid of official influence, an influence 
which, though legitimate in itself, was brought to bear on the people 
in some instances by an unscrupulous Native Agency. The feelings 
of the people have since in many instances been evinced by a repudi- 
ation of so-called agreements and refusal of payment; and when, on 
a reference from the Collector, it was recently decided that the en~ 
forcement of the promised rate against the will of the rate-pavers* 
was illegal, it was apprehended that on the village communities com- 
ing to know that the continuance of the rate would depend entirely 
on their wishes, many of the Schools would be closed. In a recent 
letter, however, of the 10th September, it has been reported that 
“the result has been far more satisfactory than could have been 
expected. Only eighteen Schools have been closed, while twenty- 
one new Schools have been opened.” The basis of the system is, 
nevertheless, confessedly unstable, and in the letter above quoted 
the Madras Government has intimated its intention of bringing be- 
fore the local legislature “a measure which having for its principal 
object the maintenance on a permanent footing of the Village Schools 
in the Godavery district, which for some years past have been sup- 
ported by a rate, and the establishment of similar Schools elsewhere 
to be maintained partly by a rate and partly by a grant from the 



6o 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


public treasury, is capable of being applied to the establishment of 
Schools of any grade, according to the extent to which the community 
of the town or village taking advantage of the proposed enactment 
may be willing to contribute for the purpose.” 

Bombay 


Prior to 1854 the Educational funds in Bombay were devoted 
to the establishment of Schools maintained and managed solely by 
Government. The most promising localities were selected; and as a 
consequence the larger towns were provided for in the first place. 
This system was forced upon the Board of Education owing to the 
absence of any desire for education on the part of the people, but 
it was found to be expensive. The expenditure began to exceed 
the amount of the grant, and all further expansion became impos- 
sible. From 1852 to 1854 very few new Schools were opened, when 
in the latter year the Court sanctioned an increase to the Educational 
grant. By this time an appreciation of, and a desire for, education 
had grown up, and it became possible and expedient to establish 
Government Schools with the condition that the Government ex- 


penditure should be supplemented by voluntary contributions. 

Thus originated the system peculiar *to Bombay and known as 

*Note. — An account of the the “P artiall y* self-supporting system” 
conditions on which a village which under the new rules has almost 

SI a° b Sal?y OV se r if: taken the P lace of the Grant-in-aid system, 
supporting School and of the One result of the growth of this system 
K°So ES kSTS? that, in the earlier period, when .he 

found in pages 50 to 58 of the Schools were founded and maintained 
3ombay Report for 1855 - 56 . i oca i a jd, the larger and more 

Practically the Committees wealthy towns were naturally first select- 
SS d .hS ib in SS m °£,S -he poorer village communities being 
thing, as a rule, is left to the left to provide themselves at a later 

eminent dictates the studies, period, when local contributions were de- 

appoints, removes and pen- manded. Thus unavoidably the degree of 
sions the Master and practi- , . . , . , t , 

cally manages the School, encouragement which should have been 

The Committee assess the afforded to the different classes of com- 
commumty which they repre- 
sent in the manner most munities was altogether inverted; the 

raking^the” Kqu^sfte^fundsf lar S er Schools with a comparatively 
Government generally pays wealthy and intelligent population were 

the Schoo^thc^ defray S only P rovided with Schools at no cost of their 
half the salaries of the Master own, while the village communities 

Kpair A orth?Schoorhlu 3 e he naturally far less alive to the value of 

education were called upon to furnish from 


GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 


6l 


their more limited resources a la*£e por- 

wre ?n h addkSnT?L e remain- tion of the expenses. The system spread 
ing half of the salaries to be ra pidly; at the end of the year 1855-56 

comm y u^it y : ntirely bY th£ there were 78 Schools of this sort, and dur- 

ing 1856-57 113 more were opened. Then, however, the expansion 

was suddenly checked by an order of the Bombay Government 

prohibiting the opening of new Schools “pending a decision as to 

what sum is actually available for the annual expenditure of this 

Presidency.” This question was then the subject of correspondence 

with the Supreme Government, and in connection with it arose 

another discussion as to whether the partially self-supporting system 

was in strict accordance with the scope of the Despatch of 1854. 

The principle of the system was at first condemned by the Supreme 

Government, but subsequently, on receiving explanations which 

went to show that it was substantially the same as the Grant-in-aid 

„ „ system, the condemnation was withdrawn,* 

* Letter No. 1004, , o u i c * 

dated 29 th June but it was desired that no new Schools of that 

l85S * class should be ooened without the sanction 

i. 

of the Government of India. 

After the check to the rapid expansion in 1857, the Department 
occupied itself in the less interesting but more useful duty of conso- 
lidating the organization of what was already at work. Defects have 
been found in the partially self-supporting system which at first were 
not apparent; and though the Director of Public Instruction by no 
means coincides with the sweeping condemnation passed on the sys- 
tem by one of the most experienced Inspectors, Mr. Hope, he admits 
that “a considerable percentage of our partially self-supporting 
Schools are continually in danger of dissolution through some village 
intrigue or caprice.” He also admits that in many cases the pressing 
persuasions of an over-sanguine Officer have given rise to Schools 
where none were desired and where of course difficulties may be ex- 
pected in maintaining them. 

The following extract from the Report of 1859-60 may appro- 
priately be inserted on this point:— 

“14. Mr. Hope points to the improving attendance of the Guzerati 
Schools as proving that they are really popular, and that ‘our ad- 
vances have not been made in a manner distasteful to the people.* 
This seems sound; but a very serious limitation is suggested by the 
following passage:— ‘They have equally clearly testified their dislike 
of the system, opposed to their habits and character, by which we 



62 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


seek to make them provide for it (education) by voluntary local ac- 
tion. The most that could be expected of them is that they should 
observe their agreements during the period specified in them, and 
this they have in Guzerat as yet done. Nineteen of these agreements 
have already fallen in, but in nine instances the people have fortu- 
nately been prevailed upon to renew them for some little time 
longer. The remaining agreements will fall in year by year. Whe- 
ther, in the event of our system being maintained, the people will 
be induced to renew them, or will refuse to do so, entailing on us 
the loss of our labour and expense, and on their children a return 
to the moral and intellectual ignorance from which they have been 
so lately raised, is a problem which time must solve.’ ” 

As already mentioned in a previous part of this Note, the better 
class of Vernacular Schools in Bombay would have been more 
appropriately ranked, had the means of selection existed, in the 
grade above that now under notice. On this point the following 
passage in the Report of 1858—59 may be quoted: — 

“Our Vernacular literature is growing so fast, that in a few 
years I hope the means will exist for infusing into our superior 
Vernacular Schools a literary and scientific character that will 
broadly distinguish them from mere primary Schools, and plainly 
vindicate the right of their Masters to salaries on a higher scale 
than would be appropriate to elementary instruction.” 

The following passages from the Report of 1859-60 may also be 
quoted:— 

“150. Vernacular Education— The educational system of this 
Presidency is remarkable for the great development of Vernacular 
compared with Anglo-Vernacular and English teaching. English 
education has, in fact, been starved in the interest of Vernacular 
education. I believe there is no doubt that our Government 
Vernacular Schools are the best, at least the most advanced, in 
India.” 

“151. Government will see that our superior Vernacular Schools 
aim at giving a real education of a liberal character, in addition to 
reading, writing, and arithmetic. The geometrical teaching com- 
prises six Books of Euclid, which are published in Vernacular. The 
Departmental Reading Books contain a great deal of miscellaneous 
information; and in Marathi there is also the means of imparting 
a scholar— like and literary training by means of Mr. Dadoba 
Pandurang’s large grammar, the complete dictionaries of Major 
Candy and Captain Molesworth, and above all by the Selections of 


GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 63 

the Marathi Poets published for the Educational Department, and 
the Marathi versions of Sanskrit Dramas by Mr. Purushram Punt 
Godboleh. Historical books, too, are not wanting. 

“152. The Guzerati Vernacular course does not yet admit of 
being carried quite so high, and the commercial character of the 
population is, perhaps, adverse to studies whose immediate utility 
is not perceivable; but the poetry of Mr. Dulputram Dayabhai, 
introduced into the Reading Series, is popular, and he is engaged 
in preparing for me a Guzerati Chrestomathy, which will, I hope, 
rival the Marathi Nao Nit. A further step in advance will be the 
introduction of at least the elements of Sanscrit into all our superior 
Vernacular Schools. In the Marathi course this is possible, and 
indeed has been partially effected. From the almost total absence 
of a learned class in Guzerat, the infusion of Sanscrit will there 
not be so easy. 

“153. I have resolved to give up the idea of giving a superior 
course of instruction through the medium of Canarese. The 
Carnatic dialect spoken in our districts is corrupt, and Marathi is 
the language of educated men. The purely Canarese Schools, 
therefore, are only designed to give a primary education.” 

The following account of these Institutions is given in the 
Administration Report of 1860-61: — 

“Government having sanctioned the application of funds saved 

Vernacular Education . ^ the cIosin g of Schools to the foundation 
. of new Vernacular Schools, and the transfer 

° c , ° 0 | S ^ rom one pl ace to another, a most gratifying increase 
of Schools and scholars in the Central and Southern Divisions has 
een the result. In this point of view the past year may be com- 
pared with 1856-57, the year before the mutiny checked the expansion 
of education. There has been a slight but marked decline in Guzerat 
as regards the general results of Vernacular education. The explana- 
tion is that several communities have refused to renew their subscrip, 
tions to their Schools. In Sind there has been a most serious decrease, 
attributed by the Inspector to the Income Tax, and the prevalence 
of cholera, which caused several Schools to be closed. Some of these 
will be re-opened. In all other districts but Guzerat and Sind there 

f '" crease of Sch ooIs and scholars, the aggregate net increase being 
125 Schools and 6,092 scholars.” 

In March last the Bombay Legislature passed an enactment, 
one object of which was to legalize the appropriation of Municipal 
unds to the support of Schools. Some measure of this sort had 
125 Dir. of Arch— 5. 



04 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

long been felt to be necessary in order to give stability to the 
“partially self-supporting system.” No report of the working of 
this Act has yet been received. 

NORMAL SCHOOLS 

Bengal 

In Bengal four such Institutions for training Village School- 
masters have been established — all since 1854. Stipends of from 
Rupees 3 to 5 per mensem are given to the pupils. 

North-Western Provinces 

In the North-Western Provinces there are three Training Schools 
at Agra, Meerut and Benares. The object in view is the training 
of Village School-masters, and this object they are described as 
fulfilling satisfactorily so far as their operations have yet extended. 
The Meerut and Benares Schools were established in. 1856-57, and 
the Agra School in 1858-59. The following account of these 
Schools is given in the Report of 1860-61:— 

“75. General Results— Since the submission of the Educational 
Report for 1859-60, I have examined personally the Normal Schools 
at Agra and Benares. They are still under the admirable manage- 
ment of Mr. Sharpley and Mr. Tresham, and I had every reason to 
be satisfied with their condition, and the progress effected during 
the past year, in the course of which the Normal Schools at Agra, 
Benares and Meerut turned out 565 teachers, of whom 113 gained 
first class, 270 second class, and 182 third class certificates. Through 
their means the Village Circuit Schools are supplied with teachers 
competent to carry their pupils through the simple and elementary 
studies prescribed. Without their assistance the establishment of 
Village Schools, on a large scale, would be hardly possible.” 

The following remarks of the Inspector quoted in the Report of 
1861-62 give an idea of the extent to which the influence of the 
Normal Schools have already spread:— 

“Of 710 Hulkaburtdee teachers who came before me with their 
Schools, in the course of my last tour of inspection, 496 had been 
to the Normal Schools.” 

PUnjab 

In the Punjab there are eight Normal Schools, particulars re- 
garding the establishment and progress of which are contained in 


GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 

die two following Extracts from the Reports of 1860-61 and 1861- 

"14. During 1859-60 nine Normal Schools had been opened, but 

Organiza ion of sa,;rior one ’ vlz -> that at Peshwar was obliged to be 
Normal Schools for train- closed for want of nunik nr*u r ^ 
i ag Vernacular Teachers. *1, T u ^ ^ Only two, viz . 

, , ^ those at Lah ore and Rawul Pindee, were paid 

rom the General Revenues, and possessed a fairly efficient staff of 
Masters. The cost of the rest was defrayed from the One per cent 
Educational Cess Fund, and for want of money they were organized 

“/of' dl dT • Fr ° m thC 1St May 1860 the Educational 

staff of all these Institutions was greatly strengthened, and more 

efficient incumbents were entertained on better salaries. These 

are all pald from the General Revenues, but the stipends of the 

, udem, are defrayed from ,he One per cenf. cess. The refection 

o teachers and candidates for leaderships who require instruction 

m the Normal Schools is also now left to District Officers They 

are responsible for sending in a certain auota of respectable^ 

mlm S - tr Tl 10n h T- CaCh DiStriCt ’ and t0 the Educational Depart- 
ment is left the legitimate duty of training these men Pr - 

ss: sb : HHHrr 

sr d - 

and’w'hen 11 IZ^to ^ ^ « V 

•think it preferable that a 1 m™ 7 re q u ™g instruction, 1 

-p ww p z:\\ s t bn,shii * 

rr-r-rs for r* “ 

to being kept away from' th • rnacuIar tea chers are very averse 

-ey c/„ he p ,„r.d tr r r in r cuitv ,hat 

months at present. If there are tearbe 1 ^ * for even » « 
Rawul Pindee Circle staJes lhn' y ’ “ the Ins P ector °f the 
than six months, there is no obiec^TnioTT ^ Stay Ionger 

the District Officer concurs in the r remainin 8'- provided 

away from their own Schools Hereafter 7 7 beinS so lon ° 

.he advantages be deefved troffl 



66 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


light, and that on future occasions they will attend willing y or 
a whole year. Several inducements have been held out late y o 
secure the ready and cheerful' attendance of Vernacular teachers 
at Normal Schools. Every student on entering is allowed one Rupee 
towards the purchase of class books, and afi ter J 1 ™ 1 . examinat ; on £ 
receives one month’s pay of the grade of teachership the certificate 
of qualification for which he may succeed in gaining. There are in 
all ^ix grades, viz. three of Tehseelee and three of Village teachers 
The former are of Rupees 25, 20 and 15; and the latter of Rupees- 
10, 7 and 5 per mensem.” 

(from the report of 1861-62) 


“11 In the 14th para of my Report for 1960-61, I pointed out 

“• r , . , n-m Wn intro- 


several improvements that had been mtro- 
Improvements proposed duced into the Normal Schools. During the 
Umballa mal ^Circle 59 year under review they have worked on the 


Lahore „ 

Rawal Piudee „ 


221 whole successfully, especially in the Lahore and 
118 Rawul Pindee Circles. No less than S98 


teachers or candidates for teacherships, as noted m the margin, 
have obtained certificates of qualification of various grades, and m 
several Districts the majority of Vernacular Schools are now supplied 
with certificated teachers. As soon as our funds will admit of it, 
though I should be glad to place the Educational Staff of our 
Normal Schools on a far better footing, each of the large ones, 
beginning with that at Lahore, should be supplied with a really 
good European or Eurasian Head Master, who must be a competent 
mathematician, possessing some acquaintance with the training 
system, or, at any rate, experience in teaching, and a thorough 
colloquial knowledge of the Vernacular. If a sufficient salary were 
offered, the difficulty of finding a suitable person for the post could 
be overcome. The inducements held out to teachers, as explained 
in paragraph 14 of my last Report, to attend the Normal Schools 
have effected their object. These, coupled with the influence which 
District Officers now exert upon the teachers who are directly under 
their control, have pretty well removed all the obstacles which were 
formerly encountered in securing their attendance. 


Madras 


Tn Madras there is one Institution at the Presidency founded 
on a comprehensive plan, embracing the objects of training teachers 
for Anglo-Vernacular as well as Vernacular Schools. There are 
also five minor Institutions and two branch classes in the interior, 
having only the latter object in view. The system of having one 
central Institution with outlying branches is said to work well. 


GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 


67 


-especially with the complete organization which has been given to 
.the central Institution at the Presidency town. The central Institu- 
don was founded in 1856. The following account of its state and 
present organization is given in the Report for 1860-61:^ 

“The Government Normal School at Madras has lately received 
4:wo important accessions in the appointment of a Second Assistant 
1 raining Master, and of a Master for one of the two Elementary 
Schools attached to the Institution, the instruction of which has 
hitherto been conducted entirely by the Normal students, with such 
supervision as the Principal could afford them. In future, the 
Normal students, when teaching in the Practising School, will have 
the advantage of being constantly superintended by a trained 
Master. The appointment of a Second Training Master has enabl- 
ed the Director to form a class of European Military students, who 
are being qualified for employment as School-masters in the Schools 
attached to the European Regiments, where the services of trained 
Masters are much needed. The School as now constituted consists 
-of the following Departments:— 

No. of Students or Pupils 

I. English Normal Class 

II. Preparatory Normal Class 

III. Military Students’ Class . 

IV. Vernacular Normal Class 

V. Model School 

VI, Practising School 

VII. Vernacular Practising School 

“The results of the year, as shown by the examination of 
candidates for certificates, were not so satisfactory as those of former 
years. The number of students belonging to the English Normal 
-class who obtained certificates was only seven— two of the 4th class, 
four of the 6th, and one of the 7th. The Principal considers 
that the senior students last year were inferior to their predecessors, 
as well as to those who have succeeded them at the head of the 
School. In the Vernacular Normal class five students passed, one 
in the 8th class, and four in the 9th.” 

Of the five Provincial Institutions two were established in 1860- 
^1 at Vizagapatam and Cannanore. The following account of them 
as taken from the Report of that year:— 

“9. Establishment of Normal School at Vizagapatam — Since the 
close of the year a Normal School has been opened at Vizagapatam 




68 SELECTIONS FROM! EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

for the benefit of the Schools in the Telugu country. Mr. Sickle, 
lately Assistant Training Master in the Normal School at Madras,, 
has been appointed Head Master, with a trained student from the 
Madras School, who holds a certificate of the 4th grade as his 
Assistant. 

“10. Establishment of Normal School at Cannanore- Arrange- 
ments have also been made for the establishment of a similar School 
at Cannanore on the Western Coast, to supply the wants of the 
Malabar and Canara Districts. This School is to be placed as a 
temporary measure under Mr. Garthwaite, the able and active 
Deputy Inspector of those Districts, no other trained Master 
acquainted with the languages of the Western Coast being at present- 
available. Mr. Garthwaite will be aided by two Assistants, one of 
them a trained Teacher who left the Madras Normal School at the 
end of 1859. ” 

Of the three older Institutions the following account is given in: 
the Report of 1860-61:— 

“8. Provincial Normal Schools- In the Provincial Normal Schools 
at Vellore, Mayaveram and Cheyur there was a considerable falling- 
off in the number of students who passed for certificates, only ten 
candidates having qualified against thirty-three in the previous 
year. This, however, is in a great measure attributable to several, 
students having deferred their examination with the view of qualify- 
ing for certificates of a higher grade. The Vellore School is the 
best of the three. That at Cheyur will shortly be transferred to 
Trichinopoly.” ' i 

SCHOOLS— FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION 

No Institutions of this class under Government management 
exist in Bengal, the North-Western Provinces, or the Punjab. The 
four Institutions in the Madras Presidency referred to in the 
statistical table are the Primary Medical School, the School of 
Industrial Arts, and the Ordnance Artificer’s School at Madras, and' 
the Industrial School at Negapatam. The three Institutions in 
the Bombay Presidency are the Law Class at Bombay, the Engineer- 
ing School at Poona, and the Engineering School at Kurrachee. 


rnment Inspection 


private institutions 


°9 




70 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 



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down as given to Government Institutions , 


PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS 


71 


In the Madias Report the Vernacular Schools in the Rajahmun- 
dry sub-division, which are supported by a local cess, have been 
regarded as private inspected Institutions; but to preserve uniformity 
of classification, these Schools, like the corresponding Schools in 
the North-Western Provinces and the Punjab, have been included 
by me in the previous section as Government Schools, and have 
been excluded from the present Statement. The majority of 
inspected Schools receive aid or encouragement of some kind from 
Government, there being only a few private Institutions whose sole 
connection with Government is the inspection submitted to at the 
hands of its Officers. The aided Schools are divided into two 
classes. The one receiving aid under the “Grants-in-aid Rules”, and 
the other receiving it in the shape of prizes, rewards, etc., to the 
masters or pupils. The former only are properly termed aided 
Schools; the latter are composed of the Indigenous Village Schools 
which it has been attempted to improve by various modes of 
pecuniary encouragement combined with inspection. Of these 
two classes separate notice will now be taken. 

Allusion has already been made, in connection with the systems 
of Government Vernacular education, to the measures taken in 
some parts of India with the view of improving the indigenous 
Village Schools. 8 

Indigenous Schools 

Bengal 

The plan adopted in Bengal is described as follows in the 
Report for 1855-56:- 


“26. In many of the districts we have adopted a system under 

which the Indigenous 

ShahaLd, a Behar, C Monghyr l Rs - 54oayearfo : Schools are periodically 

and Bhaugulpore j cacil district. examined, books lent to 

Tr„^? dea ’ , Burdwan,\Hs. 450 a year them, and money re- 

Hooghly, and Midnapore /for each district. wards given to such of 

Baraset /for each district. the teachers and pupils 

Jessore and Dacca \Rs.i, 200 a year as ma Y a Ppear to deserve 

/ for each district. them. The sums sanc- 

Kamroop in Assam \ Rs * 5oo for the tioned by Government 

/ year. r , . 

tor this purpose are as 
noted in the margin. 

“27. The most promising Schools in the 24-Pergunnahs Baraset 
Jessore and Dacca, have been formed into sets or circles of 3, 4 or 


Jessore and Dacca 
Kamroop in Assam 



72 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

5 according to circumstances; and to each circle is attached a qualifi- 
ed teacher who is paid by Government Rupees 15 a month, and 
who goes about from one School to another instructing the Gooroo- 
mohashoys’ in their duty and the more advanced boys of each 
School in the higher subjects of instruction. Rewards are bestowed 
on the Gooroomohashoys and boys half-yearly, in proportion to 
progress exhibited. Of these Schools there are to be 60 circles in 
the four districts, at a total cost of Rupees 1,500 a month; as yet 
37 circles have been successfully organized.” 

The following paragraphs of the Report of 1856-57 describe 
other analogous plans:-- 

“41. A system closely resembling the above, but on a less 
expensive scale, is that under which, in each 
baTMonte, S Pama', of the Behar Districts named in the margin. 
Bhaugulpore two teachers are entertained for the purpose 

of moving about among the Indigenous Schools and instructing 
the teachers in their duties. 

*45. In the Districts of Assam a system is under trial, under 
which to every Village teacher who keeps up a tolerably efficient 
School, under the general control and influence of the Inspector, a 
subsidy or grant is given at the rate of one Rupee a month for 
every ten boys under instruction. Sufficient time has not yet been 
allowed for judging of the effect of this measure. 

The following extract from the Report of 1858-59 shews the 
extent to which these plans had been carried out at that time:— 

“There have been established 55 circles, embracing 158 Indi- 
genous Schools established in four districts; and there have been 
12 itinerant teachers employed in Schools in six other districts. In 
six districts payments have been made to Indigenous School 
Teachers for improvement in their pupils, at the rate of one Rupee 
a month for every ten boys under instruction; besides rewards for 
success given to such teachers in eleven other districts. 

By the latest returns (1859-60) there were, as shewn in the 
Tabular Statement, 197 Indigenous Schools under improvement 
with an attendance of 8,707. i 

It may not be out of place here to quote some passages having 
reference to the actual state and character of these Indigenous 


PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS 


73- 


Schools, which it is the object of the above measure to improve. 
The following is taken from the Report of Mr, Woodrow, Inspector, 
Eastern Bengal, given in the Education Report of 1859-60: 

“The state of Vernacular education, when uninfluenced by the 
supervision of Government or of Missionaries, is still the same as 

-, 7 in 1835, when Mr. Adam made his first report 
Present sa e of Verna- , t . T , _ . , , r 

cular education amorg upon the subject. It had remained the same 

t he masses during many centuries before. At page l(k 

of his first report, Mr. Adam describes the course of instruction in 
an Indigenous School, and the same words are still applicable. 
The boys in Bengal still begin their writing at 5 or 6 years of age. 
They learn to trace on the ground with a short stick the first five 
letters of the Bengali Alphabet, and on doing these properly they 
are promoted to the use of palm leaves. Each strip of leaf is about 
three feet long and two inches wide. Twenty of the strips are 
purchased for a pice (about a farthing and a quarter). Beginners 
only write one line on each strip in letters an inch long. More 
advanced children write two lines in letters half an inch long. After 
the use of palm leaves for about a year and a half, the boy is pro- 
moted to the use of the plantain leaf. Plantain leaves are used 
for sums which are commenced after one or two years' drilling in 
the multiplication tables. Mr. Adam mentions sand trays as being 
used in writing for beginners. I never met with such trays in 
Bengal, though I have seen them in the Upper Provinces. In 
Bengal sand trays, maps, forms, chairs, tables, desks, globes, galleries* 
and all the apparatus of a School are unknown. The boys squat 
on the ground usually in two lines without much order, and the 
Guru sits on his heels on a low stool or a plank two feet square; 
frequently he has only a small mat. The richer boys bring in 
School every day their own mats tucked under their arm. The 
poor boys have no mats. All the children bring their own pens, 
inkstands and palm leaves. They make their own ink at home of 
rice water and charcoal or charred wood. A piece of cotton cloth 
is put inside the inkstand to hold the liquid like a sponge. The 
bamboo pen being pressed on the cloth, takes up a little ink 
scarcely enough to complete two letters. The incessant replenish- 
ing of the pen makes the boys marvellously quick in dipping the 
pen into the inkstand. The inkstand is placed close to each boy's 
foot and is perpetually being upset. In the course of two or three 
hours, little boys get their faces and hands blackened all over with 
ink. There are no classes. Each boy is taught individually by the 
Guru; sometimes the help of two or three of the elder boys is used 
in teaching the younger boys. At the close of each day the boys- 



PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS 


75 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

all stand outside the house and sing or shout out the multiplication 
table. Books are seldom, if ever, used, and reading is not taught. 

“The greatest extent of study is to write out an application for 
an appointment and some lines in praise of Doorga or Krishna, to 
make out a bill, and to keep native accounts.” 

Speaking of School apparatus, Mr. Woodrow adds at page 23:— 

“From these and such like indications, I believe that our Schools 
will produce good results with very imperfect apparent* Even 
now in some Schools a round earthen pot, costing one farthing, 
serves for a globe; a black board is made of a mat stiffened with 
bamboo splints and well plastered with cow’s dung. The brown 
surface thus produced answers all the requirements of a black, 
board If the walls of the School-house are made of mud, and wash- 
ed as is usual in Hindoo houses with cow’s dung, the whole wall 
serves as a black board and can be renewed every other day. I 
expect to see the time when these brown surfaces will be universal 
in Bengali School-rooms. The boys who draw maps, make their 
own ink from charcoal, and their paint from jungle plants. Ji hey 
also glaze the maps by rubbing them with a smooth stone. 

The following description of the Village teacher given by a 
Native gentleman is quoted by Dr. Lees in his letter of the 10th 
October 1859:— 

“Village teacher, or Gooroomahashy , generally writes a good 
hand, knows how to cypher, and is perhaps versed in Zemindary 
accounts; but he is a disseminator of false Philosophy, wrong 
Grammar, and is a perfect ignoramus in Geography, History, and 
all the rudimentary branches of study reauired in a good secular 
education. His average wages are from 5 to 8 Rupees a month, he 
collects them partly in money, and partly in kind. He has, more- 
over, some perquisites in office, such as presents during the principal 
holidays, and also when his wards are invested with the sacred 
thread, or married.” 

North-Western Provinces 

In the North-Western Provinces also the plan of improving the 
Indigenous Village Schools has been tried. The system was com- 
menced by Mr. Thomason about 13 years ago. In the Report of 
1859-60 Mr. Reid gives the following account of what is meant by 
an Indigenous School:— 


"141. Under this title are included (1), those Schools which are 
maintained by private parties for the education of their own child- 
, , ren > other boys being allowed to attend on 

lndfgenousTchool? n P a 7 in g tution fees to the teacher; (2), those 
which are kept by the teacher on his own 
account, his livelihood being dependent on the Schooling fees paid 
by his scholars, or it may be that he regards the instruction of 
youth as a sacred obligation, and teaches gratuitously, either main- 
taining himself from his own private means, or subsisting on alms 
and charity.” 

The scheme has been prosecuted with more or less success since 
its first initiation by Mr. Thomason, but it seems to be generally 
admitted that no very large amount of progress can be made under 
it. In the Report of the year 1859-60 Mr. Reid gives the following, 
description of these Schools:— 

They are quite independent of us and beyond our control.. 
But by friendly inspection, and the distribution of prizes and re- 
wards among those teachers and pupils who take up our books, 
these Schools are largely influenced by the Educational Depart- 
ment. I am unable to state to what extent our School-books have 
been adopted throughout the Provinces, but I find from Mr. Gri- 
ffith’s report that in the Benares circle out of 1,662 popular 
Schools containing 12,702 boys, 135 with 1,669 boys have accepted' 
our system of instruction and our books.” 

The following remarks, in the Report of 1860-61, are rather less- 
favorable:— 

“The efforts made for their improvement are, I fear, seldom 
successful. The teachers are independent of the department, and 
prefer running along in the old groove to carrying out the sugges- 
tions of their visitor.” 

The uncertain condition of these Schools is noticed by Mr. Cann,. 
(Inspector, 1st Circle), in the following terms:— 

The existence of such Schools is entirely dependent on the* 
whim and the caprice of the individual by whom it is maintained. 
They are from their very nature ephemeral, being, in the majority 
of cases, supported by one person or by some few individuals. The 
teachers, in short, are often private tutors, rather than School-mas- 
ters.” 



7 6 


SELECTIONS PROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS 


It will be seen from the Tabular Statement that there are 6,155 
Indigenous Schools Under inspection in the North-Western Pro* 
vinces with an attendance of 61,475. 

Punjab 

In the Punjab the system was tried to some extent, but appears 
latterly to have been entirely abandoned in favor of the Hulka- 
bundee system. 

Madras 

The Madras Government, on the other hand, are just commenc- 
ing the system. Sanction was given in July 1857 to the adoption 
of a scheme for the improvement of Indigenous Schools in those 
districts in which the Ryotwar form of revenue system prevails. The 
main features of the scheme was that of rewarding by a grant of 
books or money any Village School-master who might pass a pres- 
cribed examination. The introduction of the scheme was delayed 
pending the organization of Normal Schools which were considered a 
necessary auxiliary to it. The following remarks on the progress 
♦since made are extracted from the Education Report of 1859-60:— 

"63. I stated in my last report that I was unable to report any 

progress in the scheme sanctioned in 1857 for the 

Plans for the improvement of the Indigenous .Village Schools. 

improvement of An attempt to bring it into operation by changing 
the Indigenous , r „ _ _ . r , . , 

Village Schools the grant of books into a grant of money, which 

was made in 1859, has as yet been equally unsuc- 
cessful. Another plan for the improvement of these Schools, which 
during the year under review has been tried on a small scale by 
Colonel Pears in the Coimbatore District, appears to promise fairly. 
Colonel Pears describes it as follows:— 

" ‘As the plan which had been proposed for the improvement of 
Village Schools had proved inoperative, owing, as I believe, to its 
being too strict in its requirements, and too refined for the class of 
persons upon whom it was intended to act, it had occurred to me 
that something might be done by adopting a plan which should not 
aim quite so high, but should be more simple in operation/ 

“ ‘I accordingly directed Sivan Pillai (who is an untrained School- 
master, possessing considerable zeal and intelligence, but of average 
attainments), to take the inspection of Village Schools in four 
talooks iti Coimbatore. I told him to make it his principal bush 
mess to conciliate the village masters, to point out to them the 


11 

advantages of the European methods of teaching, to encourage the 
younger among them to avail themselves of the Government No rm a] 
Schools, to carry about with him a stock of our School books for 
sale, and to shew the village masters how to use them. He was to 
furnish me monthly with a full account of his work together with 
certain statistics of the Schools under inspection. The result has 
been that from November 1859 to 31st August 1860, he has had 
under his inspection forty-two Village Schools. The masters of 
twenty-five of these have declined availing themselves of his advice 
or help. The other seventeen he has completely reorganized, and 
in them an attempt at least is made to teach after the European 
method. Three or four out of these seventeen were, in fact, insti- 
tuted by Sivan Pillai at the request of the villagers. Among these 
is a Female School at Coimbatore, which numbers 23 pupils. The 

standard of instruction in these Schools is of course very humble 

reading, writing from dictation, the elements of grammar and arith- 
metic, and (in some cases) of geography. I inspected two of them 
when I last passed through Coimbatore, viz., Royapalli’s School and 
the Girl s School (both in the town of Coimbatore). Royapalli's 
School is probably the best under Sivan Pillai’s inspection and is 
equal to some of our Talook Schools. The girls, too, were making 
very satisfactory progress. I purpose inspecting as many as possible 
Tvhen I pass through the district again next month. Perhaps the 
most important part of the results of Sivan Pillai’s work is the number 1 
of School books which he has sold to Village Schools within ten 
months. I annex a list of these. Their total value is Rs. 226-13-0.’ ” 

The following notice of the scheme is taken in the Report of 
1860-61 

“26. Plan for the Improvement of the Indigenous Village Schools - 
In the last Administration Report mention was made of an experi- 
ment which was being tried in the Coimbatore District, for the im- 
provement of the indigenous Schools by the employment of organiz- 
ing masters whose business it is to conciliate the Village School- 
masters, to supply them with useful books and instruct them how to 
use them and how to classify their pupils. The Inspector has been 
authorized to give further extension to this measure, to make small 
periodical grants to such of the Village Masters as place their Schools 
under inspection, and manifest a desire to follow as far as they can 
the advice tendered to them, and use the books in use in the Govern- 
ment Schools. The grants are to depend on the number of pupils 
able to read intelligently, to write fairly from dictation, and to work 
sums in the first four rules of arithmetic . If this plan should prove 
successful in Coimbatore, it will be extended to other Districts.” 



?8 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Bombay 

No attempt to improve the Indigenous Vernacular Schools in 
Bombay seems to have" been made. The partially 
system under which Vernacular education is largely carried o , 
to speak, under the direct management of Government has, P« <JP' 
rendered unnecessary any such system as has been purs 
places. 

The other class of inspected Schools consists, as has ^eady been 

explained, of Schools aided by Government under the 

aid Rules. 

aided schools 
Bengal 

In Bengal it has been applied not only to Institutions of the 
higher and middle classes, but to a large extent to Schools of 
the lowest order. Much correspondence has taken place in regar 
to the applicability of the system to the latter class. The Bengal 
Government endeavoured to adapt the system to the extension of 
popular education, and was compelled to advise some modificatio 
or relaxation of the principles on which the system was based. The 
fact was that, although Vernacular Schools were not expressly bar- 
red from taking advantage of the Grant-in-aid system,, it was 
unsuited to them, the special object in view having been tne promo- 
tion of education of a higher order. 

In the Secretary of State’s Despatch of July 1859 an absolute 
prohibition was given, as regards Bengal, to the further application 
of the Grant-in-aid system to the extension of primary education. 

The extent of the operation of the Grant-in-aid Rules in Bengal 
will be found in the General Statement already given, excluding o 
course the Indigenous Schools already noticed, which do not come 
under the ordinary Grant-in-aid Rules. The result may be repeat- 


ed here as follows:— 

No. 

Pupils 

Grants-in- 

Superior Schools 

23 

3;255 

aid 

Rs. 

19,820 

Interior Schools 

34* 

16,123 

55,979 

Special Institutions 

1 

24 

7,242 


To al 


365 


19,402 


83,041 


PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS 


79 


The following remarks are made in the Report of 1859-60 on the 
subject 

“60. The reports of the Inspector shew that the Schools receiving 
Grants-in-aid are generally in a satisfactory state. 
AiJed Schools J ud g ed by the standard of Government Schools of 
the same class in which the Teachers are Govern- 
ment servants, and the local management is directly subjected to 
Government control, they must no doubt receive a comparatively 
unfavorable verdict; but regarded independently or in comparison 
with Schools under unchecked native management, they may be 
considered on the whole to be achieving decided success. This is 
-especially true of those of a superior class, in which English is 
•either made the medium of general instruction or is taught simply 
as a language. To secure for their children a knowledge of our 
tongue is the one object for which, as a rule, the people are willing 
to pay, and for this they will not unfrequently incur an expense 
which would seem altogether disproportioned to their means.” 

It may be noted' here that the “Committee for the improvement 
■of Schools” whose report was submitted in 1856 pointed out that 
the great bulk of the Anglo-Vernacular aidled Schools in Bengal 
were in status and object of an intermediate character between the 
purely Vernacular Schools and the English Zillah Schools. The 
Committee observed as follows 

.. “ They arC the rSSUlt ° f the increasin g desire which manifests 
itself among the middle classes to obtain an English education for 
their children, and are set on foot by persons who living at a 
•distance from the Sudder Station, and who, being of compara- 
tively humble means, are unwilling to send their children to a 
distance from home for their education, and unable to pay the 
high rate of Schooling fees levied in Zillah Schools. The persons 
whose children resort to these intermediate Schools are mainlv 
tradesmen, petty talookdars, omlahs. Sec., who are able to pay 
a schooling fee of about 8 annas a month. They have generallv 
one of the two following objects in view:- Either to enable their 
children to prepare themselves for entering the higher English 
Schools, after obtaining a knowledge of the elements of the sub- 
jects there taught, and so to avoid the necessity of sending them to 
t e Sudder Station or to another district during their earlier years; 
or in the second place, to enable them to obtain as much know- 
iedge of English, and no more, as is sufficient for becoming 
125 Dir of Arch .-^6 



8o 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


inferior clerks, copyists, salesmen, hawkers, 8cc„ without resorting: 
to the Zillah School at all.” 

They further observed as follows 

“3 The Committee are unanimously of opinion th .^ 
time, strengthen the faculties of the min . 

system the Schools in question merely serve to create a cl P ^ 

sons who while too ignorant of English to be able t 
higher position in life, and possessing no ^nowted^ ^ 
training which would enable them to exercise a healthy or enl '« ht 
„g influence on those around them. are. in consequence of tte 
superiority which their English School education gtve them m t 
„w P „ eyes, unwilling to follow the calling of then a hers and are 
consequently discontented with their position in life. The num 
ber of this class of Schools, it may be observed, is increasing rapi J 
under the Grant-in-aid Rules.” 

The Committee admitted that the desire of gaining an English- 
education^ was the basis on which these Schools «em ^n, a, net 
but they recommended that in the future distribution of Grants- 
encou-agement should be withheld from those Schools which refuseo 
m adop® the principle enunciated b, them drat Engltsh should 
in that grade of Schools be taught as a language in the same vay a 
French fnd German are taught in Schools in England and should 
not be made the medium of instruction. The principle, m s 101 , 
was that the English language should not be used as a medium to 
conveying the ordinary knowledge bearing on the daily ^ts and 
occupations of life required for the education of the youth of the 
couinry generally. The same principle, as has been already 
noticed, was recommended with reference to the lower grade of 
Government Zillah Schools. 

North-Western Provinces 

In the North-Western Provinces the operation of the Grant-in-aid 
Rules has been confined for the most part to the encouragement of 
Anglo-Vernacular Institutions established by Missionaries. Of tie 
nine Institutions in the following Table all but one (Joy Narain s 


PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS 8 1 

College at Benares) belong to Protestant or Roman Catholic Mis- 
sionary bodies. I 



In Madras the Grant-in-aid Rules have been made use of for 
the promotion of primary education, but under peculiarly favour- 
able circumstances. In that Presidency Missionary and other Edu- 
cational Societies have taken in hand elementary education to an 
extent unequalled in any other Presidency. The Church Mission- 
ary Society, the London Mission, the German Mission, and other 
similar Societies have established Mission Schools not only in the 
Presidency Town and its neighbourhood, but in the interior, the 
majority of which are designed specially for the promotion of 
primary instruction. The following Statement exhibits the extent 
to which the system is in work as given in the Report of 1860-61:— 

No. Pupils Grants 

322 13,109 Rs. 35,000 

It will be observed that the number of Grant-in-aid Schools 
given above is greater than the total number of inspected Schools 
given in the General Table. The statistics entered in the General 
Table were taken from the Report of 1859-60, owing, as has already 
been explained, to the absence from the Report of 1860-61 of the 
usual Statistical Tables prescribed by the Government of India, 



g2 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

from which alone all the information required for the General 

Table could be obtained. 

Bombay 

In the Bombay Presidency the operation of the Grant-in-aid system 
strictly so called has been limited in consequence of the wide exten- 
sion of a system substantially the same termed the partially self- 
supporting system. Considerable confusion exists m the Bombay 
Reports wherever reference is made to the Grant-in-aid system, 
that it is almost impossible to tell the extent to which it is really in 
operation In a tie (D) at the foot of the General Statement the 
mode is explained in which the figures drere given toe ton Reduc- 
ed, viz. by adding up the sums entered as received f 
ment” in the accounts of the several Institutions classed as Private 
The following list of aided Institutions is similarly compiled, those 
oX of the private inspected Institution, bemg included the 
account, of which receipts from Government are exhrtated.- 

XTn . Perils Gr^rts 


Superioi Schools 
Inferior Schools 
Special Schools 


Total 


33>°49 


The results exhibited in the several Statements of aided Schools 
may be amalgamited as follows:— 


Bengal (1859-60) 
N.W.P (1861-62) 

Punjab (1861-62) 
Madras (1860-61) 
Bombay (1859-60) . 

Total 


No. 

Pupils 

Giants 

Cost to Govt, 
of each 
pupil 

1 

365 

19.402 

Rs. 

83,041 

Rs. 

4*2 

9 

1.318L 

14,372 

7'4 

3 ° 

2,913 

29,698 

10 • 1 

322 

13,109 

3 5 .oco 

2- 6 

46 

3,087 

33 .C 49 

10' 7 

772 

40,429 

1,95,16c 

| Average 4 ’ & 


PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS 


83 


Before passing from the subject of Grants-in-aid, it may be well 
to notice the different rules for the operation of the system which 
are in force in the different Presidencies. 

The Bengal Rules were approved by Government in January 
1856. A copy of them is to be found/ in Appendix B of the Report 
for 1855-56. 

The main features of these Rules are:— 

ls£.— That the aided School shall give “a good secular educa- 
tion.” 

2nd.— That (except in Normal Schools) some fee, however small, 
be required from the scholars. 

3rd.— That the Grants shall be appropriated to specific objects, 
such as salaries, books, scholarships, building, etc. 

4*/z.-No Grant to exceed the sum expended on the Institution 
from private sources. 

As a ‘General Rule’ the Bengal Government declines to ‘grant 
money for the construction of School houses’ on the ground that it 
is an objectionable application of the principle under which Grants- 
in-aid are given for Government to contribute to the cost of erecting 
houses for Schools to which a pecuniary allowance has been awarded 
under the Grant-in-aid system.’ 

The Rules in force in the North-Western Provinces being a 
modification of the previous rules adopted in September 1855, were 
published in 1858. A copy of them is to be found in Appendix D 
of the Report for 1856-57-58. The only material points in which 
these rules differ from the Bengal rules is that in the former fees 
must be paid by at least 3/4ths’ of the Pupils; those exempted from 
payment being bona fide indigent, whereas the Bengal rules require 
that fees be paid by all. 1 

In Madras a set of revised rules was published in August 1858, 
(Appendix E, Report of 1858-59). They differ from the Bengal rules 
principally in the following points:— 

1st .-Fees, except in the case of Normal and Female Schools must 
be paid by at least 4/5ths of the scholars, and not, as in Bengal, by 
all the scholars. 1 , 

2nd— Grants-in-aid of salaries are to be given according to a 
fixed scale of certificates obtained at examination by. the Masters 
with the condition that the amount of salary paid from the funds 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

of the Institution be double that claimable from Government. The 
revised rules, however, so far as they relate to teachers* certificates, 
have not been enforced in respect of Schools already in receipt of 
grants when the revised rules were passed. 

In Bombay a provisional set* of rules was published in the first 

_ , . place in January 1856, which were in several 

Report for 1856-57 points more strict than even the Bengal rules. 

They were found unworkable, and a revised set approved by the 
Local Government was submitted for the sanction of the Supreme 
Government in June 1857. The Supreme Government, however, 
declined to ‘make any change in the local and merely provisional 
Grant-in-aid Rules in any Presidency until the time comes for pass- 
ing, after due experience, a set of permanent rules applicable to the 
whole of India/ The Bombay Government on this adopted the 
Bengal rules, which are still in force. 

It may be noted here, in connection with grants-in-aid, that in 
the Despatch of 1859 the Secretary of State intimated) that, as a 
general rule, the extension of English and Anglo-Vernacular Schools 
should, take place only under that system; and, on the other hand, 
that elementary education should be carried out by the direct instru- 
mentality of Government, and not by grants-in-aid. These rules are 
as yet absolute only in the case of Bengal. The opinions offered on 
the point by the other Local Governments have not yet been disposed 
of. In Madras a scheme has only lately been proposed for carrying 
out a plan of local assessment under a sort of Municipal Act, the 
local contributions so raised being supplemented by grants-in-aid 
from the State. Provision has been made for this in the Madras 
Budget for the current year. Provision has also been made by the 
Governments of Bengal, the North-Western Provinces, and the Pun- 
jab for a very considerable extension of higher and middle class 
education under the Grant-in-aid Rules. The increases estimated 
by these three Governments are as follows:— 



Estimate of 
1861-62} 

Estimate of 
1862-63 

Increass 


Rupees 

Rupees 

Rupees 

Bengal 

1,04,388 

1,60,060 

55,672 

Northwestern Provinces 

I 4>372 

25,000 

10,628 

Punjab 

19,392 

1 ,CO,OCO 

80,628 


FEMALE EDUCATION 


85 

Of the above increases, however. Rupees 60,000 in the Punjab and 
Rupees 24,060 in Rengal are intended for application to European 
and Eurasian Schools founded under tjie provisions of the Governor 
General's Minute of October 1960. In the estimate for Bengal the 
special grants to the Mission Schools of the Cossyah and Jynteah 
Hills (Rupees 3,600) and to the Mission Schools for the education 
of tfie Sonthals (Rupees 7,00G) have not been included. These are 
instances in which, for special reasons, the principle of Vernacular 
instruction through the direct instrumentality of Government has 
been set aside in Bengal. 


SECTION VI 
Female Education 

No special mention has been made in the Statistical Tables of 
Temale Schools, but the statistics contained some Schools specially 
devoted to Female education, and others at which Females attend 
as pupils. The subject, being one of some interest, calls for special 
notice here. 

Bengal 

In Bengal Female education has not yet been attempted by the 
■direct instrumentality of Government, and does not seem to flourish 
under the aid system. The following paragraphs from the Report 
of 1859-60 describe its condition:— 

“83. In the ‘Girls* Schools connected with this Department no 
G -,, s , satisfactory progress is apparent. Two aided 

lU " Ul 0 u ‘S' Schools in South Bengal and one in East 
Bengal have been abolished during the year. From the Report of 
Mr. Lodge it seems dtoubtful whether the two former had at any 
time a substantial existence. The latter had declined in number 
to less than 12 , and was altogether in so languishing a state, that 
the Inspector felt it his duty to recommend that the assignment 
made to it should be annulled. Eight Schools are still in operation, 
"with an average attendance of 199 Girls; but their condition, as 
reported to this Office, does not lead me to regard our efforts, in 
behalf of Female education, through the medium of Schools, as likely 
to be attended with any great success. It is right to state, however, 
that Mr. Woodrow reports more favorably of two or three private 
Schools in his Division founded and maintained by educated native 
gentlemen, alumni of our Schools and Colleges. 



86 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


“84. The interest evinced by these gentlemen in the great cause 
of the elevation and enlightenment of their countrywomen is a 
hopeful sign of the real good effected by our educational system, 
and I am far from wishing to discourage these and similar under- 
takings; but in a country where girls marry at 4 years of age, 
exchange their father’s home for their husband s at 8, and are 
mothers at 12, it is not from Schools that any great success in this 
direction can be anticipated. Those that at present exist are nothing; 
better than infant Schools of an inferior class. They may, no 
doubt, be improved, but the girls will still leave them as infants. 

“85. To yield fruits of lasting value Female education must be 
brought within the penetralia of home. It has already gained entr- 
ance there, and we have reasonable grounds for hope that it is steadily, 
though slowly, progressing. On this subject I quote the following 
remarks from Mr. Woodrow’s Report:— 

“ ‘From the exertions that are being made by many students of 
the Presidency College to educate their wives and sisters at home, 
and by statements which have been made by well-informed gentle- 
men at the College Debating Society, I believe that Female instruc- 
tion is steadily advancing. It takes the form of Zenana teaching- 
It is impossible to obtain statistics of this mode of education, but 
I am certain that it is spreading/ 

“Direct efforts on our part to hurry on this movement might be 
liable to serious misconstruction, and would probably fail; but the 
impulse has been given, and we may be content to trust to time,, 
the greatest of all reformers, to consummate the work. 

“86. I may here mention, in continuation of what was stated in 
last year’s Report, that the orders of the Home Government have 
been received on the reference made by the Government of India, 
recommending ‘that a grant not exceeding Rupees 1,000 per mensem 
should be made for the establishment of Female Schools in Hooghly, 
Burdwan and the 24-Pergunnahs, — a portion to be expended in 
assisting such Schools as were established by Pundit Eshwarchunder 
Surma, and a portion in a few Model Schools to be supported by 
the Government. 

“It has been intimated that ‘Her Majesty’s Government cannot 
entertain the proposal during the existing financial pressure, and 
that its consideration must be reserved for a future occasion.’ ’’ 


FEMALE EDUCATION 


*7 


North-Western Provinces 

In the North-Western Provinces Female education by direct, 
instrumentality was set on foot in several Districts* in 1856. The 
♦Agra, Muttra, cost was altogether defrayed either by Govem- 
Mynpoorie, Banda. ment or a School cess. The scheme was sup- 
ported by the whole influence of Government and the outspoken 
good-will of its highest Officers. The apparent success was corres- 
pondingly great. It is thus described by Mr. Reid in the Report 
for 1859-60:— 

“146. In the commencement of 1857 there were in the Agra- 
district alone 288 Female Schools, containing 4,927 girls (by the 
Deputy Inspector’s Returns). The disastrous events of 1 857" 
absolutely extinguished them, as well as the sixteen Schools with 
303 girls in the Muttra district, three Schools with 54 girls in Zillah 
Mynpoorie, and some few in the district of Banda.” 

The Schools were not re-opened, and their success, which was 
still regarded as real by the advocates of the measure, was charac- 
terized by the Lieutenant-Governor as “ephemeral and factitious.” 
The great fault in the experiment was alleged to be that inspection 
by European Officers was not insisted on. Old men, moreover, were 
placed in charge of the schools, as they alone could be trusted with 
the care of Female pupils. These men were in many cases ignorant 
and unimprovable. In the year 1859-60 the subject was again 
brought forward, but this time on the plan of securing Female 
Teachers aided by the zealous efforts of Thakoor Kalyan Singh, ontt 
of the Native Masters of the Agra College and of good family, the 
scheme was set on foot. The following account of its progress ir 
given in the Report of 1861-62:— 

“The plan adopted, under Mr. Reid's direction, by Thakoor 
Kalyan Singh, of the Agra College, of training a class of native 
ladies, belonging to the families of his kinsmen, as School-mistresses, 
has resulted in the establishment of really useful Schools. They 
are now 17 in number, and the average attendance at each is bet- 
ween 17 and 18; and they have been long enough in operation to 
promise permanency as well as efficiency. That the movement is 
not without effect , on the vicinity is manifest from the fact that 
many of the Government Hulkabundee Schools in the neighbouring 
pergunnahs are now attended by girls as well as boys. Besides 
proving the gradual disappearance of prejudice before enlighten- 
ment, this is a remarkable evidence of the popularity of the Village 



89 


gg SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Schools, and of the instruction they afford; and furnishes an 
additional argument in favor of the need of what has already been 
insisted upon in this Report, viz. the legalization of the Hulka- 
bundee system.” 

Besides the above Institutions mention is made in the Report of 
two Female Schools in Etah supported by the Hulkabundee Fund, 
in which about 91 girls and women receive instruction. In the 
Mynpoorie District there are two Girls’ Schools, one attended by 
"the daughters of rich and respectable Jains, besides many 
Schools” in which boys and girls are taught together. In the 
Shahjehanpote District there are four Girls’ Schools with 90 pupils. 
While In that and other districts it is stated) that “the influence of 
the Hulkabundee system is drawing girls as well as boys together 
for instruction.” In addition to the above there are several Mission 
Schools in the Provinces in which girls are educated. 

Punjab 

In the Punjab Female education appears to be making a satis- 
factory adlvance. The following notice is taken of it in the Report 
for 1861-62:— 

"35. The number of Female Schools has risen from 38 to 52, 
the number of girls on the register at the close 
Female Schools of the year from gl2 to 1,312, and the daily 

average attendance from 671 to 1,168. They are still supported like 
other Vernacular Schools from the one per cent. Educational Cess 
Fund, as mentioned in paragraph 43 of my last Report ” 

Madras 

In Madras Female education has not been attempted by the 
direct instrumentality of Government, but it is carried on to a 
considerable extent by private Schools, some of which receive aid 
from Government. The following Statement shewing the extent of 
Female education in the Madras Presidency is made out from statis- 
tics given by the Director of Public Instruction in September 

1859:- 


No. Pupils 


Giils’ Schools aided by Government . 

Ohls Schools unconnected with Government 


44 2 *°77 

80 4 j 9 o 6 

6,983 


FEMALE EDUCATION 

The above may be classified as follows:— 

Mission Schools •••••* I0 7 

Others 12 

Native 5 

124 

Of the five Native Schools four owe tneir existence to the efforts 
of Native gentlemen who have received their education at one or 
other of the Educational Institutions in Madras. 

Bombay 

The following account of Female education in the Bombay 
Presidency was given in the Special Report of October I860:— 

‘‘Female education is, perhaps, somewhat more advanced in this 
Presidency than in others. 

“The remarkable abilities, business habits, and comparatively 
unsecluded customs of many women of rank among the Marathas 
before our time, and the modern practice of familiar intercourse of 
Parsees with European Society, must tend to assist its progress. 
There are Parsee and Hindoo Girls' Schools in Bombay, and the 
European Officials, with some Native Bankers, superintend others at 
Ahmedabad. There are also some small Schools in the Northern 
Division, mostly owing their origin to private effort. It has hitherto 
been the policy of this Government to follow for the most part, in 
this respect, in the wake of such private effort, to afford approbation 
generally and inspection, provided it is asked for. On some of its 
own Native servants in the Educational Department, who have got 
up small Girls’ Schools attached to the Boys’ Schools, it has bestowed 
pecuniary rewards of a small amount.” 

The following summary of the results of Female education in 
the several Presidencies and Provinces may be given. The figures 
have been compiled from such information as is available, and may 
not be quite accurate:— 



Government 

Private 

1 



Schools 

Schools 

Total 


No. of 

Aver, a ge 

No. of 

Average 

No. of 

Average 


Schools 

attend- 

ance 

Sc bools 

attend- 

ance 

Schools 

atten d- 
ance 

Bengal 



8 

199 

8 

109 

North Western Provinces 

17 

1 AQ 

19 

615 


764 

Punjab 

S2 

1,168 

4 

484 

56 

1.652 

Madras 

, , 


124 

6,083 

978 

124 

6,983 

Bombay . 

28 

162 

20 

48 

1,140 

Tot a 1 

97 

1 >479 

i 175 

9^59 

278 

1 10,738 


124 



90 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SECTION VII 
Scholarships 

The system which the Home Government recommended for 
introduction in 1854 is briefly sketched as follows in the Despatch 
of that year:— 

“63. The system of free and stipendiary Scholarships, to which 
we have already more than once referred as a connecting link 
between the different grades of Educational Institutions, will require 
some revision and extension in carrying o ut qijyr enlarged Educa- 
tional plans. We wiSnto see the object pro- 
Minute, November posed by Lord Auckland in 1839, 'of connec- 

ff£’d l8 33 . Par3S ‘ ting the Zillah Schools with the Central 

Colleges, by attaching to the latter Scholarships ^ 

to which the best scholars of the former might be eligible,’ more 
fully carried out; and also, as the measures we now propose assume 
an organized form, that the same system may be adopted with 
regard to Schools of a lower description, and that the best pupils of 
the inferior Schools shall be provided for by means of Scholarships 
in Schools of a higher order, so that superior talent in every class 
may receive that encouragement and development which it deserves. 
The amount of the stipendiary Scholarships should be fixed at such 
a sum as may be considered sufficient for the maintenance of the 
holders of them at the Colleges or Schools to which they are 
attached, and which may often be at a distance from the home of 
the students. We think it desirable that this system of Scholar- 
ships should be carried out, not only in connection with those 
places of education which are under the immediate superintendence 
of the State, but in all Educational Institutions which will now be 
brought into our general system.” 

Bengal 

The system adopted in Bengal is described in a general way in 
the following extract from the Report of 1859-60; speaking of Colle- 
giate and Zillah Schools, the Director writes:— 

“58. Their classes are yearly recruited from the Vernacular 
Schools by the admission of those students who have succeeded in 
gaining the Scholarships attached to Institutions of that class in the 
Annual Examinations held by the Inspectors. One hundred and 
sixty (160) of these Vernacular scholarships are annually available. 
They are tenable in Zillah Schools for four years, and carry with 
them the privilege of free tuition in addition to stipends of Rupees 


scholarships; 


9i 


■4 per mensem. By means of these Scholarships a clever boy who 
commences his education in a Vernacular School may, by the exer- 
cise of industry and perseverance, obtain admission to a 7illah 
English School for four years free of cost, and with a stipend suffi- 
cient for his maintenance; at the expiration of his Scholarship, 
at 16 or 17 years of age, provided he be a lad of real ability and 
energy, he will be prepared to present himself for the University 
Entrance Examination, and if placed in the 1st Division, may be 
awarded a Junior Scholarship of Rupees 10 per mensem, tenable for 
two years at the Presidency College. When this expires it remains 
for him to win a Senior Scholarship of Rupees 25 per mensem ten- 
able for a further period of two years, and carrying him on to the 
examination for the B.A. degree. With such advantages in pros- 
pect, the Vernacular Scholarships are naturally highly prized and 
warmly contested.” 

The above account, however, was not intended to be a complete 
exposition of the system. It requires both amplification and cor- 
rection. The Vernacular Scholarships therein referred to were 
first tried in 1855-56 in seventeen districts, ten Scholarships being 
■given in each district. In the following year the system was extend- 
ed to fifteen other districts, the same number (ten) of Scholarships 
being awarded annually in each district. The next grade of 
Scholarships is not noticed at all in the above description. It is 
designated the Free Scholarship,” and is thus described in the 
Report for 1856-57 

43. Quite recently an equal number of ‘Free Scholarships’, or 
Scholarships carrying with them no stipend, but only the privilege 
of free tuition for two years in a superior School, have been sanction- 
ed by the Lieutenant-Governor for the encouragement of pupils com- 
ing from the Anglo-Vernacular Schools referred to in paragraph 
27 of this Report. Had the times been more favorable, I should 
have proposed that to these Scholarships also a small stipend should 
be attached. This may perhaps be done hereafter.” 

The Schools to which reference is made in the above are the 
private Anglo-Vernacular Schools, which rank for the most part 
considerably below the Zillah Schools. 

The next grade of Scholarship is that designated the Junior 
Scholarship. The rules for this class of Scholarships as amended 
under date the 31st August 1861, are given below:— 

Junior Scholarship Rules —" One hundred and s^ty Junior Scho- 
larships are open annually, to be competed for in the University 



92 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


Entrance Examination by candidates educated in any School in the 
Lower Provinces of Bengal. 

“2. These Scholarships are of three grades— ten of the first grade 
with stipends of Rupees (IB) eighteen per mensem, fifty of the 
second grade with stipends of Rupees (14) fourteen per mensem — 
and a hundred of the third grade with stipends of Rupees (10) ten 
per mensem. 

“3. With the sanction of the Director of Public Instruction, a 
Junior Scholarship may be held at any one of the ‘affiliated' Colleges 
which may be selected by the holder. 

“4. Each Scholarship is tenable for two years, provided that due 
progress, under a Collegiate course of instruction, is regularly made 
by the holder— a certificate of the fact being submitted at the end 
of the first year by the Principal of his College. 

“5. The holder of a Junior Scholarship in a Non-Government 
Institution is liable at any time to be examined by two persons 
appointed by the Director of Public Instruction, and approved bv 
the Principal of the College to which he belongs, and on proof of 
unsatisfactory progress, may be deprived of his Scholarship. 

*‘6. No candidate is eligible whose age exceeded 19 years at the 
time of presenting himself for the Entrance Examination. 

“7. No candidate is eligible who does not pass in an Oriental 
language. 

“8. The ten Scholarships of the first grade will be awarded to 
the ten candidates who obtain the greatest number of marks in 
the Entrance Examination, 


'*9. The fifty Scholarships of the second grade are reserved for 

The Hooghly Circle includes — Schools situated within the five 

Howrah, Hoc ghl 7, 24^-Pergunnahs, Baraset r , ,, . , r r- 1 

Midnapore, and the Province of Orissa Collegiate Circles ol Calcutta,. 

The Kishnaghur Circle includes — Hooghly, Kishnaghur, Kerb am- 

Nuddea, Burdwan, Je.sore, Pubna, Beer- Dore anr i TWra-ten Scholar 

bhoom, Bancoora, and Puruliya pore ana Dacca ten bciioiar- 

The Berhampore Circle includes — ships for each Circle— and will 

Moorshedabad, Rajshahi, Maldah, Dinaj- be awarded to the ten highest 
^Darjeeling, ani the Prince of Behar f!mdidates from each who do 
The Dacca Circle includes — . . 

Dacca, Eurreedpore, Burn sal, Chittagong, not - & am Scholarships of the 

Tipperah, Sylhet, Cachar, Khasia, Mym- first grade provided their 

ensmg, Rungpore and Assam - } 

The Calcutta Circle includes - names a PP ear ln the first divi * 

The town of Calcutta only sion. f 


SCHOLARSHIPS 


95 


10. Fitty Scholarships of the third grade are similarly reserved 
for the five Collegiate Circles-ten for each Circle-and will be 
awarded to the ten highest candidates from each who do not gain 
Scholarships of the first or second grade, provided their names 

appear either in the first division or in the upper half of the second 
division. 

"II. Scholarships, not taken up under the two preceding rules, 
by the circles for which they are reserved, will be awarded to candi- 
dates from the General List in order of merit, provided they reach 
the prescribed standard. 

"12. The remaining fifty Scholarships of the third Grade will 
be awarded at the discretion of the Director of Public Instruction 
to candidates who pass the examination and appear deserving of 
reward and encouragement, although they may fail to reach the 
standard prescribed in the foregoing rules. 

13. The holders of Scholarships in all Government Colleges 
are required to pay the usual monthly fees which are levied from 
other students, provided always that no Scholarship-holders shall 
be required to pay a higher fee than Rupees (5) five per mensem." 

The' next and highest grade is that comprising “Senior Scholar- 
ships, the rules respecting which, as amended on the 29th of July 
1861, are quoted below:— 

Senior Scholarship Rules. -“Twenty -lour Senior Scholarships are 
open annually, to be competed for in the First Examination in Arts- 
by candidates educated in Colleges affiliated to the University of 
Calcutta. - ' 

“2. These Scholarships are of two grades-nine of the first grade 
with stipends of Rupees (32) thirty-two per mensem, and fifteen of 
the second grade with stipends of Rupees (27) twenty-seven per 
mensem. 

"3. With the sanction of the Director of Public Instruction, a 
Senior Scholarship may be held at any one of the ‘affiliated’ Colleges 
which may be selected by the holder. 

4. Each Scholarship is tenable for two years, provided that due 
progress under a Collegiate course of instruction is regularly made 
by the holder— a certificate of the fact being submitted at the end 
of the first year by the Principal of his College. 



S4 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


“5. The holder of a Senior Scholarship in a Non-Government 
Institution is liable at any time to be examined by two persons 
appointed by the Director of Public Instruction, and approved by 
vthe Principal of the College to which he belongs, and on proof of 
unsatisfactory progress, may be deprived of his Scholarship. 

“6. Second-year students alone are eligible, i.s. those students 
who passed the Entrance Examination two years before presenting 
themselves for the First Examination in Arts. 

“7. The nine Scholarships of the first grade are open generally 
to all ‘affiliated' Institutions without restriction, and will be award- 
ed to the nine candidates who obtain the greatest number of marks 
in the First Examination in Arts. 


“8. The fifteen Scholarships of 

The Hooghly Circle includes — 

'Howrah, Hooghly , 24-Pergunnahs, Bar- 
aset, Midnapore, and th ; Province of 
Orissa 

The Kishnaghur Circle includes — 

Nuddea, Burdwan, Jessore, Pubna, Beer- 
bhoom, Bancoora and Puruliya 

The Berhampore Circle includes — 
.Moorshedabad, Rajshahi, Maldah Dinaj- 
pore, Darj eeling, and the Province of 
Behar 


the second grade are reserved for 
the ‘affiliated’ Institutions situa- 
ted within the five Collegiate 
Circles of Calcutta, Hooghly, 
Kishnaghur, Berhampore, and 
Dacca— three Scholarships for 
each Circle— and will be award- 
ed to the three highest candi- 
dates from each Circle who do 


The Dacca Circle includes — not gain Scholarships of the 

fir* grade, provided their 
Mymensing, Rurgpore, and Assam names appear in the upper two- 

The Calcutta Circle includes — thirds of the list of passed 

Tandidatel^s^de^rmined by the marks of the Examiners. No candi- 
date whose place is lower than this will be entitled to claim a Scholar- 
ship. 


“9. Scholarships, not taken up under the preceding Rules by the 
Circles for which they are reserved, will be awarded to candidates 
from the General List in order of merit, provided they reach the 
prescribed standard. 


“10. The holders of Scholarships in all Government Colleges 
are required to pay the usual monthly fees which are levied from 
other students/’ 


The charges for Junior and Senior Scholarships were formerly 
debited to the Colleges and Schools to which they were attached, 
ebut under the new rules they have been collected into one General 


SCHOLARSHIPS 95 

Fund. The following remarks relative to the introduction of the 
new rules are made in the Administration Report of 1860-61:— 

“After very careful consideration, a new set of Rules has lately 

„ , f , . been prepared, which, guarding local interests. 

The Scholarships r r ° , . r 

Thrown open to general yet throw open the scholarships as tar as possi- 

<competition ble to general competition. It is proposed to 

sweep away all distinction between Government and Non-Govern- 
ment Institutions. The scheme has been introduced since the close 
of the year.” 

North-Western Provinces 

In the North-Western Provinces the system of scholarships was 
reorganised in 1860-61. The following account of the change is 
given in the Report of that year:— 

“70. New system introduced — By G.O. No. 1052A of 1860, dated 
17th September, the whole scholarship system was placed on a new 
footing. With the view of inducing the senior students to remain 
under scholastic discipline, and to pursue their studies up to the 
Calcutta University B.A. degree standard. His Honor ruled (G.O, 
No. 735A of 1861, dated the 22nd April 1861), that the Senior 
Scholarships should be conferred only on the Under-graduates of 
the University (students who had passed the Entrance Examination, 
and had been admitted into the University to read for the B.A. 
degree). Of such the Government Colleges at Agra, Benares and 
Bareilly, and the School at Ajmere, contained, at the commencement 
of the Session of 1861, twenty-one, of whom again six had passed 
in the first, and fifteen in the 2nd Division. To the former (who 
had obtained in the aggregate more than half the full number of 
marks) Scholarships of Rs. 25 a month have been assigned; to the 
latter of Rs. 20 and 15 a month. 

*71. Scholarships awarded to unsuccessful candidates at the 
Calcutta University Entrance Examination .— Several deserving stu- 
dents who failed at the University Entrance Examination, from 
breaking down more or less in some one particular subject, obtained 
nevertheless a larger number of marks than the boy who passed last 
on the list. To encourage the unsuccessful candidates to continue 
study, many of them being possessed of qualifications as copyists 
which would bring them in Rs. 80 or 100 a month, scholarships of 
Rs. 12 per mensem have been awarded, on condition of their going 
up to the same examination at the end of the year. 

“72. Junior and Tehseelee Scholarships .— Twelve Junior Scholar- 
ships of Rs. 10 and fourteen of Rs. 5 a month have been bestowed 
on deserving boys of the 1st and 2nd School classes. Thirty 

T 25 D of A— *7 



9 6 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


Tehseelee Scholarships were sanctioned by G.O. No. 1052A of I860,, 
dated the 17th September, tenable at the Agra, Benares and Bareilly 
Colleges for 3 years, by boys selected from the Tehseelee Schools of 
the Circles in which the Colleges are located. 

“73. Total Value of Scholarships — The total value of the Scholar- 
ships sanctioned for 1861 amounts to Rs. 907 per mensem or Rs. 
10,884 per annum.” 

Seventy-four Junior Scholarships and 69 Senior Scholarships were 
awarded in 1861-62. 

Punjab 

The following extract from the Punjab Report of 1861-62 con- 
tains an account of the Scholarship system there:— 

* 

“39. Small Scholarships varying from 5 Rupees to 8 annas per 
mensem continue to be given away to the best 

Scholarships boys in the upper classes of Zillah Schools. The 

two matriculated students at Umritsur have been granted higher 
ones of 14 and 12, to induce them to continue their studies further* 
These are far lower than are given in the other Provinces and Pre- 
sidencies. The expenditure has been increased with the progress of 
the classes, being this year Rupees 388 per month, in lieu of Rupees- 
209-10 the previous one;' 

The total number of Scholarships for the year was 202, which,, 
the aggregate value being 388, gives an average value of only Rupees. 
1—14 each. 

Madras 

In Madras the system appears to be still the same, as described 
in the following extract from the Report of 1856-57: 

“94. The Government of India, in their orders of the 5th January 

Scholarships 1856, sanctioned the assignment of Rupees 1,500 

per mensem for the establishment of Scholar- 
ships, of which Rupees 500 was assigned to the Normal School for 
the provision of thirty Normal Scholarships in that Institution. Of 
the balance, Rupees 1,000 per mensem, which is available for pur- 
poses of general education, only a limited portion was expended dur- 
ing the year under review. In the present state of education in this 
Presidency, I have not as yet deemed it expedient to introduce the 
system of Senior and Junior Scholarships which obtains in Bengal,, 
and under which the Scholarship examinations are conducted entire- 
ly on paper, and a certain number of Scholarships of each grade 


EMPLOYMENT OF STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SERVICE 97 

being offered for competition are awarded to the best of the com- 
petitors without reference to the School to which they belong. The 
standard of education is at present so unequal in different parts of 
the country, that in all probability, if the plan of general competition 
were adopted, the whole of the Scholarships would be monopolized 
by a comparatively limited number of Schools. Under these circum- 
stances, the best course appeared to be to lay down a standard of 
attainments for each grade of Scholarships and to entrust the award 
to the Inspectors of the several divisions.” 

A copy of the instructions issued to Inspectors will be found in 
the note to page 74 of the Report of that year. The total number 
of Scholarships awarded in 1859-60 was 268. 

Bombay 

In Bombay the working of the Scholarship system would appear 
to be somewhat limited. There is apparently no class of Scholarships 
below that tested by the University Entrance Standard, and termed, 
as in other parts of India, Junior Scholarships. Of these Junior 
Scholarships, moreover, the number is somewhat small. Only 18 
vacancies (10 of Rupees 10 each, and 8 of Rupees 5 each) were noti- 
fied as available for the examination of April 1860, together with 10 
free Studentships. Of Senior Scholarships, for which students are 
eligible after two years’ Collegiate study, nine first class and nine 
second class were notified as available. The limited extent to which 
the system has been introduced appears to be owing to the limited 
number of superior English Schools and Colleges in Bombay. 

The following Table exhibits the amount expended on Scholar- 
ships in the several Presidencies during the years for which the latest 
information in each case is available:— 

Rupees 


Bengal (1859-60) ....... 38,777 

North-Western Provinces (1861-62) . . . . . 12*255 

Punjab (1861-62) 25,156 

Madras (1859-60) 4,980 

Bombay (1859-60) 8, 44 8 


SECTION VIII 

Employment of Students in the Public Service 

I have introduced this subject because I find that it is one whkh 
lias obtained a considerable amount of attention in some parts ol 



98 SELECTIONS FROM! EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

India; and because it has been expressly referred* to by the Home 
*See Paragraphs Government in the Educational Despatches of 1854 
72-77* Despatch of and 1859. In the former Despatch allusion was 
63 f 4 *De^tch ra ^ made to a Resolution of the Government of India, 
1859 dated the 10th October, 1844, the object of which 

was to afford to Educational measures “every reasonable encourage- 
ment by holding out to those who have taken advantage of the oppor- 
tunity of instruction afforded to them a fair prospect of employment 
in the Public Service, and thereby not only to reward individual 
merit, but to enable the State to profit as largely and as early as 
possible by the result of the measures adopted of late years for the 
instruction of the people.” The Resolution had, it would seem, 
primary if not exclusive reference to ministerial appointments. Re- 
turns were directed to be furnished by Educational Officers of “Stu- 
dents qualified for the Public Service,” and the Heads of Offices were 
enjoined to “omit no opportunity of providing for and advancing the 
candidates thus presented to their notice, and in filling up every 
situation of whatever grade in their gift to shew them an invariable 
preference over others not possessed of superior qualifications.” 

It was observed in the Despatch of 1854 that the requisition for 
lists of meritorious students had failed, but that the object in view 
would be attainable on the establishment of Universities “as the 
acquisition of a degree and still more the attainment of University 
distinctions will bring highly educated young men under the notice 
of Government.” In directing, therefore, that the Resolutions in 
question should be revised so as practically to carry out the object 
in view, the following statement was made of what that object was:— 

“What we desire is, that, where the other qualifications of the 
candidates for appointments under Government are equal, a person 
who has received a good education, irrespective of the place or 
manner in which it may have been acquired, should be preferred 
to one who has not; and that, even in lower situations a man who 
can read and write, be preferred to one who cannot, if he is equally 
eligible in other respects. 

“76. We also approve of the institution of examinations where 
practicable, to be simply and entirely tests of the fitness of candi- 
dates for the special duties of the various Departments in which 
they are seeking employment, as has been the case in the Bombay 
Presidency. We confidently commit the encouragement of educated 
in preference to uneducated men to the different Officers who are 


EMPLOYMENT OF STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SERVICE ‘ 99 

responsible for their selection; and we cannot interfere by any fur- 
ther regulations to fetter their free choice in a matter of which they 
bear the sole responsibility.” 

In 1856 the Government of India passed a Resolution the pri- 
mary object of which was to lay down general instructions respect- 
ing the ascertainment by examination of the qualifications of such 
“Uncovenanted Officers in the several branches of executive admini- 
stration as are entrusted with independent authority, and empower- 
ed to exercise the functions of Covenanted Assistants in either the 
Magisterial or Revenue Departments of the Public Service,” but 
which also expressed a desire in respect of employment in the lower 
grades “that all Officers having in their hands the selection of per- 
sons for such employment may be guided by the general principle 
of examining candidates with a view to test their general as well 
as special qualifications, and of giving the preference to those who 
are educated and well informed over those who are not when both 
are equally well qualified for the special duty required.*’ 

In the Despatch of 1859 the Secretary of State communicated 
the following remarks:— 

“It has long been the object of the several Governments to raise 
the qualifications of the public servants even in the lowest appoint- 
ments, and, by recent orders, no person can, without a special report 
from the appointing Officer, be admitted into the service of Govern- 
ment on a salary exceeding Rupees 6 per mensem, who is destitute 
of elementary education; and elaborate rules have been framed, by 
which a gradually ascending scale of scholastic qualification is requir- 
ed in those entering the higher ranks of the service. It may be anti- 
cipated that many years will elapse before a sufficient number of 
educated young men are raised up in India to supply the various 
subordinate offices in the administration in the manner contemplated 
by the new rules.” 

I now proceed to the main object of this section of the Note, 
-viz. to sketch the measures which have been taken in each Presi- 
dency or Province for giving effect to the above principle, and the 
result which has attended them. In the Resolution of 1856 a full 
sketch is given of the measures in operation under the several Govern- 
ments for testing the qualifications for the higher class of appoint- 
ments, and, except as regards Madras, I have no information which 
could usefully be added to it. The following remarks will, there- 
fore; be confined for the most part to the subordinate class of ap- 
pointments ministerial or otherwise. 



loo 


IOX 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Bengal 

In Bengal certain rules were published in July 1855, of which 
an extract is given below:— 

“From and after the 1st of January 1857 no person shall be 
appointed by the head of any Office or Department to any situation 
in the public service, in any Mofussil regulation district, the monthly 
salary of which is more than 6 Rupees, unless he can read and write 
his own vernacular language. It shall, however, rest with the Gov- 
ernment, or with any authority duly empowered by Government, to 
suspend the operation of the rule in any case in which special circum- 
stances may render it advisable to do so. 

“The several Mofussil Officers are at the same time directed to 
give a preference to persons who can read and write over those who 
cannot, for all offices, however small the salary, unless where ob- 
vious reasons exist for overlooking such qualifications 

Copies of all Nomination Rolls shall in future be forwarded quar- 
terly to the Director of Public Instruction.” 

Reference to the rules for giving effect to the order and institut- 
ing returns of appointments made under it will be found at page 
9, Appendix B of the Education Report for 1855-56, and at page 
24 of Appendix B of the Report for 1858-59. A Resolution of the 
Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, dated the 30th January 1856, relative 
to the employment of apprentices in the Government Offices in the 
Mofussil, will be found at page 4, Appendix B of the Report for 
1855-56. This Resolution and the rules prescribed by it were intend- 
ed specially to check the practice of the introduction by the Native 
Omlah of their own relatives as apprentices without any guarantee 
or test of their fitness. I cannot find any statistical record of the 
result of these measures, but the following remarks in the Education 
Report for 1859-60 would seem to indicate that the results have not 
been quite what might have been expected:— 

“62. In all countries a knowledge that it possesses an actual and 
immediate commercial value is the most active agent in promoting 
a desire for education. Here, as regards the great mass of the people, 
it may b^ said to be the only agent, and where this fails, an almost 
total indifference to School instruction is the natural result. The 
cui bona question would find a far more hearty response amongst 
the lowest classes yet reached by our Schools were more attention 
paid to the orders of Government by which a preference is directed 
to be given to those applicants for employment in the inferior grades 
of the public service, who possess , at least the elementary knowledge 


EMPLOYMENT OF STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SERVICE 

which may be acquired in the humblest School. It is the complaint 
of the Inspectors that these orders have remained, in too many cases, 
a dead letter.” 

North-Western Provinces 

In the North-Western Provinces, by an order of June 1852, Officers 
were prohibited from employing men who could not read and write, 
and certain tests were prescribed as a standard for burkundauzes, 
chupprassies, peons, &c., of all Departments. Besides the above, it 
was directed by Government Orders of January and February 1854 
that lists should be prepared of students who had gained scholarships, 
and of those who passed at a yearly examination to be held in each 
district for the purpose of testing the general qualifications of candi- 
dates. Copies of these lists were to be furnished to Commissioners of 
Divisions, the Sudder Court, Sudder Board and Commissioner of 
Customs, by whom they were to be transmitted to their subordinates. 
Half-yearly lists of appointments from Rupees 25 to 50, which might 
be given to students so passed, were also directed to be furnished to 
Government. In the Report for 1854-55 I find it mentioned that 89 
students had obtained Government employment. In the Report for 
1858-59, also, I find the large employment of students urged almost 
by way of complaint by Mr. Reid in the following terms:— “The great 
demand in public and other Offices for copying clerks has drawn 
from our Colleges and Schools their more advanced students.” I find 
it mentioned also in the Report for 1859-60 that at the outbreak of 
the mutiny there were 710 ex-students in the employment of Govern- 
ment. In the Report for 1860-61 it is stated that 37 students had left 
the Government Anglo-Vernacular Colleges and Schools on obtain- 
ing employment on salaries averaging Rupees 27 per mensem. The 
following extracts from Mr. Kempson’s Report for 1861-62 would, 
however, seem to indicate that in that Officer’s opinion the regula- 
tions on the subject had not been practically operative:— 

“Mr. Cann justly expresses his regret that, as a general rule, petty 
Government officials, the Omlah at sudder stations, etc., do not set 
a good example to their neighbours in sending their children to the 
Government School. Among other well judged observations on the 
state of the Schools, the following occur in the above-mentioned Offi- 
cer’s report, dated 31st May 1862:— 

“ 'The popularity of our Tehseelee Schools is in proportion to the 
money benefits derivable from attending them; these are obtained 
in Scholarships at the Roorkee Civil Engineering College, and in after 
appointments to the Department of Public Works, or in direct 



102 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

employment on the Canals or Railways, for all of which the course" 
of instruction qualifies. The Omlah of the various District Offices 
with rare exceptions , do not send their sons to these Schools , A 
Sheristadar well knows that, as soon as his boy can write a 
purwanah , he can seat him by his side in the Office to learn the 
routine of work; and that, as soon as a vacancy occurs, the thus 
qualified umedwar can be slipped into an appointment. Geometry, 
Arithmetic, Geography, History, General Knowledge, in his eyes,, 
are valueless, as long as the ability to read and write Persian, and 
a slight acquaintance with Office-work, will procure his son Rupees. 
Our Tehseelee scholars, however highly qualified in Persian, as 
well as in the special subjects of study, seldom gain an entrance 
into any of these offices/ ” 

“30. A Government Order of the 8th June 1852, directed that no 
chupprassi or burkundaz should be appointed in any one of the eight 
districts then under ‘the Visitor General of Schools’ who could not 
produce a certificate from the Deputy Inspector of his district, to show 
that he could read and write from an easy book, and knew the first 
four rules of arithmetic. This was followed by a Circular of the 
Sudder Board of Revenue, in the same year, requiring a certificate of 
a higher order from putwarries; and a similar test for lumberdars was 
proposed.” 

Whether these regulations have fallen into desuetude generally 
or not, oi whether they are held to apply to ‘the eight districts’ only,. 
I have no means of stating with confidence; but Mr. Cann reports for 
his Circle, that no candidate whatever for the lower examination has 
presented himself this year, nor any for the higher examination (of 
putwarries) in the Districts of Meerut, Boolundshuhur, Mozuffernu- 
ggiir and Moradabad. That some sort of check upon the qualifica- 
tions of these officials has been exercised may be gathered from the 
fact that in the remaining districts of the Circle 37 per cent, of the 
applicants for certificates were found on examination unworthy. 

I think it a matter of importance that stricter and more definite 
orders should issue on this subject.’’ 

Punjab 

As regards the Punjab, the following extract from the Report for 
1860-61 describes the state of affairs in that Province:- 

“76. On the question of what inducement should be offered to 

I osaf C to r 'a Pr °' parents to educate their children, Mr. Spencer 

Educationaftest to r _' lroVl ' s out - a hint that candidates for employment 

candidates for Gov- in the public service should be required to oass a 
rnment employment certain Educational test He remarks ._ ‘ 


EMPLOYMENT OF STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SERVICE 103' 

‘It is to me a matter of infinite surprise that the doors of Govern- 
ment employ should be thrown open to the most ignorant (in a lite- 
rary way) and the most prejudiced, that we should spend thousands 
upon Education, and yet never take precaution of seeing that our 
own employees are well educated, and can boast at least of some lite- 
rary qualifications/ 

“77. I am not prepared to advocate this measure for the Punjab 

just yet. It will be quite sufficient encouragement 

Director’s opinion to t h e Government Schools, if the Civil Authori- 
ou the same . „ . 

ties will occasionally select from them the sharpest 

youths who are desirous of obtaining Government employ, whenever 
they have suitable vacancies to fill up. The bestowal of a mohurrir- 
ship of Rupees 10 per mensem on the cleverest lad in a Tehseelee or 
Village School will always have the very best effect. The youths edu- 
cated in Zillah Schools will, I trust, be fitted for higher situations, 
but they have not yet had time to qualify themselves. The Civil 
Authorities will, I trust, remember that they have great opportunities 
of fostering education by the judicious distribution of their patron- 
age when making appointments/' 

In the last Report (1861-62) it is stated that several District Officers, 
had complied with the suggestion as to the occasional appointment 
of the best scholars of Tehseelee Schools to vacancies as putwarries,. 
mohurrirs, 8cc., and that “more will doubtless be done in this way as 
opportunity offers.” 

Madras 

In Madras a scheme of examination, for all appointments above 
the grade of Peon, was promulgated in 1858. A copy of the Rules 
and of the correspondence on the subject will be found in Appendix 
F of the Education Report for 1858-59. The first examination, 
however, showed the necessity of some modification of these Rules. 
Candidates to the number of 3,372 presented themselves for examina- 
tion, and it was found that owing to the impossibility of exercising a 
proper supervision over so large a number “copying and under-hand 
practices had prevailed to such an extent as to render the results of 
little value as a test of individual qualification.” To remedy this 
the levy of a fee of Rupees 3-8 from each candidate was decided on, 
and all appointments of Rupees 25 and under were exempted from 
the operation of the system. It was also found that the examination 
interfered with the University Entrance Examination. The latter, 
although of a higher standard than the higher service test, was equi- 
valent only to the lower in respect of eligibility for admission to the 
public service. This anomaly was accordingly corrected and a revised- 



104 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

set of Rules was promulgated, of which a copy, together with connect- 
ed correspondence, will be found in Appendix B of the Report for 
1860-61. 

The following notice of the revised Rules is taken in the Report 
tor 1860-61:— 

“On the Director's recommendation, the rules for regulating 
admission into the public service have been revised. The higher 
service test, which, under the former rules, had to be passed in order 
to render a candidate eligible for appointment or promotion to any 
situation on a salary exceeding Rupees 50 per mensem, has been 
abolished, and in its stead it has been determined that the University 
Matriculation Examination shall be held at the same time and place 
as the examination of candidates for employment in the public ser- 
vice, and that the University graduates and matriculated students 
shall be registered in the lists of candidates eligible for employment, 
but in separate classes; the candidates who merely pass the service- 
test being ranked in the third or lowest class." 

“Before the changes were made, the Government, with the view of 
checking the resort of candidates to the Uncovenanted Service exami- 
nation, who were quite unfit to pass, and diminishing the labor of 
the Examiners, had announced that an entrance fee of Rupees 8-8 
would be demanded from all candidates, and limited the application 
of the rules to appointment of which the salaries exceed Rupees 25 
per mensem. A copy of the new rules and the correspondence 
relating to them will be found in the Appendix." 

Bombay 

In Bombay a system of examination tests for public employment 
was instituted by a Notification of the 20th May 1852. Every candi- 
date was required to produce a certificate from a School-master that 
he had a “good knowledge of reading, writing, and arithmetic," and a 
certificate of “respectable character” from a Moonsiff or Mamlutdar. 
These certificates entitled him to be examined by a local Committee 
assembled biennially for the purpose, whose certificate of having 
passed the examination made him eligible for public employment. As 
regards peons, the only rule laid down was that “when two persons, 
equally qualified in other respects for Peon-work, are desirous of 
obtaining service under the Government, the preference is to be given 
to the applicant who can read and write." 

In 1855 a modification was made under date the 21st of February, 
making it incumbent on appointing Officers to fill every vacancy of 
whatever amount capable of being so filled “without serious incon- 
venience to the public service" from among candidates certified by 


ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN INDIAN EDUCATION 105 

the Head of the Education Department as qualified. The standards 
of qualification then prescribed will be found in Appendix XVII of 
the Bombay Report for 1854-55. The Government of Bombay obser- 
ved on this subject in the orders on the above Report as follows:— 

“9. The Governor in Council regards with deep interest every 
measure which tends to open the public service to the students of 
our Educational Institutions: believing that not only the service will 
profit by the more extended introduction into it of a class of Native 
Officers of really liberal education, but that the extension of such 
education generally among the people will be furthered by a provi- 
sion, which will prevent it from being any longer enough that candi- 
dates for certain Government offices should be possessed only of that 
routine and technical aptitude, which may be picked up by men of 
no general information, but will insist on their possession of a degree 
of useful general education, which they can only acquire by a course 
of sound educational training. With regard to the services and claims 
of those who have already entered the public service, this most desi- 
rable principle must be introduced considerately, and by degrees; 
but His Lordship in Council hopes that it may at once be so far 
established, that it will have the effect of making it evidently more 
for a young man’s interest to complete his education thoroughly, 
than to abandon his School, and seek for Government service as 
soon as he can discharge the duties of an ordinary clerk." 

In the same Report (1854-55) a return of “students appointed 
to the public service," under the rule promulgated in 1852 was 
given, and the Government expressed a hope that under the modi- 
fication of 1855 the return would in future be much larger. No 
return, however, has been included in any subsequent Education 
Report. 

SECTION IX 

English Language in Indian Education 

The position of the English language in relation to the various 
grades of Schools in India is matter of some importance. In the 
Despatch of 1854 the Heme Government intimated the opinion 
that, for the conveyance of general education to the great mass of 
the people the Vernacular must necessarily be used as the medium , 
while for the conveyance of a high order of education in the science 
and .literature of Europe it was equally necessary that the English 
language should be the medium. Reference was also made to the 



J 06 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

evil tendency which had shewn itself more especially in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the Presidency Towns to substitute a study of the 
English language in place of the acquisition of general knowledge^ 
through the Vernacular. 

The tendency above alluded to would seem to have spread large- 
ly since the Court's Despatch was written, and perhaps has not in 
all cases been kept sufficiently in check. 

Bengal 

The Committee for the improvement of Schools in Bengal seem 
to express an opinion in their Report of 1856 that even in the Gov- 
ernment Zillah Schools some encouragement was given to this ten- 
dency. Many of the Zillah Schools professing to afford a high order 
of education and adopting English as the medium of conveying it 
were, nevertheless, believed to be “really inferior Schools, 7 " and for 
these the Committee recommended a lower classification and the 
adoption of the Vernacular as the medium of instruction. But the 
direction in which the tendency was most observable in the Com- 
mittee's opinion was that of the Grant-in-aid Schools, a large class 
of which were the result of the growing desire for English educa- 
tion, and were fitted only to meet the wants of those who desired 
to obtain at a cheap rate and without the inconvenience of absence 
from home “as much knowledge of English and no more as is suffi- 
cient for becoming inferior clerks, copyists, salesmen, hawkers, &c.” 

The Committee were “unanimously of opinion that the tendency 
of such Schools is to aggravate a very serious evil, viz. the sub- 
stitution of a very imperfect and inaccurate knowledge of English 
with a still smaller knowledge of other things for that higher edu- 
cation which, while giving full and accurate information of a prac- 
tical kind, would at the same time strengthen the faculties of the 
mind.” 

The Committee's Report has probably exercised a beneficial influ- 
ence in restraining the too free encouragement of the above class of 
Schools in Bengal; but it is quite evident that for some time to come 
the tendency will rather increase than diminish as education works 
its way outward from the Presidency centre. Already the Director 
of Public Instruction writes that “to secure for their children a know- 
ledge of our tongue is the one object for which, as a rule, the people 
are willing to pay, and for this they will frequently incur an expense 
which would seem altogether disproportioned to their means.” 


ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN INDIAN EDUCATION 107 

North-Western Provinces 

In the North-Western Provinces, where the higher grade of 
education has been so little expanded, there being in the entire 
Provinces only eight Government and nine aided Institutions above 
the grade designed for the elementary education of the masses, there 
can be but little to record on the subject of the extent to which and 
the way in which the English language is adopted in the educational 
system. The want, however, of a class of Institutions in which 
English may be taught as a language is beginning to be felt both by 
the Educational Department and by the people themselves. The 
following remarks made by Mr. Reid in his Report of 1860-61 may 
be quoted:— 

“7. Encouragement should be given to the desire to learn 
.English —If funds only were available, English Schools or English 
classes in existing Vernacular Schools might be established through- 
out the land at no great cost to the State. The measure would be 
popular, and would meet with ready support. I may cite one proof. 
The residents of Moozuffemuggur have subscribed Rs. 50 a month 
to engage the services of an English teacher in the Tehseelee School 
at that station, where we have at present only one Government Ver- 
nacular teacher on Rs. 15 a month. The arguments which may be 
adduced in favor of encouraging the increasing desire for instruc- 
tion in the English language need not be recounted here. 1 would 
only represent to His Honor that no time more favorable than the 
present could be found for commencing operations on a more exten- 
sive scale, extensive in point of the country over which those opera- 
tions. should range. The machinery would be inexpensive, suffi- 
ciently so to justify the necessary expenditure even in days of ‘finan- 
cial pressure.' A beginning should be made, now that the efforts of 
the Government would meet with hearty co-operation on the part 
of the people.” 

The following remarks by the Inspector, 2nd Circle, in the Re- 
port for 1861-62, with special reference to the Agra Normal School, 
also bear on the subject:— 

“Few changes would render the Institution more popular than 
the establishment of an English class. It might, indeed, be difficult 
at first to render it very efficient, from the short residence of the 
pupils; but a useful knowledge of the elements of the language 
could be easily acquired, during 12 months, by those earnestly 
desiring it (and the class ought to be voluntary,) while it is almost 
certain some would be found with such a previous knowledge of 



ro8 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

English (the desire for the acquisition being now so great as tor 
lead many to study it in private,) that besides an elementary class, 
another for more advanced pupils might also be established, and 
by and by such a knowledge and facility of the language be acqui- 
red, as to enable the Head Master to use it in some of his lessons. 
As a wish has been expressed by some respectable Revenue Officers 
in the Circle that the pupils of our Tehseelee Schools were taught 
to use English figures and symbols in arithmetic, instead of Hindi,, 
-a practice introduced, 1 believe, into the Schools of the Madras- 
Presidency, in order to render accounts of easier reference or exa- 
mination,— I can see no objection to the introduction of this change 
into the teaching of our Normal Schools. It would be of advan- 
tage on many occasions, and might be easily effected.” 

Mr. Kempson seems to think that the object can best be gained 
through Grants-in-aid to private Schools, as will be gathered from 
the following remarks made in his Report of 1861-62:— 

"48. There can be little doubt that where an English or an Ame- 
rican Missionary is stationed, and willing to devote his leisure to 
teaching English, the spread of the language, and general consequ- 
ent good results therefrom may be expected: and it may be assumed 
that the character of the English taught will be higher and purer 
than the second-hand instruction given by Native English teachers, 
who are all that the Government can command for English Schools 
at out-stations, 

"I shall, therefore, consider it my duty to recommend such efforts 
as worthy of grants-in-aid from the Government, wherever the nece- 
ssary conditions are complied with,” 

Punjab 

In the Punjab the use and teaching of the English language in 
Schools has increased greatly during the last few years. As already 
mentioned, a large class of superior Zillah Schools has lately been 
established, in the upper classes of which English is the medium of 
instruction, while in the lower it is taught as a language. Adult 
English Schools, the result chielly of a desire among the subordinates 
of the Government Offices to obtain a knowledge of English, were 
started with Government aid at Lahore, Rawul Pindee, Jhelum and 
Kangra. In August 1861 a Notification was issued by Government 
that an Elementary English Teacher would be appointed to any 
Vernacular School where the people themselves would guarantee at 
least Rupees 15 as a moietv of his salary, the other moiety being paid 


ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN INDIAN EDUCATION lO? 

from the One per cent. Educational Cess Fund. With the desire 
springing up among the people for a knowledge of English and the 
ample encouragement of Government, it is not to be wondered tha<, 
the number of English scholars has greatly increased during the last 
few years. The following Table of English Scholars is taken from 
the Report of 1861-62:— 


Boys learning English 

f 

At the close of 

1859-60 

1860-61 

l86l-62 

At Zillah Schools 

720 

1 >594 

2,Cl6 

Tehseelee » 

2 1 


320 

Village 53 * * * 

•• 


123 

Giant- in- aid ;3 

i s cc 3 

3 3570 , 

1 3974 

T otal • • 

1 5725 

3>i64 

4 ? 439 


A doubt may, perhaps, occur whether the Punjab Government, 
while rightly encouraging the study of English, may not be losing 
sight in some degree of the necessity of guarding against the tendency 
which has been found so prejudicial in Bengal, viz . of substituting 
a smattering of English for a sound practical education conveyed 
through the medium of the Vernacular. This doubt may particu- 
larly arise with reference to the scheme for attaching ill-paid English 
Teachers to Vernacular Schools, and thereby offering an induce- 
ment to the scholars to direct their attention from the more impor- 
tant object of a useful education to the more attractive one of an 
acquaintance with English. If fear is well grounded in this respect, 
however, the Punjab Government is furthering the measure with 
its eyes open, as will be gathered from the following extract from 
the Report of 1861-62:— 

“ ‘It will be evident to His Honor that no good English scholars 
can be turned out of such Schools as are now proposed, and it will 
doubtless be objected by some that no good can come of giving boys 
a mere smattering of a foreign language. If the people themselves, 
however, do in reality desire a smattering of English, and find it so 
useful to them in the business of life, as to be willing to pay a good 
deal for it, I think it will be a step in the right direction to encoura- 
ge them with Government aid in procuring what they want. I trust, 
moreover, that a fair proportion of those who master the rudiments 
of English will subsequently enter Zillah Schools and attain to a 
creditable proficiency in the language/ ” 



no 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN INDIAN EDUCATION 


III 


Madras 

In Madras the question of the relative position of English and 
the Vernacular in the School system has recently been the subject 
of full discussion, of which a copy will be found in Appendix A of 
the Report for 1860-61. The following account of the discussion 
given in the body of the Report of that year may be quoted:— 

The other question had reference to the relations of the English 
and Vernacular languages in our system of instruction. Sir Charles 
Trevelyan was of opinion that of late years an undue preference had 
been given to Vernacular instruction to the prejudice of English 
instruction, and that the rule under which in the lower classes of the 
Provincial and Zillah Schools and throughout the Talook Schools 
Geography and such like science is taught from Vernacular 
books, and the explanations are ordered to be given in the Vernacu* 
lar language/ ought to be annulled. Mr. Powell, the Acting Direc- 
tor, expressed similar views, and he pronounced an unfavorable 
opinion on the Talook Schools. He recommended that the number 
of these Schools should be reduced, their designation altered, and 
that those retained should be raised to the standard of Anglo-Verna- 
cular Zillah Schools. Mr. Arbuthnot, to without the entire question 
was referred on his return from England, deprecated any radical 
changes in the existing system. He repeated the arguments previous- 
ly urged by him in support of his opinion that the Vernacular 
languages should be largely made use of in Schools of all grades, 
and that in the Talook Schools and in the lower classes of the Pro- 
vincial and Zillah Schools the whole of the substantive instruction 
given should be imparted through their medium. He also depre- 
cated the abolition of the Talook Schools, observing that these 
schools formed an intermediate grade which could not be omitted or 
overlooked in any comprehensive scheme of national education. 
'They are/ he remarked, 'of the class which is referred to in the 
42nd paragraph of the Educational Despatch of 1854 as Schools 
whose object should be, not to train highly a few youths, but to 
provide more opportunities than now exist for the acquisition of 
such an improved education as will make those who possess it more 
useful members of society in every condition of life! They are 
essentially Middle Schools , corresponding to the middle class schools 
of England, which, in all countries, are resorted to by those classes 
who are able to go through a course of instruction more advanced 
than that usually imparted in primary Schools, but are not in a 
position to devote to it that time and money which its acquisition 
through the medium of a foreign language necessarily demands/ 
He did not overlook the fact that the English language which in 


most Indian Schools takes the place which is occupied by the Greek 
and Latin languages in the Schools and Colleges of Europe, being 
a spoken language, and as the language of the Government being 
largely used in the transaction of business, has practical claims in 
this country, which cannot be asserted in Europe in favor of the 
ancient language of Greece and Rome; and on this ground he would 
teach it as a language in all Schools ‘for which it is possible to 
obtain Masters at all competent to teach it/ but he would not 'place 
it as a barrier against the acquisition of much that is likely to prove 
useful to those who, either from inaptitude for mastering a difficult 
foreign language or from want of time, are unable to obtain that 
mastery over it which is essential to the acquirement of accurate 
knowledge through its medium, by constituting it the language of 
instruction in all subjects except the Vernacular language/ It ap- 
peared to him that ‘the existence of such Schools as those now under 
consideration is essential as a connecting link between the highly 
educated classes and those whose education is limited to the rudi- 
ments of learning, and that instead of, on the one hand abolishing 
them, or on the other raising the standard of instruction which they 
are designed to impart, every effort should be made to improve 
them on their present plan by providing them with trained teachers 
and with suitable books' ‘Both these objects,' he stated, 'were being 
gradually attained, and several of the Schools were in a very satis- 
factory condition. In some cases, doubtless, the locality was ill- 
selected and in others the Masters were ill-qualified, and owing to 
these causes a few Schools have had to be removed to other places, 
and a few have been abolished, but these are matters of administra- 
tive detail which, though requiring much care and consideration, 
did not, in his judgment, 'call for any radical changes in the system 
now in operation/ The Government concurred in the Director's 
-views. They were of opinion that the system prescribed for the 
Government Schools was sound and should be maintained, and that 
the Talook Schools should be preserved on their present basis. The 
correspondence will be found in the Appendix." 

Bombay 

In Bombay, perhaps, more than anywhere else in India, the Gov- 
ernment has upheld the principle of giving a thorough practical 
education through the medium of the Vernacular. It has rather 
gone too far than come too short in this direction. There would 
seem to be some truth in the concluding clause of the following 
extract from the Report of 1859-60:— 

“The Educational system of this Presidency is remarkable for the 
great development of Vernacular compared with Anglo-Vernacular 

125 Dir of Arch— 8 



it 2 


Selections from educational Records 

and English teaching. English education has, in fact, been starved 
in the interest of Vernacular education .” 

It is only recently, indeed, that the highest class in the Poona 
College Normal School were permitted to study English; but 
even that permission was qualified, English teaching being ordered 
“to be confined to the reading and explanation of English books, 
writing being omitted from the course." The object of this res- 
triction was to prevent the eligibility of Normal School pupils for 
employment as clerks. An evidence of the relative position of 
English and Vernacular may be got from the fact that of 185,800 
copies of books printed for the Educational Department in Bom- 
bay in 1859-60 only 33,000 were English, and yet that result was 
regarded as indicating a largely increased demand for English 
"works. It cannot," the Director of Public Instruction wrote, “be 
accounted for by the wants of Government English Schools, and 
must be attributed, in a great measure, to a newly created demand 
on the part of the Native public." 

SECTION X 
Book Departments 

The publication, distribution and sale of Educational books 
form a portion of the Educational systems. 

Bengal 

In Bengal the object is effected through the agency of the School 
Book Society, and is not checked in any way by the Department. 
The Society simply trades in books like any ordinary bookseller, 
having various Mofussil Agents who receive a percentage on all sales 
effected. A number of Sub-Inspectors in Government employ have 
been allowed to be also Agents to the Society. A grant of Rupees 
500 per mensem is given to the Society towards editing and printing 
charges for new works or new editions, the object being to secure a 
sufficient supply of good School books at a moderate cost. 

North-Western Provinces 

In the North-Western Provinces there is a Government Curator 
and Book Depot at Head Quarters. There were also until recently 
a regular Book-selling Agency and Book Depots maintained through- 
out the country; but these have been abolished, and the sale of books 
in the interior has been entrusted to the Officers of the Department 


BOOK DEPARTMENTS X 1 3 

who are allowed a commission on all sales effected. The following 
account of the system is given in the Report for 1861-62:— 

“These sales are more directly in the hands of the Deputy Ins- 
pectors, who indent on the Allahabad Depot for such books as 
may be required in their respective districts. A large discount 
is allowed by Government for cash purchases, and a commission 
on sales, to a certain amount, is granted to the Deputy Inspector, 
it being the object of Government to effect quick and ready sales 
at the lowest possible price. Some of the School books issued are 
marvels of neatness and cheapness, and the successive editions of 
the more necessary treatises are exhausted with great rapidity." 

Punjab 

In the Punjab the Book Department is constituted on a quasi- 
commercial basis, its working capital being derived from an advance 
of Rupees 20,000 from Government. There is a Curator and Cen- 
tral Depot at Lahore, the retail work being carried on by the District 
School Mohurrirs, Head Masters of Government Schools, or Managers 
of Aided Schools, with, I suppose, a commission on sales for remune- 
ration. 

The following account of operations is given in the Report 
for 1861-62:— 

“107. I must now notice briefly the operations of the Book 
Department. 77,020 copies of Educational 
Operations of the works, amounting in value to Rs. 34,684, have 
been brought m stock. Of these 20,732 copies, 
worth Rs. 15,862, were English; the rest Vernacular. Of the above 
also, 45,200 copies, to the value of Rs. 11,071, have been printed in 
the Government Press attached to this Office. The rest were pro* 
cured from private Presses in the City and elsewhere. The Annual 
Statements of the sale of books have been received from all the 
Agents, excepting three. From those received up to this date 
(close of May 1862) it appears that 59,637 copies of works valued 
at Rs. 15,210 have been sold." 

Madras 

In Madras the constitution of the Book Department has recent- 
ly been altered. It consists at present of a Central Book Depot 
with a Curator and establishment remunerated by fixed salaries. 
There are 20 District Depots, each of which is under the charge 
of a Curator, usually one of the Masters of the principal School 



1 14 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

in the District. These District Curators are remunerated by a 
commission of 10 per cent on the sales. The books are sold at 
the same prices in all the Depots, an addition of about 15 per 
cent being made to the cost price of each book to cover the Cura* 
tor’s commission and the cost of transit. 

Bombay 

In the Bombay Presidency the system consists of a Central 
Depot at Bombay with principal branches at Ahmedabad and 
Belgaum, Zillah branches at fourteen Stations, and 318 School 
branches. Each Depot is a sort of bookshop primarily designed 
for the sale of School books, but wherein books of all kinds may 
be sold on commission. The Curator and his establishment and 
also the Depot-keepers at the principal branches are paid by 
fixed salaries, the other Depot-keepers being remunerated appar- 
ently by a sale commission. 

The operations of the Book Department in Bombay for 1859- 


60 were as follows:— 

No. of 

Value 


Copies 

Rs. 

Books printed in Bombay 

185,800 

48 ,8 48 

Books imported from England . 

18,150 

I 5>447 


203,950 

64 >295 

Sales ...... 

112,994 

35>533 


Under a recent Resolution of the Bombay Government, dated the 
31st March 1862, it has been decided, in accordance with a sugges- 
tion made by the Educational Committee, that the Book Depart- 
ment Account shall be treated as a “Balance Account” in order to 
“put the question of profit and loss to an unmistakeable test.” 

SECTION XI 
Local Income 

Under this head I include Schooling fees, fines, endowments, 
donations, subscriptions, local cess proceeds, &c., but not the pro- 
ceeds from the sale of books. 


LOCAL INCOME 1 15 

Bengal 

In Bengal the Local Government disposes under its own autho- 
rity of the proceeds of Schooling fees, but they are nevertheless 
brought to account in the Public Books, and the expenditure to 
be met by them is included in the Budget estimate of charges for 
the year. The practice of meeting any charges from the fees be- 
fore transmission to the Public Treasury is expressly forbidden in 
an order of the Directors, given at page 21 of Appendix B of the 
Report for 1855-56, “All sums,” it is there directed “received 
on account of fees, fines, fee., must be regularly remitted to the 
Collector, to be by him brought upon the Public Accounts, and 
every authorized charge, even though said to be ‘debitable to 
Schooling fees/ should be entered in a bill, and forwarded for 
audit in the usual manner, but should by no means be paid by 
the Local Committee out of the fees or other Government money 
in their charge.” 

In Bengal the levy of fees has been carried out to an extent 
which, in some cases, makes the Institutions more than pay all 
their charges. One object of the system has been to encourage 
indirectly the establishment of private Schools. This object is 
expressed in the following terms in the Report for 1856-57:— 

“Where, in consequence of the increasing demand for English 
education, we find, as we sometimes do, a difficulty in preventing 
the Government School from being over-crowded, the fee levied is 
gradually raised, and inducement and opportunity are thus afford- 
ed for the establishment in the neighbourhood of one or more pri- 
vate Schools under the Grant-in-aid system, which Schools may in 
time be enabled to supplant the Government School.” 

The principle is still more broadly stated in the Report for 
1858-59 with reference to a complaint which had been made to the 
Government of Bengal respecting the increase of the rate of fees 
in the Hindoo and Colootollah Schools:— 

“In the reports of this Office it has been frequently stated (for 
the information mainly of persons such as those who have signed 
this petition) that the Government measures are directed to gene- 
rating a desire and demand for education, and assisting those 
most interested to supply this demand themselves, rather than to the 
direct education of the people of this country by State machinery; 
and that, in such places as Calcutta more especially, the Government 
should refrain as much as possible from under-selling and injuring 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

private Educational Establishments} and should even be prepared 
to withdraw from such parts of the field as are being energetically 
and successfully worked by others. If then the result of a gradual 
increase of the fees in the Government Schools be, as I admit it is, 
to transfer many of the lads from the lower classes of Government 
Schools to private teachers, who are well able to impart to them the 
rst elements of an English education, the result in a large view of 
the case is surely cause for congratulation rather than complaint. I 
trust, therefore, that the Lieutenant-Governor will see no reason to 
change his opinion in favor of the measure I refer to as one in 
entire accordance with the policy of the Government and of the 
Despatch of July 1854.” 

The total of local receipts in Bengal for 1859-60 was- 

Rupees 

Fees, lines &c. ........ 1,72,063 

Endowments &c ....... 73 >776 

2 * 45*839 

Th£ following Statement of Schooling fees in Government and 
private Institutions shews how steadily the amount paid by students, 
and the appreciation of education indicated thereby, are on the in- 
crease in Bengal:— 

1856-57. 1857-58. 1858-59. 1859-60. 

Schooling ffces. Rs. 1,78,174 1,98,100 2,04,915 2,31,072 

North-Western Provinces 

In the North-Western Provinces it is not apparent in what manner 
Schooling fees, fines, endowments, subscriptions, donations, &c., are 
brought to account in the Public Books, or, under what rules they 
are disbursed. 

The proceeds of the local rate of assessment, however, are, I 
know, disbursed under local authority, and the estimated disburse- 
ments do not appear in the Budget, as is the case in Bengal. 

The total local receipts or the charges met from them are not 
specified in the Financial Statement given in the Education Report, 
and the only means of obtaining an approximate idea of the amount 
is by adding up the various sums entered as receipts of the kind 
under notice in the detailed accounts of the several Institutions or 


fcQCA h income 


117 


classes of Institutions under Government management. The result, 
omitting fractions in the items added, is as follows for the year 1861- 


Rupees 

Local rate of assessment . 

66,885 

Fees* fines, 

30,87 a 

Endowments, subscriptions, tp’c. 

i,SB>o 69 


2,47,826 

Punjab 


In the Punjab the following local 
1861-62:- 

income was derived during 


Rupees 

One per cent. Educational cess . 

2,84,978 

Fees, injes, &c. , 

8,278 

Other sources ...... 

42,269 


3*35*525 


I cannot say in what manner these items are brought to account 
in the Public Books. The disbursements from the one per cent. 
Fund do not at all events appear in the Budget estimate of Educa- 
tion charges. 

The smallness of the amount of fees, fines, &c., is noticeable 
especially as there is a decrease on the returns of the previous year. 
The following explanation of this is given in the Report:— 

“40. At the 23 Zillah Schools Rs. 4,369 have been collected by 
Fees amount collect- way of tuition fees during 1861-62. This is some* 
Schools Government what in excess of the previous year's amount* 
which was Rs. 4,020. But then of the latter no less than 2,141 
Rupees were received at Lahore, where those who entered the Upper 
Department all gave high donations. This year the number of 
admissions has been comparatively small, almost all the young Sirdars 
having already joined, and only 1,707 Rupees have been levied 
there. At the 119 Tehseelee Schools Rs. 1,208 have been levied 
instead of Rs. 1,308 collected the previous year. This is rather 
discouraging, but a glance at the Village School Returns shews us 
a still greater decline, for at the 1,750 Village Schools Rs. 2,619 
only have been raised, in lieu of 2,920 obtained the previous year 
from only 1,686 Schools. This detracts much from the merit of 
the increase shewn in attendance at this class of Schools, In the 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Umballah Circle, Thaneysur, Delhie and Goorgaon contributor 
nothing, Ferozepore next to nothing; and Rohtuck far too little - 
The rich Districts of the Lahore Circle, which fail to give their 
quota, have been prominently noticed in paragraph 5, and to them 
I must add Goojerat in the Rawul Pindee Circle, which in this parti- 
cular does not at all support its character as the best Educational 
District in that quarter. In the Frontier Districts we cannot hope 
to impose fees yet.” 

The previous paragraph, alluded to in the above, relates to the 
general question of enforcing the fee system. It runs as follows:— 

”5. The levy of fees still continues to act injuriously on the 

Levy of fees expres- increase of attendance, but in many places the 

sly ordered by he r 

Home Authorities, difficulties surrounding the measure have been 

almost, if not entirely, removed; and there is no reason why they 
should not be overcome in such populous and opulent districts as 
Sealkote and Umritsur. If it were only made known to the people 
by the Civil Authorities that it had been laid down as the fixed 
policy of the State not to dispense instruction gratuitously, I feel 
sure that the measure would meet with more ready acquiescence. 
The Right Honorable the Secretary of State for India, in reviewing 
the operations of this Department for 1859-60, says in his Despatch 
No. 14, dated 8th April 1861, which was communicated to me in 
August last:— 

“ ‘There do not seem to me to be any circumstances which would 
justify the continued exception of the Punjab from the rule prevail- 
ing in other parts of India, under which Schooling fees are univer- 
sally exacted.' 

“His approval is, therefore, accorded to the rules which have 
been promulgated under His Honor's sanction for the levy of fees, 
and I trust that more strenuous efforts will be made in the two Dist- 
ricts I have specially noticed, as well as in others where the rules 
could easily be enforced to carry out the views of the Home Autho- 
rities on this important point.” 

Madras 

In the Madras Report the Financial Statement contains no 
account of the local income, giving only the net "amounts disbursed 
from the Treasury.” From this I would infer that the proceeds of 
fees, fines. See. are not brought to account in the Public Books. The 


LOCAL INCOME 


119^ 


amount of local income for Institutions under Government manage- 
ment, deduced by adding up the various amounts entered in the 
detailed accounts, is as follows:— 

Rupees 


Local rate 8.440 

Fees, fines, &c. ....... 32,027 

Subscriptions, endowments, &c 7,54 5 


48,012 

The "fees” are stated, in a note to the Financial Statement, to- 
amount to Rs. 9,349, which is scarcely compatible with the amount 
deduced as above for "fees, fines, &c.” 

Bombay 

In Bombay it does not appear in what way the local income is 
treated, as regards credit in the Public Accounts and subsequent 
disbursement. The Financial Statement gives only the net result, 
and is moreover exclusive of the political districts. The local in- 
come deduced in the same way as that employed in the cases of the 
North-Western Provinces and Madras is as follows:— 

Rupees 

Fees, fines, &c 4 5,448 

Subscriptions, donations, endowments, &c. . 74,114 

1 19,562 

The local income in Bombay is large, considering that there is 
no local rate of assessment; but this is due to comparatively exten- 
sive endowments, and to the large amount of subscriptions resulting 
from the "partially self-supporting” system in operation in that 
Presidency. 

(Signed) A. M. MONTEATH, 

^ Under Secretary to the Government of India. 
The 27th October 1862. 



NOTE 


ON THE 

STATE OF EDUCATION IN INDIA 

i 86$~66 



NOTE 

ON THE 

STATE OF EDUCATION IN INDIA 

1865-66* 

1. The object of this Note is to collect, in a convenient form, 
Information and statistics respecting the educational measures now in 
operation in India both by the direct instrumentality of Govern- 
ment Officers, and by private agency. The chief sources of informa- 
tion are the yearly Education Reports prepared in the several Presi- 
* dencies and Provinces. The last Reports relate to the year 1865-66, 
and hence the information and statistics given in this Note relate also 
to that year. The fact that the statistical tables of the Bombay 
Education Report were not received till March 1867, will show how 
'difficult it is to prepare a Note of this kind, till after the lapse of a 
considerable time from the date to which the information refers. 
I have, of course, availed myself of more recent information in res- 
pect of important points where a reference to subsequent proceed- 
ings seemed desirable; but, speaking generally, the review of edu- 
cational measures and Institutions relates to the year 1865-66. The 
Table of Contents prefixed to this Note gives a sufficient idea of the 
general scope of the review, and of the arrangement of subjects. 

SECTION I 


GENERAL RESUME OF EDUCATIONAL OPERATIONS IN THE SEVERAL 
PRESIDENCIES AND PROVINCES OF INDIA 


2. There were in 1865-66 altogether eight Presidencies, and Pro- 
vinces, as given on the margin, having organized Departments of 
Education, each superintended, in the manner con- 
templated by the Education Despatch of 1854, by 
a Director of Public Instruction and staff of Ins- 
pectors. Steps have since been taken for organizing 
similar Departments of Education in the Hyder- 
abad Assigned Territories and in British Burmah. 


Bengal 

North-western 

Provinces 

Punjab 

Madras 

Bombay 

Oude 

Central Provi- 
nces 
Mysore 


♦Education Proceedings (Volume), June 1867, No. 39. This "Note” was 
published as No. LIV of the Selections from the Records of the Government of India , 
Home Department . 


123 



125 


124 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

3. Fuller information and statistics in respect of Universities* 
Colleges, and the several classes of Schools in each Province will be 
given in the following Sections of this Note. My present object is 
to give in this Section a brief outline of the main features of educa- 
tional operations in the different Provinces of India. 

4. Universities have been established in the three Presidency 
Towns of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay, respecting each of which 
separate particulars will be given hereafter. It is sufficient here to 
remark that the effect of these Institutions on the more advanced 
grades of educational operations appears to have been beneficial in 
a very marked degree. Not very long ago the Director of Public 
Instruction in Bengal, writing of the Calcutta University, remarked 
that it had proved “a powerful and valuable stimulus to every Col- 
lege and School in the country.” Similar testimony was borne to the 
Madras Institution by the Head of the Education Department in 
that Presidency, who stated that “of all the measures which have 
been adopted of late for the spread, and especially for the elevation, 
of education, it may be doubted if there be any that has proved 
more efficacious than its establishment:” and the general effect of 
the operation of the Bombay University was stated to have been 
“very marked indeed,” both as supplying a “test which can be relied 
on,” and as affording a “great stimulus to both Schools and Colleges”; 
and these opinions, expressed about two years ago, have been amply 
borne out by the continued and yearly increasing influence of the 
Universities in the three Presidencies. 

5. An examination of the figures given in the following Sections 
respecting Colleges and Schools will show a great diversity in the 
channels in which educational operations have been made to flow 
in the several Presidencies and Provinces, and a few general remarks 
on this subject will not be out of place. 

6. The Province of Bengal stands clearly foremost in respect of 
the Higher Classes of Education. The main endeavors of the Edu- 
cation Department have been directed to this end. In Bengal are 
to be found the largest number and the best specimens of Colleges 
and Schools of the Higher and Middle Classes filled by pupils whose 
appreciation of the education received is attested by the comparative- 
ly large amount of the fees paid. In no other Province of India 
has education of a higher kind so great a money value as in Bengal. 
So far the Bengal system has prospered. The main channel chosen 
for directing its efforts has been education of the Higher and Middle 


GENERAL RESUME OE EDUCATIONAL OPERATIONS 

Classes, and in this respect it has unquestionably succeeded in a 
degree unequalled in any other part of India. 

7. But at this point, i.e ., at the development of a good Higher 
and Middle Class Education, the Bengal operations might, until 
quite recently, have been said practically to terminate. The great 
masses of the people of Bengal, including the laboring and agricul- 
tural classes, were reported in 1863-64 to be in reality scarcely touch- 
ed as yet by our educational operations.” “Various plans, ’ as the 
Director of Public Instruction wrote in that year, “have been devised 
and tried for bringing School instruction to bear upon them, (the 
lower orders of the people above referred to), but the result has 
almost uniformly been that the Schools which have been organized 
or improved for their benefit have been at once taken possession of 
and monopolized by classes who stand higher in the social scale. 
The fact was that up to that time no good plan for diffusing ele- 
mentary instruction among the masses of the people had been de- 
vised. The efforts to improve the indigenous Village Schools of the 
country had failed; and the few Schools established by Government 
as models, though affording a good vernacular education to a limited 
number of pupils of a higher social grade, seemed to have no effect 
whatever in raising the level of the indigenous Schools below them. 
Even the establishment by Government of cheap elementary village 
schools, designed to supersede the indigenous Schools, though suc- 
ceeding in the North-Western Provinces, seemed to fail in Bengal 
in that part of the country (Behar) where it was tried. It was, 
perhaps, the apparent hopelessness of the attempt at popular educa- 
tion that gave such prominence, in the minds of the Bengal Educa- 
tional Authorities, to the theory that education must filter down- 
wards, and that it was impossible to reach the lower strata of the 
people till after the upper strata had been operated on. This theory 
was frequently and very broadly stated, as will be seen from the 
following extract from a letter written by the Director in January 
1865:— 

“I have only to reiterate here what I have had occasion to insist 
upon in several recent communications, that the liberal education 
of those classes of the community who, from their station in society, 
have the control of the education of the poorer classes is still the 
most important object which can engage the attention of Govern- 
ment. The education of the lower orders of society should assured- 
ly not be neglected, but it is a primary condition of the spread of 
education among all classes that full provision should fiTst be made* 



126 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


for the education of that class on which depends the education of 
all the rest.” 

8. But it may, I think, be reasonably doubted whether the theory 
of the downward filteration of education, however true as a general 
principle, will not be found wanting when applied to the lowest 
strata of the population; and it is certain at all events that by far 
the most successful results which have as yet appeared in any part 
of India in the education of those classes have been the fruits of 
effors applied directly to the agricultural and laboring population 
independently of all other measures for promoting education of a 
higher order. It is satisfactory, therefore, to be able to state in res- 
pect of Bengal that, within the last few years, a scheme has been 
set on foot which seems to give good promise of really influencing 
the education of the lower orders of the people. I refer to what is 
called the Normal School system for training Gurus. Full informa- 
tion respecting this system will be given under the head of Lower 
Class Schools in Section V; and meantime I will only remark that 
the Guru Students of the Normal Institutions are the nominees of 
the villagers, who bind themselves to receive them back as their 
Patshala Teachers when qualified; the Government, on the other 
Land, giving to every qualified Teacher so employed a grant of 
Hupees five per mensem towards his salary. 

9. In the North-Western Provinces we find, so far as the direction 
of the main channel of educational operations is concerned, a mark- 
ed contrast to Bengal. 

10. Perhaps there is no one of the older Provinces in which the 
means of education of the Higher and Middle Classes is more meagre 
than in the North-Western Provinces; and it is only quite recently 
that a proposal has been made by the Government of the North- 
Western Provinces, and sanctioned by the Government of India, 
which contemplates the establishment of 21 Zillah Schools in the 
North-Western Provinces, in lieu of the two Middle Class Institu- 
tions now on the list. Some of them will probably at once take rank 
as Higher Class Institutions, educating up to the University Entrance 
Standard: and all of them will doubtless eventually come up to this 
standard. This is unquestionably a move in the right direction to- 
wards the supply of a very obvious want in the North-Western Pro- 
vinces. 

11. In those Provinces, however, we find that measures have for 
many years been in operation for the elementary education of the 


GENERAL RESUME OF EDUCATIONAL OPERATIONS X 2,J 

great masses of the people on a more extended scale, and with, 
perhaps, more successful results than in any other part of India. 
The education of the lower classes of the people is in fact the main 
channel in which educational operations in the North-Western Pro- 
vinces have been made to flow. 

12. It was about the year 1850 that Mr. Thomason set on foot 
organized efforts for improving the education of the lower classes 
of the people. These efforts were directed to the establishment, at 
the several Tehsil Stations, of Vernacular Schools intended to serve 
as models for the improvement of the indigenous Village Schools, 
the inspection and encouragement of which by rewards, &c., were 
also provided for. A very considerable amount of success attended 
these efforts; and Mr. Thomason's Tehsilee Schools still form an 
important feature of the School system in the North-Western Pro- 
vinces. The improvement of the indigenous Schools has, however, 
proved to be a matter of great difficulty, and more or less unsatis- 
factory in its results. The system is consequently being gradually 
superseded by the establishment of what are called Circuit or Hulka- 
bundee Schools, supported by the proceeds of an Educational Cess. 
This cess is a most important help to the Education Department. 
It forms a component part of all new settlements of the land revenue, 
so that ere long the Hulkabundee School system is expected to “cover 
the land.” Even now, in districts where the cess does not form part 
of the existing settlement, arrangements are very generally made with 
the consent of the people for its pavment. 

13. In the Punjab educational measures of an organized character 
were not set on foot till within a comparatively recent period; and 
the numerous educational Institutions and operations, which now 
bear favorable comparison with those of some older Provinces, may 
be almost said to have sprung into existence within the last few 
years. Profiting by the experience of other Provinces, the Punjab 
Authorities have organized a system of education which avoids the 
defects observable in Bengal and the North-Western Provinces. The 
Punjab system aims at providing simultaneously for the Higher Class 
of Education and for the elementary instruction of the mass of the 
people, copying for the former object the admirable system and 
organization of the Bengal Zillah Schools, and for the latter object 
the system of Hulkabundee Schools so successfully elaborated in the 
North-Western Provinces. A glance at the figures given in the 
following Sections of this Note (Sections IV and V) will show the 
creditable development which eductional operations in the Punjab 

125 Dir of Arch — 9 



128 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORD:* 


have already attained, not only by the direct instrumentality of Gov- 
ernment, but also by private efforts. 

14. In the Madras Presidency we find a relatively fair number 
of Higher and Middle Class Schools. 

io. But in respect of Lower Class Schools the Madras Presidency 
certainly appears to be behind hand. Nothing, or next to nothing, 
has ever been done in this direction by the direct instrumentality of 
Government; and hence, of the total number of 842 Schools of this 
class shown in the Madras Returns, the great bulk (825) come under 
the head of Private Institutions. The Government has endeavoured, 
in various wavs, to encourage this class of Schools. Grants-in-atd 
have been given chiefly in the Tinnevelly District to Missionary 
Societies undertaking to supervise and maintain elementary Schools; 
and this system, so far as it has extended, is stated to have worked 
satisfactorily. In a portion of the Godavery District a system of 
Village Schools, supported by an educational rate, founded on the 
supposed consent of the rate-payers, was commenced about 12 years 
ago, but the scheme wanted stability, and it was to provide for this 
that the Madras Education Act of 1863 was passed; the object of the 
Law being “to provide for the maintenance of certain Schools in the 
Delta Talooks of the Godavery District under the Presidency of 
Fott St. George, and to enable the inhabitants of any other town, 
village, or place in any district under the said Presidency to assess 
themselves for the establishment and maintenance of Schools;” The 
Act was not brought into operation in the Godavery District till 
July 1865; and the first Reports of its working were not very favor- 
able, the principal difficulty being the impossibility of getting quali- 
fied men to act as Commissioners for the assessment of the rate and 
the management of the Schools. The “rate Schools,” as they are 
called, are 79 in number; of which 72 are in the Godavery District, 
and seven in other districts. In 1864-65 there were 75, so that the 
extension of the system during 1865-66 consisted in an addition of 
only four Schools. Hopes, however, appear to be entertained that 
this system of voluntary assessment for educational purposes will in 
the end work well. A third system has also recently been set or, 
toot, chiefly in the Coimbatore and Nellore Districts, the main ob- 
ject of which is the inspection, encouragement and improvement of 
indigenous Schools. Although this system has not worked satisfac- 
torily in other Provinces, favorable mention of it is made in the 
Madras Reports; and it may, perhaps, become an important means 
of showing the people the necessity and advantage of improving 


GENERAL RESUME OF EDUCATIONAL OPERATIONS j 2 g 

’their Schools, and thus paving the way for the introduction of a 
better class of Institutions under the educational rate system. 

16. In Bombay education of the Higher Class was, until recently, 
in a very unsatisfactory state. The Elphinstone and Poona Colleges 
had been publicly condemned by ihe Government Exainineis of 
1855-56; and, though they were shortly after subjected to a thorough 
reform, the work of renovation was slow; and it is only within the 
last few years that these Institutions have really deserved the name 
of College. The Government Higher Class Schools, now nine in 
.number, may be said to have had an equally recent origin. 

17. But, perhaps, the greatest difficulty hitherto experienced in 
the Bombay educational operations has been the provision of ele- 
mentary education for the agricultural and laboring classes. The 
•steps taken prior to 1854 consisted in the establishment of a limited 
number of Vernacular Schools, maintained and managed solely by 
•Government, in the most promising localities. This was supplement- 
ed after 1854 by the introduction of, what was called, the “partially 
self-supporting system.” The establishment of Schools entirely at 
the cost of Government was too expensive to admit of much exten- 
sion, and the condition of partial self-support opened the way for a 
time to an enlargement of the field of operations at a comparatively 
small increase of cost. Under this system more than 200 Schools 
were opened in two years; but its defects soon began to appear. It 
was easy for a zealous Educational Officer to induce village commu- 
nities to consent to contribute towards the establishment and main- 
tenance of such Schools; but it was difficult to keep up an interest in 
them, and impossible to enforce payment of contributions when the 
interest had vanished. 

18. The partially self-supporting system was, therefore, gradually 
'dropped; enhanced fee rates being made, wherever possible, to take 
•the place of the reluctantly paid popular subscription. By a re-distri- 
bution of education expenditure, provision was made in 1859 for a 
considerable extension of operations, and the Bombav Authorities 
began about the same time to look about for fresh sources of local 
income. In 1862 an enactment was passed, one object of which was 
to legalize the appropriation of Municipal Funds to the support of 
Schools, and in 1864 the Bombay Government took the very im- 
portant step, of levying an extra land assessment or Education Cess. 
The nurnbei of Vernacular Schools of the Lower Class maintained 
by Government now amounts to 1,108, of which nearN 200 were 



130 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

established during the last year (1865-66) from the proceeds of the 
Education Cess. 

19. Although, therefore, elementary education in Bombay may 
not as yet have attained any very marked development, there is* 
every prospect of progress in future years. 

20. Turning now to the smaller Administrations, it may be re- 
marked, as regards the Province of Oude , that, until within the last 
three years or so, there was no educational system at all. Grants- 
in-aid were given to some eight private Schools, of which five were 
called Talookdaree Schools owing to the partial support given to 
them by the Talookdars, and there were about 20 Tehsilee Schools 
maintained by fees, contributions and other local funds. The whole 
Government expenditure on education did not then exceed Rupees* 
12,000 per annum. 

21. In 1863-64 the sanction of Government was given to an 
organised system of educational operations in Oude, providing, be- 
sides direction and inspection, for the establishment of 10 Zillah 
Schools and 34 Tehsil Schools; with a liberal allowance for grants- 
in-aid, including one large grant of Rupees 25,000 per annum for 
the Canning College,— an Institution founded primarily on the sup- 
port of the Oude Talookdars. The gradual re-settlement of the 
Oude Districts, with provision for an Educational Cess, is also pre- 
paring the way for the establishment of Village Schools on the Hulka- 
bundee system of the North-Western Provinces. The cess had, in 
1865-66, been introduced fully only in one district (Oonao), and 
partially in seven other districts. In July 1865 the first set of Village 
Schools, 60 in number, were established in the Oonao District, and 
provided with Teachers trained in a Normal School established at 
Lucknow for the purpose. This work of training Teachers for Vil- 
lage schools is being pushed on vigorously, so as to have trained 
Teachers ready for the Village Schools, which will, in due course^ 
be opened in other districts. 

22. Not long before the period of the educational movement m 
respect of Oude, above described, a systematic plan of operations 
had been set on foot in the Central Provinces . Besides a controlling 
and inspecting staff of Officers, provision was made for the mainten- 
ance of 10 Anglo-Vernacular or Zillah Schools, which will all be 
eventually assimilated, in respect of equipment and status, to the 
Higher Class Zillah Schools of Bengal. Meantime only one of them 


GENERAL RESUME OF EDUCATIONAL OPERATIONS I 31 

is able to claim that rank. Vernacular education has received cor- 
responding attention, 96 Town Schools and 646 Village Schools (on 
the Hulkabundee system) having already been established, and pro- 
vision made by the establishment of six Normal Schools for tne 
training of Village School Masters. An attempt has also been made 
in the Central Provinces to encourage indigenous Village Schools on 
the plan of payment by results under the Grant-in-aid Rules; but as 
yet only 25 Schools have presented pupils for examination. A large 
number (656) of indigenous Village Schools, chiefly in the Sum- 
bulpore District, have, however, been encouraged and improved by 
the interest taken in them by District Officers, as well as by casual 
gifts in money or books for the Masters or pupils. 

23. The Education Department of Mysore was organized in 1857. 
There are now in the Province 10 Higher Class Institutions (six 
Government and four Private), 16 Middle Class Schools (nine Gov- 
ernment and seven Private), and (what is a very small proportion) 
only 47 Lower Class Schools (32 Government and 15 Private). The 
progress made in the means of elementary education is certainly 
small for a Province which has had an organized Education Depart- 
ment for the last 10 years. 

24. In British Burmah , although no organized Education Depart- 
ment had been established till towards the close of 1866, a not in- 
considerable advance has been made in educational operations. 
1’here are three Government District Schools of the Middle Class, 
supplemented by a very satisfactory proportion of Private Institu- 
tions, numbering 28, under the Grant-in-aid Rules. These Private 
Institutions are chiefly supported by Missionary bodies, to whose 
efforts the cause of education in British Burmah is much indebted. 
There are also 259 Village Schools supported by the same agency, to 
some of which Government grants m aid are given. 

25. The Chief Commissioner of British Burmah regards the Bud- 
dhist monasteries, which are in fact the indigenous Schools of the 
country, as a good ground-work for a future extension or improve- 
ment of the means of elementary Vernacular education. The system 
of indigenous education in British Burmah, as carried on in these 
monasteries, will, the Chief Commissioner says, “bear comparison 
with any educational system existing in any other Province under 
British Rule.” It is already widely diffused, giving, as stated by the 
Chief Commissioner, “a knowledge of reading and writing to three- 
fourths of the juvenile male population;” and the Chief 



GENERAL FINANCIAL STATISTICS 


133 


^ 2 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Commissioner looks forward to the improvement of these Schools- 
mainly by inducing the monks to accept approved School books lor 
the instruction of their pupils. 

26. In the Hyderabad Assigned Districts, as already stated, steps 
have been taken for the organization of a separate Education e- 
partment under a Director of Public Instruction, and the scheme 111 
view contemplates the establishment of two High Sc 00 s (I1 ' C 
each district), together with Tehsil Schools and Village Schoo s. 


SECTION II 

Gfneral Financial Statistics 

27. The cost for 1865-66 of the Establishments employed in the 
several Presidencies and Provinces for directing and superintending 
educational operations may be shown as follows, side by side wilh 
the cost for the same year of the Instruction controlled by them: 




Direction 

and 

Inspection 

Instruction,; 
including 
all educa- 
tional 
charges not 
coming 
under the J 
preceding | 
head j 

Total 

1 



Rs. 

Rs. | 

! 

Rs. 

Bengal 

r From Imperial Funds . 
, ) From Local Funds 
{_ Private Expenditure 

2,32,131 

n,48 5 345 

3,40,308 

5,66,015 

13,80,476 

3,40,308* 

5,66,015 


Total . 

2,32,133 

: 1 20,54,668 

22,86,799 


•There is no educadon cess in Bengal, and the expenditure here : shown 
from local funds is composed en'irely of money received from , school tees, 
endowments, subscriptions, etc. This shousd be borne in mind in comp g 
the Bengal expenditure from local funds with similar expenditure in c ther P - 
vinces 3 where such funds are composed to a large extent of the proceeds or eauc : - 
tion cesses which are in reality merely a portion of the general revenue collectea 
and set apart for educational purposes. ( Selection from the Records oj tne 
Government of Indio 3 Home Department , Volume LIV, p. 9). 




Dire:tion 

and 

Inspection 

Instruction 
including 
all educa- 
tional 

charges not 
coming 
under the 
preceding 
head 

Total 



Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

North Western * 
Provinces 

" From Imperial Funds 
1 From Local Funds 
v Private Expenditure 

1,81,460 

6,03,228 

4,07,612 

4,07,850 

7,84,688 

4,07,612 

4,07,850 


Total , 

1,81,460 

14,18,690 

16,00,15a 

Punjab . 

From Imperial Funds . 
From Local Funds 
Private Expenditure 

1,66,358 

11,515 
. •• 

35175713 

2*52,394 

1,51,204 

4,84,071 

2,63,909 

1,51,204 


Total . 

1,77,873 

7521,311 

8,99,184 

Madras . j 

From Imperial Funds . 
From Local Funds 
Private Expenditure 

1,23=952 

4,96,717 

95,714 

3,06,433 

6,20,669 

955714 

3,06,433 


Total . 

! 1,23,952 

8,98,864 

10,22,816 

Bombay . - 

f From Imperial Funds . 
j From Local Funds \ 

(_ Private Expenditure J 

1,64,965 

5,938 

7,05,102 

8,38,294 

8,70,067 

8,44,232 


Total . 

L7O.903 

15,43,396 

17,14,299 

Oude . . - 

f From Imperial Funds . 
1 From Local Funds 
L Private Expenditure 

22,981 

1,19,464 

35,667 

36,130 

1,42,445 

35,667 

36,130 


Total , 

22,981 

1,91,261 

| 2,14,242 

Central . * 

Provinces 

f From Imperial Funds . 
J From Local Funds 
L Private Expenditure 

58,884 

300 

76,579 

1,69,447 

32,856 

1 1,35,463 
1,69,747 

32,856 


Total . 

59,184 

2,78,882 

i 3,38,066 

Mysore . . 

f From Imperial Funds . 

^ From Local Funds . . ! 

L Private Expenditure . . j 

26,582 

85,439 

29,492 

1,12,021 

29,492 


Total . j 

26,582 

1,14,93 1 

L4L5I3 


I have not included in the above Statement the Province of British 
Burmah or the Hyderabad Assigned Districts (Berars), because the 
Education Reports received frpm them do not give the required 
information. The Directors of Public Instruction recently appoint- 
e d in those Provinces will probably supply this deficiency in future. 



*34 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


28. It may be explained generally that the figures given under 
the head “Local Funds” represent money received and administered 
by Government Officers or Educational Committees, but derived 
from local sources, such as Education Cesses, School Fees, Private 
Endowments, Subscriptions, &c. The figures given under the head 
of Private Expenditure may be said generally to represent the ex- 
penditure from private sources on Private Schools which are under 
the inspection of Government Officers. The amount shown under 
this head must be more or less approximate, and probably consider- 
ably below the real amount; and there is, of course, a considerable 
amount of private expenditure on education which never comes 
under the cognizance of Government, as, for instance, expenditure 
on Schools which are neither aided nor inspected by Government, 
and with the accounts of which the Government has nothing to do. 


SECTION III 
Universities 


29. The Despatch of 1854 conveyed the orders of the late Court 
Universities of Directors in regard to the establishment of Uni- 
versities in India. An opinion was expressed that “the form of gov- 
ernment and functions” of the London University might be ad- 
vantageously followed in their general features. It was stated that 
the examinations for degrees should not include any subjects con- 
nected with religious belief, and that in regard to affiliation the 
same neutrality should be observed. 


30. The standards for common degrees were to be fixed so as 
“to command respect without discouraging the efforts of deserving 
students,” while in the competition for honors care was to be taken 
to “maintain such a standard as would afford a guarantee for high 


ability and valuable 

Act. IT of 1857, 
Calcutta 
„ XXII of i8S7» 

. Bombay 
„ XXVII of 1857, 
Madras 


attainments.” Under these instructions. Uni- 
versities have been established at Calcutta. 
Madras, and Bombay, incorporated by the 
Acts marginally indicated. Further powers 
for the appointment of new degrees by Bye- 
laws, subject to the confirmation of the 


Governor General in Council in regard to Calcutta, and by the 


Local Governments in regard to Bombay and Madras, were given to 


the Senates by a subsequent Act XLVII of 1860. 


31. While it has been a declared object to preserve a general 
harmony of constitution in these Institutions, it has not been attempt- 
ed to enforce a rigorous uniformity in matters in which local con- 
siderations, and the judgment of the Local Governments, might 


UNIVERSITIES 


135 


beneficially have free scope. In the three Universities, consequently, 
we find a general similarity of constitution, and a considerable 
diversity in minor details, and in a few not unimportant points. And 
although the form of government and regulations of the London 
University were, in the first instance, more or less exactly adopted, 
various modifications have from time to time been made to adapt 
them to the requirements of this country. 

Calcutta University 

32. The Calcutta University provides for the grant of the follow- 
ing Degrees and Licences:— 

Arts .... /Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) 

\ Master of Arts (M.A.) 

r Licentiate in Law (L.L.) 

Law .... < Bachelor in Law (B.L.) 

k Doctor in Law (D.L.) 

p Licentiate in Medicine and Surgery (L.M.S.) 

Medicine . . . < Bachelor in Medicine (M.B.) 

(_ Doctor in Medicine (M.D.) 

["Licentiate in Civil Engineering (L.C.E.) 

Civil Engineering. . . ^ Bachelor in Civil Engineering (B.C.E.) 

k Master in Civil Engineering (M.C.E.) 

Besides the examinations for the above degrees, there are the 
“Entrance Examination” and the “First Examination in Arts” of a 
somewhat lower standard than the B.A. Degree Examination. There 
are also two examinations for the Licence in Medicine and two for 
the degree of Bachelor in Medicine, —the first being an intermediate, 
and the second a final examination. The “First Examination in 
Arts” was introduced in 1861, and holds an intermediate place be- 
tween the Entrance and B.A. Examinations. The object was to en- 
courage Under-graduates to continue their studies beyond the entr- 
ance, and in this it has fully answered the expectations formed of 
its probable effect. In each of the Professional Faculties there are, 
as will be observed, two Degrees and a Licence. This arrangement 
was introduced about three years ago. There had from the first 
been a Licentiate Degree in the Faculty of Medicine, and similar 
degrees were introduced in 1861 in the Faculties of Law and 
Engineering; the intention being to enable Under-graduates to ob- 
tain a professional qualification without graduating in Arts. But 
these Licentiate Degrees were not popular either with the Senate 
or the students, and hence it" was that the present arrangement of 
two Degrees and a Licence was introduced in each of the Professional 
Faculties. 



i 3 6 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


UNIVERSITIES 


13 ? 


33. Two important changes in the Regulations as to Arts were 
made in the year 1863-64. The first was the removal of the 
vernacular languages of India from the subjects of examination 
for the First Examination in Arts and the B.A. Examination; the 
effect of this measure being to compel all candidates in Arts to take 
up one of the following classical languages, viz.— Latin, Greek, Sans- 
crit, Hebrew, or Arabic. The second was the re-distribution of the 
subjects of Examination for the B.A. Degree, by which ‘Physical 
*( 1 ) Languages Science' was removed from the list of necessary* 

History . subjects of examination, and in its place candi- 

(4) Mental and dates were allowed to select one 01 the tour 

Moral Science following subjects:— (a) Geometry and Optics; 

(b) Elements of Inorganic Chemistry and Electricity; (c) Elements 
of Zoology and Comparative Physiology; and (d) Geology and 
Physical Geography 


34. The Registrar of the Calcutta University has kindly furnish- 
ed me with the following Memorandum on points connected with, 
the more recent history of the University:— 

Since 1864 no changes have been made in the Standards of Exami- 
nation. In the Regulations the form of certificate, which candidates 
for Matriculation are required to produce, has been altered in such 
a manner as to require from Head Masters of Schools an expression 
of opinion as to the fitness of a candidate to go up to the Examina- 
tion. This change was made for the purpose of imposing a check 
on the admission of candidates to the Entrance Examination who 
were not likely to pass. The new form of certificate was adopted 
for the first time at the last Examination in 1866, and evidently 
operated to check the admission of ill-qualified candidates. A pro- 
posal will be submitted to the Senate at the next Annual Meeting 
to introduce a similar change in the certificate of candidates com- 
ing up to the First Examination in Arts and the B. A. Examination. 
Besides checking the admission of candidates to the University 
Examinations, who are not, in the opinion of their tutors, likely to 
pass the restriction, it is thought, will act beneficially in preserving 
better discipline in affiliated Colleges. 


The University building is now in course of construction, and 
will be completed early in 1868. 


No reply has been received from the Government of India to* 
the letter from the University of 25th June 1862, regarding the 
establishment of Scholarships and of a Professorship of Natural and' 


Experimental Philosophy, nor have these questions again been dis- 
cussed in the Senate with a view to a further application to Govern- 
ment. The Senate met in July 1866 to consider the best mode of 
appropriating Mr. Premchund Roychund’s donation of two lakhs 
ot Rupees; and amongst other plans then considered, was one for 
applying the proceeds of this donation in founding University 
Scholarships of a similar nature to those the Senate recommended 
the Government to establish in 1862. A proposal to devote the pro- 
ceeds of the donation to the endowment of a Professorship of Mathe- 
matical and Physical Science was also considered at the same time. 
Both proposals were, however, rejected, and the following plan was. 
adopted:— 

1. — Five Studentships, to be named after the donor, of Rupees 
2,000 a year each, to be founded and maintained by the interest of 
the two lakhs of Rupees and its accumulations during the next five 
years. 

2. — Any M.A. of this University to be eligible for one of these 
Studentships during eight years from the time that he passed the 
Entrance Examination. 

3. — Such Studentship to be tenable for five years, and one elec- 
tion to be made annually after examination. 

4. — Candidates to give notice of intention to appear six months 
before the Examination, and to select not more than five of the 
following subjects, each to receive a maximum of 1,000 marks:— 

1. English. 

2. Latin. 

3. Greek. 

4. Sanscrit. 

5. Arabic. 

6. History of Greece, Rome, England, and India; and a general 

view of the History of Modern Europe from Guizot, 
Hallam, See.,— to include Political Economy. 

7. Moral Sciences, viz.. Ethics. Mental Philosophy, and Logic. 

8. Pure Mathematics. 

9. Mixed Mathematics. 

10. Physical Science. 

5. — The names of the Students to be printed in the Calendar 
after the Fellows, and after them the names of ex-Students. 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


I 3 8 

The first Examination for the award of a Premchund Roychund 
Studentship will be held in the spring of 1868. 

The Maharajah of Vizi anagram, in a letter to the Government 
of Bengal, dated 31st March 1865, expressed a desire to found a 
University Scholarship of Rupees 50 a month for the purpose of 
encouraging a liberal education in Literature and Science; and 
His Highness requested that the Scholarship might be designated the 
“Maharajah of Vizianagram Scholarship/’ and awarded to the first 
Graduate in the B.A. List of the year (being a Native of India), 
on condition of his prosecuting a further course of study in an affi- 
liated College for the attainment of the Degree of M.A. His High- 
ness further directed that application should be made to Rajah Sutt 
Shurn Ghosal, of Bhookoylas, for the annual payment on account 
of this Scholarship, until such time as it might be convenient for 
His Highness to invest an amount in Government Securities which 
would produce an annual income of Rupees 600. This Scholarship 
has been awarded in accordance with the wishes of the founder dur- 
ing the last two years; but, pending the receipt of the Government 
Securities, the endowment has not been recorded in the University 
Calendar. 

The Committee of the Duff Memorial Fund, at a Meeting on 
22nd February 1866, recommended to the subscribers that the funds 
at their disposal (about Rupees 20,000) should be invested in 
Government Securities, and transferred to the University for the 
purpose of founding four Scholarships, each of Rupees 15 a month, 
tenable for one year, to be awarded upon certain conditions to stu- 
dents after passing the First Examination in Arts. The subscribers, 
at a Meeting on 6th April 1866, approved of the Committee's propo- 
sal; and the Senate, at a Meeting on 21st July following, accepted 
this benefaction from the subscribers to the fund. The four Scho- 
larships have been awarded upon the result of the last Examination 
in December. 

35. Within the last year an important alteration was made in 
the Rules for affiliation. Formerly, Institutions could be affiliated in 
Arts only “for the B.A. Degree/’ i.e,, only if they provided the means 
of education up to the Standard of that Degree. Institutions can 
now be affiliated in Arts without the above mentioned limitation; 
and, under this alteration of the Rule, the Anglo-Persian Depart- 
ment of the Calcutta Madrissa has quite recently been affiliated in 
Arts as educating up to the Standard of the “First Examination in 
Arts.” 


UNIVERSITIES 1 ^ 

The following list of Institutions affiliated to the Calcutta Uni- 
versity is taken from the Calendar for 1866-67:- 

Government Institutions 


1. Presidency College, Calcutta 

2. Medical College, Calcutta . 

3. Sanscrit College, Calcutta . 

а . Hooghly College, Hooghly 

<. Dacca College, Dacca • • 

б. Kishnaghur College, Kishnaghur 

7. Berhampore College, Berhampore 

8. Patna College, Patna 

o. Agra College, Agra . 

10. Senates College, Benares . 

11. Bareilly College, Bareilly . 

12. A j mere School, A j mere 

13. Saugor School, Saugor • 

14. Queen’s College, Colombo 



} North-Western 
Provinces 

Central Provinces 
Ceylon 


15 - 

16. 

17 * 

18. 

19. 

20. 

21. 

22. 

24. 

25- 

26. 

27. 

28. 

29. 


Private Institutions 

*\ 

Bishop’s College, Calcutta • 

Doveton College, Calcutta • 

St. Paul’s School, Calcutta • 

Fr^e Church Institution, Calcutta 

pore, Calcutta * 

St. Xavier’s College, Calcutta • ■ 

General Assembly’s Institution, Calcutta 
Cathedral Mission College, Calcutta . 

Serampore College, Calcutta • * * 

St. John’s College, Agra • >North-Westerm 

Joynaram’s College, Benares • Uoorkee [provinces 

Thomason Civil Engineering College, Roorket • J 
Lahore Mission School, Lahore . - * * ! 

St. Thomas’s College, Colombo . - * ^ 



14 ° 


selections from educational records 



UNIVERSITIES 


141 

Madras University 

37. The Madras Uni tersity provides for the grant of the follow- 
ing Degrees, viz.:— 

Arts . . . . . f Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) 

Master of Arts (M.A.; 

Law . . . . . f Bachelor of Laws (B.L.) 

\ Master of Laws (M.L.) 

{ Bachelor of Medicine and Master in Surgery 
(B.M. and C.M.) 

Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) 

Civil Engineering . . Bachelor of Civil Engineering Oh.C.E.) 

Besides the examinations for the above Degrees, there are the 
“Matriculation Examination” and the “First Examination in Arts;” 
the latter being, as in the Calcutta University, intermediate between 
the Matriculation and B.A. Examinations. For the Degree of 
“B.M. and C.M.” there is a “Preliminary Scientific Examination” 
and a “First Examination,” both of which must be passed before 
the final or “Second Examination.” For the Degree of M.D. 
there is no examination in respect of candidates producing a 
certificate of having been engaged two years in the practice of their 
profession subsequent to having taken the Degree of “B.M. and 
C.M. ” other candidates on producing diplomas of the Madras 
Medical College, and certificates of having been engaged for five 
years in the practice of their profession, are allowed to present 
themselves for examination. 

38. The Madras University Regulations in respect of Examina- 
tions have, like those of the Calcutta University, undergone consi- 
derable modification since the establishment of the University. It 
would be tedious and out of place in a Note of this kind to attempt 
to enumerate the various alterations made. The principal changes 
up to 1863-64 were briefly indicated by the Director of Public 
Instruction in his Report for that year in the following terms, 
viz. 

(1). The range of History, in the Matriculation and Bachelor 
-of Arts Examinations, has been considerably reduced. 

(2). An Examination called the First in Arts has been interposed 
between the Matriculation and the Bachelor of Arts Examinations; 
and in this test. Arithmetic and Indian History are finally disposed 
•of. so as to allow of the examination in the higher subjects for the 
Bachelor of Arts Degree being made of a more searching character. 

(3). For the M.A. Degree in languages it is now prescribed that 
English shall be brought up by every candidate, whereas originally 
a Student was permitted to offer himself for examination in Latin 



X 42 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

and Greek to the exclusion of English. According to the plan 
first laid down. History, with scarcely anything beside a certain 
amount of Political Economy, formed a distinct branch in which- 
the Degree of M.A. could be obtained. The revised Regulations 
have thrown out the Historical Branch per se, and associate History 
with the subjects in another branch. 

(4) . The distinction originally drawn, in some cases, between 
ordinary and Honor Degrees of the same name has been done awav 
with, and* a higher Degree has been made to correspond with a 
more extensive range of attainments. Also, instead of placing 
passed candidates in anv class in alphabetical order, as was done 
at first, they are now ranked in order of merit, as determined bv 
the aggregate marks obtained in the Examination. 

(5) . The Standard ot the Examinations in Law has been raised;, 
and the subjects of examination, which were originally laid down 
in a vague and unsatisfactory manner, have been distinctly speci- 
fied. In the room, too, of the Degree of Bachelor of Law with 
honors, a new Degree of Master of Law has been instituted, upon 
the principle mentioned just above. 

(6) . At the establishment of the University, two Degrees were 
provided in Civil Engineering, viz., those of Graduate and Master. 
The designation of the lower has been changed from Graduate to 
Bachelor; and the higher Degree has been placed in abeyance for 
a time. Also the range of subjects for the lower test has been 
reduced,— language and history no longer entering the examination^ 
which is confined to branches of knowledge immediately connected 
with the profession of a Civil Engineer. 

The alterations since that time have had for their object— 

(7) . Raising the number of marks assigned to English in the 
rirst Arts Examination and in the B.A. Examination. 

(8) . Raising the number of marks assigned to Hydraulics in the 
Examination for the Degree of B.C.E., — the object being to give 
greater prominence to this important branch in the studies of those 
qualifying themselves as Engineers. 

(9) . The institution of three examinations instead of two for 
the Degree of “B.M. and C.M.”. 


UNIVERSITIES 143 

39. The Madras University Calendar for 1865-66 contains the 
following List of affiliated Institutions, viz. 

Institutions Affiliated to the University of Madras 

Church Mission Society’s Native English School, Palam- 
cottah. 

Church Mission Society’s College, Cottayam. 

Church Mission Society’s Institution, Cotta, near Colombo. 

Church Mission Society’s High School, Jaffna, 

Free Church Mission Institution, Madras. 

Government Normal School, Madras. 

Grammer School, Ootacamund. 

High School, Bangalore. 

London Mission Institution, Madras. ; 

London Mission Institution, Bangalore. 

London Mission Theological Seminary, Bangalore. 

Medical College. 1 .. , 

i- 11 r Madras. 

Presidency College, j 

Provincial School, Kumbhakonam. 

Provincial School, Bellary. 

Provincial School, Calicut. 

Wesleyan Anglo-Vernacular Institution, Madras. 

Wesleyan Native Educational Institution, Bangalore. 

Wesleyan Central School, Jaffna. 

40. The following remarks made by the Director of Pub3ic 
Instruction, Madras, in his Annual Report of 1863-64, may be 
quoted in connection with the above list:— 

“It is necessary here to observe that whether a School is, or is not, 

, affiliated is a matter of little importance in the 

Affiliation of little con- s ^ „ r , . 

sequence as regards the Madras Presidency, as Students are now admit- 

University of Madras te( j to a University Examination without being 
compelled to produce certificates from affiliated Institutions. Many 
Schools which send up Candidates to the University Examinations 
are not affiliated, while some of those which are affiliated have sent 
up few or no Candidates. Moreover, the privilege of affiliation has 
been given to Schools on their affording evidence, not of possessing 
means of educating up to the B.A. Standard, but of being capable 
of sending up qualified Candidates to the Matriculation Exami- 
nation.” 

125 Dir. of Arch — 10 




UNIVERSITIES 


145 


42. So far as the Professional Faculties are concerned, these 
statistics do not show any marked development of the University 
operations; but, as regards the Faculty of Arts, there is very decided 
evidence of the growing influence of the Institution. It is true 
that the statistics of the B.A. Examinaion for the last year 1865-66 
show a great falling of as compared with the preceding years; but 
this is accounted for by the circumstance that the year 1865-66 was 
the first in which a rule requiring Candidates for that Degree to 
have passed the First Arts Examination came into operation. The 
results of the Matriculation Examination deserve especial attention. 
This Examination, although the lowest in the scale of University 
Examinations, is by no means the least important. It may almost 
be said to be the most important, for, as remarked by the Director 
of Public Instruction in his Report of 1863-64, it affords “leverage 
immediately operative in raising the whole of what may be termed 
middle class education.” 

Bombay University 

43. The Bombay University provides for the grant of the 
following Degrees and Licence:— 

Arts ..... -("Bachelor °f Arts (B.A.) 

\ Master of Arts (M.A.) 

Law Bachelor of Laws (B.L.) 

Medicine . . . . /Licentiate of Medicine (L.M.) 

\ Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) 

Civil Engineering . . Master of Civil Engineering (M.C.E.) 

Besides the Examinations for the above-mentioned Degrees, 
there is the “Matriculation Examination/' and also, as in the 
Calcutta and Madras Universities, a “First Examination in Arts ' 
holding an intermediate place between the Matriculation and B.A. 
Degrees. There are two Examinations for the Degree of L.M., 
no Candidate being eligible for the second or final Examination 
until two years after he has passed the first. 


44. The following Statement gives for the Bombay University 
statistics of a kind similar to those already given for the Calcutta 
and Madras Universities:— 


Years 

Entrance First Arts. B. A. M.A. 

Examination Examination Examination Examination 

L. M (Final) 
Examination 

Number of 
Candidates 

Passed 

Number of 
Candidates 

Passed 

Number of 
Candidates 

Passed 

Number of 
Candidates 

Passed 

Number of 
Candidates 

<L» 

Of) 

CO 

aj 

El 

1859 . 1 

126 

22 

I- * 

| . . 



i860 . 

42 

14 


! ■ ■ 


* • 

1861 1 

86 

39 

. . 

i . • 

i 

• * 

1862 . 

134 

30 

. .1 6 

4 .. !•• 

7 

4 

1862-63 

143 

56 (not given) 15} 6 

3 . •• 

1 3 

3 

1863-64 

143 

56 (not given) 16 15 

8 1 (not given; 2 3 

3 

1864-65 

(not given) 

109 (not given) 1 5 j (not given) 

ji2|(not given) 1 2 

,;(not given; 

5 



146 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


COLLEGES 


147 


45. It will be observed that the only Examinations held for 
Professional Degrees have been in the Faculty of Medicine for the 
Degree of L.M. And even in the Faculty of Arts the results exhi- 
bited are but small when compared with those of the Madras and 
Calcutta Universities. But, nevertheless, there is a decided tendency 
to improvement; and it may be expected that the great attention 
recently given in Bombay to the development of High School and 
College education will have a marked effect on the University 
statistics. 

46. The following Institutions are shown in the Bombay 
Calendar of 1865-66 as affiliated to the University, viz . 


Elphinstone College . . Bombay. 

Poona College . . . Poona. 

Free General Assembly’s Ins- 
titution . . . Bombay. 

Government Law School . Bombay. 

Grant Medical College . Bombay. 


It is a small list, and all of the Institutions but one are in 
Bombay itself. 

47. An encouraging feature in the history of the Bombay Uni- 
versity is the magnificence of the contributions which private 
liberality has placed at its disposal. 

In the year 1862-63, the sum of Rupees 20,000 was presented by 
Munguldass Nathoobhoy, Esquire, for the foundation of a travelling 
Fellowship. 

In 1863-64, the donations received and offered amounted to no 
less than Rupees 4,71,200: the principal items in the long ljst 
being- (1) a donation of Rupees 1,75,000 from 18 gentlemen to- 
wards founding a Fellowship in memory of the late Earl Canning; 
(2) a donation of Rupees 1,00,000 from Cowasjee Jehangeer Ready- 
money, Esquire, for the erection of University buildings; (3) a 
like donation of Rupees 1,00,000 from Sorabjee Pestonjee Framjee, 
Esquire, towards founding a fellowship; (4) a donation of Rupees 
75,000 towards the establishment of a Professorship of Economic 
Science. 

In 1864-65, besides a donation of Rupees 1,200 for providing 
University mace, there were two munificent donations from Prem- 
chund Roychund,— the first (Rupees 2,00,000) towards the erection 
of a University Library; and the second (Rupees 2,00,000) for the 
erection of a Tower to contain a large clock and a set of joy-bells. 


Concluding Remarks respecting the three Universities 

48. Having given above detailed information and statistics 
respecting each of the three Indian Universities, I may here intro- 
duce the following remarks furnished to me by the Registrar of 
the Calcutta University, in reply to a question of mine as to whe- 
ther there was any material difference in the Standards for Examina- 
tion in the different Institutions:— 

“There does not appear to be any material difference in the 
Standards for Matriculation at the three Indian Universities. 

“At the Universities of Bombay and Madras, however, a Candi- 
date may appear at the B.A. Examination after a period of three 
years' study at an affiliated College, whilst in the University of 
Calcutta a period of four years' study is required. It might be 
expected that there would be a coiresponding difference in the 
Standards of Examination for Degrees at the three Presidencies,, 
and such in fact there appears to be. Both at Bombay and 
Madras the practice of allowing an Under-graduate to exercise an 
option in the subjects he will take up is permitted to a greater 
extent than at Calcutta; and, whilst the Graduate is examined in 
a wider range of subjects, it does not seem, from a comparison of 
the examination papers of the three U niversities, that the know- 
ledge of individual subjects exacted from a Graduate of this 
University is more superficial than at the sister Universities of 
Bombay and Madras." 


SECTION IV 

Colleges for General Education 

49. As will be gathered from the heading of this Section, it is 
proposed to deal only with Colleges for General Education leaving 
Professional Colleges, as well as Professional Departments of 
Colleges, to be treated of under the subsequent head of “Institu- 
tions for Special Education.” 

50. It may be well also to note that the remarks and statistics 
here submitted relate only to Institutions which are either under 
Government management, or subject to the inspection of Govern- 
ment Officers. There are some affiliated Institutions (principally 



148 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


in Bengal and Madras) which are neither aided by Government 
nor subject to the inspection of Government Officers, but the 
local Education Reports contain no information respecting them, 
and it would obviously be impossible at present to get from the 
Managers of such Institutions the statistics necessary for incorpora- 
tion in the Statements now given, 

51. The following Statement gives a comparative view of the 
statistics of College Education in the several Presidencies and 
Provinces:— 


Statement containing Statistics regarding Colleges for General 
Education for the year 1865-66. 



Bengal j 

N. W. Provs j 

Punjab 

_ 

Madras ! 

. _ ! 

Bombay 


Government Insti- 
tutions 

Private Institutions 

Government Insti- 
tutions 

Private Institutions 

Government Insti- 
tutions 

Private Institutions 

Government Insti- 
tutions 

Private Institutions 

Government Insti- 
tutions 

Private Institutions 

Number of Colleges 

7 

5 

3 

4 

2 

1 

1 

1 

2 

none 

Number of f Number on 











puDils attend- *{ rolls 

753 

339 

190 

* 

36 

15 

82 

* 

167 


ing them 1 Average at- 

i tendance . 

723 

315 

159 

* 

29 

12 

62 

* 

M3' 



Rs. 

| Rs 

| Rs. 

Rs 

; Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 


f From Govern- 





i 






i merit (Imp- 
! erial) Funds 

1 , 27,673 

19,374 

64,579 

* 

33,824 

447 

36,888 

* 

74,945 


Expenditure -t j 










j From Private 
i or local sourc- 







3,ii8 




Ces 

76,417 

57,8 55 

9,101 

* 

1,420 

3»753 

* 

33,201 


Total 

2,04090 

77,229 

73,68o 

* 

35,244 

4,200 

40,006 

* 

1 , 08,146 


Annual cost f Cost to Gov- 
of educating , ernment . 
each pupil, 

176 

61 

i 

i 

406 j 

* 

I,l 66 

37 

558 

* 

524 









L Total Cost 

282 

1 

245 

485 ! 

* 1 

1,215 ; 

350 

607 : 

i 

* 

756 



♦Note.- — The four Private Colleges in the North-Western Provinc es and the one Institution of 
this class in Madras are also Collegiate Schools, and the statistics given in the local Education Reports 
do not distinguish between the College and School branches. It would serve no good purpose to 
enter in this Satement the combined statistics, and the columns have, therefore, been left blank. 


COLLEGES 


149 


52. The following Statement contains a classification of the 
pupils attending the Colleges:— 

Classified Statement of Pupils attending the Colleges for General 
Education in 1865-66 


Bengal 

N.W. 

Provs. 

Punjab 

Madras 

Bombay 

Total 


^Exclusive of four out-Students in Patna College. 

j Given approximately in the same proportion as for the College and School 
Departments combined. 

f Separate statistics for the College Department not available. 

53. In the Government Institutions the annual cost of educating 
<each pupil is, as will be observed, by far the greatest in the Punjab, 
Tvhere it amounts to no less than Rupees 1,215. The Punjab 
Colleges were only recently formed, and the small u umber of 
pupils as yet attending them gives rise to this result. It may be 
that the establishment of two expensively equipped Colleges in 
the Punjab (at Lahore and Delhi) was a little in advance of the 
actual and immediate requirements of that Province in respect of 
College education; but the various Zillah Schools of the Punjab, 
which are yearly improving in status, will doubtless ere long pro- 
vide a supply of Students more commensurate with the cost of the 
College Establishments maintained for their education, and thus 
bring the present excessive expense of educating College pupils in 
the Punjab nearer to the level of other Provinces. 

54. The division of pupils into ‘Hindoos/ ‘Mahomedans, and 
‘Others* shows, as might be expected, the very large predominance 
of the Hindoo element among the Students. Apart altogether 
from the relative proportion of Hindoos among the upper and 
middle classes of the population of the country, it is unquestionable 

that the Hindoos, as a race, take more readily to our system of 
education. Of the whole number of Hindoos and Mahomedans 
attending Colleges, only 3 1 .per cent, are Mahomedans. 




150 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


55. I now proceed to offer a few remarks respecting the Colleges 
of each Presidency and Province. 

Bengal 

56. The Institutions of this class in Bengal are given in detail 

Date of ° n the mar S in - The Presi ' 
Government Institutions . foundation dency College was establish- 

1. Presidency College, Calcutta 1855 ed in 1855 on the basis of 

2 . Dacca College, Dacca 1841 the old Hindoo College. A 


2. Dacca College, Dacca 1841 

3 * Berhampore College, Berhampore 1853 

4. Kishnaghur College, Kishnaghur 1846 

5. Patna College, Patna 1862 

6 . Sanscrit College, Calcutta 1836 

7. Hooghly College, Hooghly 1824 

Private Institutions . 


dency College was establish- 
ed in 1855 on the basis of 
the old Hindoo College. A 
full account of the history 
of the Hindoo College, the 
destruction of its exclusive 
rnaracter, and its incorpora- 
tion in the plan for the 
foundation of the Presidency 
College as well as a sketch 
of the scheme on which the 
latter was founded, will be 
found in No. XIV. of the 
Selections from the Records 
of the Bengal Government. 


1 . Cathedral Mission College, n „ ", / 

Calcutta * jg ^5 College as well as a sketch 

2. Doveton College, Calcutta 1855 t ^ ie sc ^ eme on which the 

3. Free Church Institution, Calcutta 1830 latter was founded, will be 

4. General Assembly’s Institution, found in No. XIV. of the 

^ ~ 1830 Selections from the Records 

. ot the Bengal Government. 

The mam features of the re-organization consisted in the establish- 
ment of Chairs for Moral and Mental Philosophy and Logic, for 
Natural Philosophy and Astronomy, for Natural History and 
Geology, which did not exist in the old Hindoo College, and also 
in the establishment on a defined footing of a separate Department: 
for the study of law. In 1864-65 a third Department of Civil 
Engineering was added to the College, consequent upon the aboli- 
tion of the separate Civil Engineering College. The Professional 
Departments will, however, be separately treated of under the 
head of Institutions for Special Education. ” 

57. The Presidency College (General Department) is conducted 
Presidency College by a Principal and six Professors aided 

by five Assistant Professors. The follow- 
ing brief account of the Institution is taken from the Bengal Edu- 
cation Report of 1863-64:— 

The course of study for Under-graduate students extends over 
four years, and a fifth-year class is also maintained, consisting of 
Graduates who are preparing to present themselves at the Exami- 
nation for University Honours or for the M.A. Degree. The College 
possesses an Endowment Fund, partly derived from subscriptions, 
raised to commemorate the services rendered to education by 


COLLEGES 


151 

Baboo Dwarkanath Tagore, Sir Edward Ryan, and Mr Bird, and 
partly from sums contributed by the Native community for the 
maintenance of the old Hindoo College. These funds yield a 
yearly income of Rupees 4,132, which is devoted to the establish- 
ment of 10 Graduate Scholarships, tenable for one year. The 
holders, who must be Bachelors of Arts, are required to attend the 
College regularly, and to prepare themselves for the Examination 
for University Honors in any branch they may select.” 

The large attendance (monthly average 301) at this College, 
the high fee rate (Rupees 10 per mensem, about to be increased 
to Rupees 12) yielding an income of Rupees 32,000 per annum, 
and the great prominence which the Institution has in all the 
University Lists, indicate the position which it has attained, and 
mark it out as a most encouraging proof of the stimulus which of 
late years has been given to education in the Metropolis. It is 
true that since 1864 the number of pupils has decreased from 367 
to 310, but this is due to the large extension of the means of College 
Education which has recently taken place in various other Colleges 
both in Calcutta and in the Mofussil; and it is no subject, therefore, 
for regret. The classes are now stated to be as full as is consistent 
with a proper attention on the part of the Professors to the studies 
of their pupils. 

58. The next College on the Bengal List is the Dacca Institution. 

The Dacca College has long held the 
Dacca College position of the best Mofussil College 

in Bengal, but until within the last few years the upper classes 
existed in little more than the name; the few Students in them 
being almost without exception Scholarship-holders. But of late 
the Dacca College has improved in this respect. In 1865-66 this 
College furnished two successful candidates for the Degree of M.A., 
four for the Degree of B.A., and 22 for the First Arts Examination. 

59. The next two Colleges on the List are those at Berhampore 

Berhampore and Kishnaghur and Kishnaghur. It was only recently 
Colleges that the staff of these Colleges was raised 

so as to enable them to educate up to the B.A. Degree; 3rd and 
4th year classes being opened for this purpose in 1865-66. Both 
of these Colleges have greatly extended their usefulness within the 
last few years, the aggregate number of pupils having risen from 
64 in 1862 to 148 in 1866. 


60. The next College 
Patna College 


(Patna) was opened in 1862 for the pur- 
pose chiefly of affording the means of a 
good education to the Mahomedan popu- 


lation of Patna and its neighbourhood. There are only as yet 20 



152 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

■Students in the College (distributed among three classes), and must 
of them are Scholarship-holders. The Patna College is, of course, 
duefly dependent for its Students on the pupils of the surrounding 
Zillah Schools who pass the Entrance Examination; and it will, 
perhaps, take some time before the advantages of a College educa- 
tion come to be appreciated in that part of the country in the 
same degree as in some other parts of Bengal. 

61. The next two Colleges are those called the Sanscrit and 
•Oriental Colleges Hooghly Colleges; they are the remains 

°f what were once purely Oriental Semi- 
naries, and I have thought it best to reserve an account of them 
for a separate Section (VII) of this Note. 


62. The next five Institutions on the Bengal List are Private 
Private Colleges Colleges aided by Government. The 

, • TQCK . Cathedral Mission College was establish- 

ed m 1865 in connection with the Church Missionary Society, and 
is supported mainly by the Cathedral Church Mission Fund made 
■over to the Church Missionary Society in 1857 by the late Bishop 
llson, by whom the fund was originated. The Institution edu- 

ed TnT855 0 h f andard ' The Doveton College was establish- 
ed in 1855 when a legacy of Rupees 2,30,000 was left by Captain 

Dove on to the Parental Academy, with which the College in 
quesuon is connected. This College, and the Free Chul of 

fn hTr f nSt f ltUt ! 0n founded in 1830 by Dr. Duff, rank clearly first 

th/racuUy of°Am'" S R ' tUrns , of the University Examination, in 
be introduced here a" 2 ? ^ S ‘“ denK - a PI> r °P™"iy 

position of 


From Government Colleges 
From Private Colleges (aided) 
From Private Colleges Cunaided) 
School Meters . 


Passed 

First Arts 
Examination, 
1 865-66. 

B.A. 

Examination, 
[ 1865-66. 

M.A. 

Examination, 

1865-66. 

130 

1 56 1 

1 13 

32 1 

15 1 

I 

3 

•• 1 

1 

•• 


13 


4 


1 


COLLEGES 


153 


North-Western Provinces 

64. The Colleges in the North-Western Provinces are given on 

the margin. There is another 
Government of foundation Government Institution in the 

t. Agra College . . 1823 North-Western Provinces, viz., 

2. Bareilly College . . 1837 the Ajmere Collegiate School, 

3 . Benares College * . 1792 w ]ii C h has been affiliated to the 

Private Calcutta University, but which 

T * .vr . x is not shown by the Director 

(Church of E:\glai\d Mission), ; 

Agra 18 o of Public Instruction in the 

% 1853 list of Colleges. Probably the 

4 . Victoria College, Agra Institution does not practically 

train Under-graduate Students to the extent that would warrant its 
being placed in the list. The main point of interest in connection 
with the three Government Colleges is the establishment within 
the last few years of Boarding-Houses, in connection with them and 
the attached Schools. These Boarding-Houses constitute rather a 
novel feature in Indian Educational Institutions, and they are stated 
to have worked extremely well. The primarv object in view was 
to encourage the attendance at these Central Institutions of youths 
from other parts of the country, and the object has been fully 
attained. The Boarding-Houses have, for the most part, as many 
inmates as they can contain, and the Teachers have found that the 
boarders are their best pupils. The pupils have been encouraged, 
with success, to take an interest in gardening and other useful 
employments out of School hours, as well as in athletic sports and 
English games. Full accounts of these Boarding-Houses will be 
found in the Education Reports of the North-Western Provinces for 
the last three years. 


65. Of the Private Colleges in the North-Western Provinces, St. 
John's College, Agra, was established in 1850 in connection with 
the Church Missionary Society at Agra; the large and handsome 
Gothic building in which the classes are now held being completed 
in 1850. Joy Narain’s College at Benares was founded as a School 
in 1818 by Rajah Joy Narain Ghosal Bahadoor, in gratitude for 
his recovery from a protracted illness. It was raised to the status 
of a College in 1853. 


66 . The Colleges of the North-Western Provinces do not as yet 
make much show in the University Returns, but considerable im- 
provement is observable, as will be seen from the following figures:— 

1863 1864 1S65 

First Arts Examination .... 4 5 9 

B. L. Examination ..... 1 2 3 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


Punjab 


67. In the Punjab there are three Colleges, as noted in the- 
margin, all of which were established in 1864. The short experience 

of the two Government Colleges has not 
G "“ f£ZSL ■ °* ‘ 1 * encouraging kind. I, 

Lahore College 1864 ' ;ls been found difficult to get Students, 

Delhi College 1864 and still more difficult to keep them. 

Private so much so that the necessity of paying 

Lahore Mission College 1864 aP ’ or near 4' all, of them for their 

attendance, under the name of Scholar- 
s ips, was seriously pressed upon the consideration of Government 
As already pointed out, the calculated cost of educating pupils in 
t e Government Colleges of the Punjab (viz.. Rupees 1,215 for each 
pupil per annum) is enormously high; but, as the pupils increase 
m numbers, the average cost of each will, of course, be less. And 
there seems to be ground for expecting that the numbers will in- 

♦There was in r 86 5 -66 an aver- y-Tu’l ^ n0t ° nly ^ the Pun j ab ' 
age attendance of only eight schools (the natural feeders of 

,he Colleges) improving, bu, i„ the 
College. new Rules for the examination of Can- 

didates for Tehsildarships and other 
appointments, due weight has been accorded to success in the Uni- 
versity Examinations. For the present, however, it is difficult to- 
deny that the expense of the two Government Colleges in the Pun- 
lab is disproportionate to the results obtained. 


♦There was in 1865-66 an aver- 
age attendance of only eight 
Students in the Lahore Col- 
lege, and 21 in the Delhi 
College. 


68 . The single Private College in the Punjab was engrafted, in 
1864, on the Lahore Mission Schoolman Institution founded in 

Presbvteria 17- ^ annexation o£ th * Punjab, by the American 
S10n ' ThC C ° 1Iege department, although yet in, 

are not vL^ 156 ^ 5 t0 glVC g °° d P romise of success. The Students 
but this ^ nu ™ erous -° nl y 15, with an average attendance of 12, 
ml C„.w n! :f r l“ y m ° re th “ “ •>' ^ in the Govern- 
Students with a ^ Same place ( Lahore )> which has only 12 

r a £ t a “ n r da - nce ’• iS “ »' 

printed .hemsdves f ot ^ Can,lidatts 

the successful Students includin 1 Examination, half (five) of 
Divici^n a \ ncIu “ in g the only one classed in the 1st 

£,mTe “ th “ Mvate halt e„ ra i„ g 

from the two Government Colleges at Lahore and Delhi. 


COLLEGES 


155 


Madras 


69 The two Colleges in Madras are the Presidency College 
(Government) and the Doveton Protestant College (Private). The 
d ’ Madras Presidency College assumed 

Government foZa °L that name in 1855, having been pre- 

presidency College 1841 viously known as the Madras Un.ver- 

sity. It is only within the last tew 
Private vears that it has really deserved the 

^Sge PresldenCy 1 55 name of College, but the results of each 
year have testified to its improving condition. The number of Stu- 
dents, which for 1862-63 was only 47, has steadily increased to 81 
for 1865-66; and more than half of the last mentioned number come 
from other districts of the Presidency, which shows that the grow- 
ing appreciation of College education is not confined to the 
Presidency Town. The following statistics of the University show 
the position held by the Madras Presidency College relatively to 
the Institutions:— 


Presidency Other Private 
College Government Institu- 
Institations tions 


Passed in First Arts Examination in 1865-66 . 

Passed in B.A. ...*•* 


70. And here it is necessary to explain that, although there is 
in the Madras Presidency only one Government College for General 
Education, there are several other Institutions (Provincial Schools, 
Sec.,) which educate, as the above statistics show, beyond the 
Matriculation Standard,— and which, whether affiliated or not, are 
allowed by the Madras University to send up Candidates. 


71. The Doveton Protestant College, which is the only Private 
Institution shown in the Madras Statistical Returns under the 
head of Colleges, seems hardly to deserve that distinction. During 
the last three years, 1863-64, 1864-65, and 1865-66, the Doveton 
College has not passed a single B.A. Student, and has passed only 
four Students in the First Arts Examination. There are other 
Private Institutions which have done more; and it is difficult, there- 
fore, to understand on what principle a classification has been made 
in the Education Report, which singles out the Doveton 
Protestant College as the only Private Institution entitled to the 
rank of a College for General Education. 



156 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


Bombay 

72. The two Colleges in Bombay are both Government Insti- 
tutions, viz., the Elphinstone College, Bombay; and the Poona 
Government Date of College, Poona. There are no Private 

Elphinstone College f° un f%*° n Colleges open to Government inspection; 
Poona College 1851 but there is one Private College, the 

“Free General Assembly’s Institution,” which has been affiliated 
to the University, and is excluded from present notice simply be- 
cause, not being open to Government inspection, no statistics 
respecting it are embodied in the Education Reports. This Insti- 
tution, however, has had but very limited success in the Univer- 
sity Examination, having passed altogether only two B.A. Students. 
The University Examination Returns in the Faculty of Arts 
are composed almost exclusively of pupils from the Elphin- 
stone and Poona Colleges. These two Government Colleges 
underwent a thorough reform in 1857-58, an account of which will 
be found in the Report of that year. They were both recognized 
by the University in 1860. 


73. The following account of the Elphinstone College is taken 
from the Bombay University Calendar of 1865-66:— 

Elphinstone College arose by a separation in the year 1856 of 
the Professorial element from the 'Elphinstone Institution,’ which 
henceforth became a High School. 

The Elphinstone Institution had its origin in a Meeting of 
the Bombay Native Education Society on the 22nd August 1827, to 
consider the most appropriate method of testifying the affectionate 
and respectful sentiments of the inhabitants of Bombay to the 
Hon ble Mountstuart Elphinstone on his resignation of the Govern- 
ment of Bombay. The result of this Meeting was that a sum of 
money, amounting to Rupees 2,29,656, was collected by public sub- 
scription towards the endowment of Professorships for teaching the 

n ? * S j ang '.' age ' an< ^ tbe '^ rts ’ Sciences and Literature of Europe, 
to be denominated the Elphinstone Professorships This sum after- 
wards accumulated to Rupees 4,43,901, and the interest of it is 

22 ,vJ«OO. nted by ^ annUaI Subscri P tion from Government of Rupees 

“In 1863 Cowasjee Jehangeer Readymoney, Esquire, Justice of 
die Peace Bombay, presented Government with one hundred 
thousand Rupees towards erecting suitable College buildings for 
Elphinstone College, to be called the ‘Cowasjee Jehangeer buildings’. 


COLLEGES 


157 


“In 1864, on account of the rise in the prices of building mate- 
rials and labor, Mr. Cowasjee Jehangeer added a second sum cff one 
hundred thousand Rupees to his former munificent donation." 

74. The number of successful Candidates coming from the 
Elphinstone College to the University Examination appears to be 
steadily increasing. It passed seven in the First Arts Examination 
in 1861, and 13 in 1865. In the B.A. Examination the number of 
successful competitors from the Elphinstone College has risen from 
four in 1862 to ten in 1865, and in the M.A. Examination the 
number has risen from one in 1862 to four in 1865. The average 
attendance at the Institution has also increased from 65 in 1861-62 
to 78 in 1865-66. All this betokens an increasing efficiency and 
popularity, and the comparatively high fee rate (Rupees 10 per 
mensem) shows that education is not without a considerable money 
value in the eyes of those who take advantage of it. 

75. The following account of the Poona College is taken front 
the Bombay University Calendar for 1865-66:— 

“Qn the occupation of the Deccan by the British Government 
in 1818, it was found that a certain portion of the revenues of the 
Maratha State had been yearly set apart for pensions and presents 
to Brahmans (Dakshina). To prevent hardship and disappoint- 
ment, and to fulfil the implied obligations of the new Rulers, the- 
British Government continued these payments; but, as the pensions 
and allowances fell in, they resolved, while maintaining the same 
total expenditure, under the name of the Dakshina- Fund, to devote 
a portion of it to a more permanently useful end, in the encourage- 
ment of such kind of learning as the Brahmans were willing to 
cultivate. With this view the Poona College was founded in 1821 
as a Sanscrit College, exclusively for Brahmans. 

“In 1837 some branches of Hindoo learning were dropped; the 
study of the vernacular and of English was introduced, and the 
College was opened to all classes; and, after having been amalgamat- 
ed with the English School in 1851, it arose in its present form in 
1857, by a separation of the College division from the School divi- 
sion. From another portion of the Dakshina Fund, Dakshina Fel- 
lowships have been founded, of which four, viz., one Senior Fellow- 
ship of Rupees 100 per mensem, and three Junior Fellowships each 
of Rupees 50 per mensem, are attached to the College. 

“In 1863 Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, Bart., offered to Government 
the sum of one hundred thousand Rupees to provide suitable 
College buildings for the Poona College.” 



i 5 8 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


76. The Poona College passed in 1865-66 twelve Students in the 

First Arts Examination, three in the B.A. Examination, and one in 
the M.A. Examination. These figures are considerably less than 
those already given for the Elphinstone College, but the progress of 
the Poona College during recent years has been perhaps the greater 
of the two. r 

77. The Director of Public Instruction makes the following re- 
marks in the Report of 1865-66, viz.,- 

The Government Arts Colleges (Elphinstone and Poona) are 
in a good condition as regards discipline and teaching, and the 
humanizing influence which they exercise. Poona College has begun 
to gain on Elphinstone College both in numbers and University 
successes. This is owing partly to the efficient condition of the 
Poona High School, partly to the appreciation of literary educa- 
tion among the Brahmans of the Deccan. It is a source of regret 
that Elphinstone College remains stationary in point of numbers. 
This I attribute partly to the recent disturbed condition of the 
popular mind in Bombay (on account of commercial excitement,) 
which has been unfavorable to educational development, but 
especially I attribute it to the general want of feeling for literature 
among the Parsees, who, with all their stirring and energetic quali- 
ties and their Europeanizing tendencies, seem to have hardly any 
ideas for their children beyond the desk or the counter. Except 
two grandsons of the Honourable Mr. Framjee Nusserwanjee Patel, 
there is, I think, no scion of any leading Parsee family under col- 
legiate instruction. Looking at the matter broadly, we find that 
out of about one hundred Students who passed the Matriculation 
Examination last year, about 50 joined the Government Colleges, 
the rest having for the most part accepted School-masterships and 
other small appointments. If the same average were continued, 
about 25 students per annum only would enter each of the Govern- 
ment Arts Colleges, which would give an attendance for the three 
years' course at each of the Colleges of about 75 or 80 Students. 

"But the great encouragements recently held out to University 
Graduates by His Excellency the Governor of Bombay in Council, 
and by the High Court will doubtless prove a powerful stimulant 
towards increasing the number of collegiate Students. I refer in 
particular first , to a Circular letter from the Government to the 
Revenue Commissioner, No. 4481, dated 31st October 1865, request- 
iag that Mamlutdars appointments may be, as far as possible, con- 
leired on Bachelors of Arts; secondly , to the appointment by His 
.Excellency in Council of a Deputy Educational Inspector in the 


SCHOOL 


159 


;Belgaum Sub-division to be Deputy Collector; thirdly , to a Resolu- 
tion of Her Majesty’s Honorable Bench of Justices, dated 22nd 
June 1866, No. 932, admitting Bachelors of Laws, under certain 
conditions, to practise as Advocates on the Original Side of the 
High Court; fourthly, to the recent appointment by Government of 
a Bachelor of Laws, to act as Judge in the Court of Small Causes. 
These encouragements will do more than anything which this 
Department could possibly effect to promote higher education in 
the Presidency." 

SECTION V 
Schools 

78. It is proper to note at the outset that the statistics here given 
respecting Schools refer only to Schools managed by Government, 
or open to the inspection of Government Officers. There are, of 
course, Private Schools in some parts of the country which receive 
no aid from Government, and are not open to Government inspec- 
tion; but their number is quite insignificant in comparison with 
those managed or inspected by Government Officers, to which the 
following statistics relate;— 


125 Dir. of Arch — 11 



i6o 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SCHOOLS 


161 


Government Schools, and Private Schools open to *■ 



Bengal 

N.W. Provinces 

Punjab 

j Madras 


( 1 

t 1 


_ 1 

d 

.1 

! a 

_ 1 

! « 
d 


£ 

ts 


a 

.2 

3 

d 

i .2 

j ^ 

d 

0 

3 


c 


3 

d 


d 


d 



<L> 

rt TJ 

4 > 

£ c 

c 

*-< 


d 

|s 

d 

*— » 


£.2 


£0 

93 

sj 

V 

£.2 

u 


>3 




> 

> 3 


> 3 

> 

Nc. of Institu- 
tions 


Aided 

Unaided 

0 « 

O 

CL 

C « 
0 

£ 

0 *-* 
O 

£ 










Higher Class . 

50 

83 

7 

5 

4 

24 

18 

13 

14 

Middle Class . 

117 

849 

92 

265 

! 78 

71 

52 

68 

169 

Lower Class . 

I 81 

1,132 

73 

3,097 

5,161 

1,768 

3 

17 

825 

Female Class . 

3 

192 

25 

497 

77 

333 

696 


139 

Total 1 - 

251 

2,256 

197 

3,864 

5,320 ! 

2,196 

769 

98 

1 , 147 ’ 

No. of pupils at- 










tending them 










Higher Class . 

9,339 

10,507 

1,481 

L 545 

1,214 

8,140 

5,297 

3,132 

3,126 

Middle Class . 

8,124 

37,924 

3,501 

20,260 

10,232 

6,999 

1,515 

3,786 

9 , 762 - 

Lower Class . 

2,787 

36,307 

1,962 

95,535 

59,720 

60,373 

108 

498 1 

14,636 

Female Class . 

T 53 

5,070 

489 

9,269 

L 494 

6,834 

12,727 


3,315 

Total . 

20,403 

89,808 

7,433 

1,26,609 

72,660 

82,346 

19,647 

7,416 

30,839, 

Expenditure 
Higher ^lass 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

From Imperial 







54,363 



Funds 

From Other 
Sources . 

2,00,328 

56,058 


1,08,983 

18,333 

121,788 

1,03,986 

33 , 996 ' 

i,95,io8 

1,30,850 


8,892 

35,541 

29,894 

79,304 

15,983 

87,303. 

Middle Class 

From Imperial 
Funds 

From Other 

45,405 

1,51,169 


60,633 

77,320 

19,924 

14,087 

37,969 

50,204. 

Sources . 

19,863 

2,49,608 


28,130 

1,01,833 

12,080 

16,812 

9,355 

1,31,724* 

Lower Class 
F rom Imperial 










Funds 

From Other 

12,549 

57,595 

d 

62,203 

13,815 

22,874 

319 

2 ,954 

17 , 189 ' 

Sources . 
Female Class 

2,720 

62,561 

•a 

L 73 ,i 53 

2,49,583 

L 5 L 277 

263 


14,733 

From Imperial 
Funds . 
From Other 

7 , 4 io 

30,528 

1 

20,698 

14,460 

10,487 

25,100 


5,^7 

Sources 

35 

50,570 


7,377 

15,696 

13,694 

16,495 


32,820 

Total— 

From Imperial 

2,65,692 









Funds . 

2 , 95,350 


2,52,517 

1,23,928 

L 75,073 

93,869 

1,44,909 

1,07,006' 

From Other 

2,17,726 









Sources 

4 , 93,589 


2 , 17,552 

4,02,653 

2,06,945 

i. 

1,12,874 

25,338 

2,66,580 

Grand Total 

4,83,418 

7,88,939 


4,70,069 j 5 ,26, 58 1 

3,82,018 

2,06,743 

1,70,247 

3 , 73 , 586 * 


Government Inspection , — Statistics for the year 186 $-66. 



Bombay 

OUBE | 

Central 

Provinces 

Mysore 

British Burmah and 
the Berars 

1 

i 

1 

Government Insti- 
tutions 

Private Institutions 

d 

d 

B £ 
£.2 

oH 

C 

Private Institutions 

Government Insti- 
tutions 

Private Institutions 

d 

c 

u 

f s 

£ 0 
4»‘3 
> 3 

Private Institutions 

Government Insti- 
tutions 

Private Institutions 


9 

2 

10 

4 

1 

1 

6 

4 




^65 

20 

34 

12 

105 

11 

9 

7 




1,121 

69 

61 

36 

546 

680 

32 

15 




33 

Included 


11 

92 



7 





in above 










1,328 

9 i 

105 

63 

744 

692 

47 

33 




i 








Owing to the verv recent 










appointment of Direc- 


i, 74 i ! 

665 

1,395 

i,i 35 

270 

223 

831 

529 

tors of Public Instruc- 










tion and the 

organiza- 


| 23,794 i 

2,358 

2,989 

1,042 

10,033 

940 ! 

392 

888 

tion of regular Edu- 










cation Departments in 


67,124 

4,174 

2,004 i 

1,240 

18,984 

13,774 

1,126 

1,472 

: Burmah and the Berars^ 




i 





1 

1 no sufficient 

statistics 


Included 

Included 


270 

2,361 



345 

are available. But a 


in above 

in above 







general reference to the 






! 




schools in those Pro- 




















the body of this note . 


92,659 

7,197 

| 6,388 

3,687 

31,648 j 

14,937 

2,349 

3,234 




Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

* 



76,321 

1,923 

32,876 

28,777 

10,945 

1,650 

21,878 

13,435 




49,922 

31,664 

5,425 

i 5 , 9 T c 

1,260 

3*733 


16,650 




1,03,346 

30 ,H 3 

26,753 

3,829 

50,080 

9,541 

9,609 

5,070 




1,36,274 

98,191 

10,151 

6,566 

39,433 

10,438 


3=567 



« 

1,74,636 

7,459 


2,40.9 

689 

428 

7 , 58 i 

3,986 i 




2,03,651 

98,431 

5,082 

4,963 

1,09,092 

18,685 


4*346 







2,726 

83 



3,070 




Included 

Included 










in above 

in above 


8,692 

n, 94 2 



4,929 




3 , 54,303 

39,495 

59,629 

■ 37 , 74 i 

61,797 

11,619 

39,068 

25,561 




3,89,847 

i 

2,28,286 

1 20,658 

36,131 

1,61,727 

32,856 


29,492 




| 7 , 44,150 

2,67,781 

80,287 

73,872 

2,23,524 

44,475 

39,068 

55,053 




1 62 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

79. It should be explained here that the classification of Schools 
into “Higher/' “Middle/' and “Lower" Classes made by the Educa- 
tional Authorities of the different Presidencies and Provinces has 
been somewhat altered by me. 

80. “Higher Class" Schools are those which educate up to the 
University Entrance Standard; and although in some cases Schools 
may have been included by the local Educational Authorities in this 
class, with reference rather to a professed ability to educate up to 
that Standard than to actual results, the classification may, perhaps, 
be accepted as sufficiently correct; and I have not therefore altered it. 

81. But the distinction between Middle Class and Lower Class 
Schools has never been very precisely laid down, and hence different 
principles of classification have been adopted by the local Authori- 
ties.., which I have found it necessary to alter in order to preserve 
uniformity. The Resolution of the Government by which the classi- 
fication was directed described the “Middle Class" as “composed of 
Schools which do not educate up to the University Standard, but 
which are above the School designed for the education of the masses," 
and the “Lower Class" as composed of Schools located in villages, 
towns* etc., and designed primarily for the education of the masses." 

82. In Bengal the “Lower Class" has been made to include only 
the “strictly elementary" Schools in which instruction is “conveyed 
exclusively in the Vernacular," and is “mainly confined to reading, 
writing, and simple arithmetic," all other Schools, whether 
Vernacular or Anglo-Vernacular, (not being Institutions educating 
up to the University Standard) being entered under the “Middle 
Class." This is perhaps, on the whole, the best principle of clssifica- 
tion: and it appears to have been carried out in all Provinces except 
the North-Western Provinces, Oude and the Central Provinces, where 
the Tehsil or Town Schools have been wholly or partly entered in 
the Lower Class. As these Schools all provide a more than elemen- 
tary Vernacular Education, I have transferred them to the head of 
“Middle Class Schools." 

83. Too much importance must not, however, be attached to the 
classification of Schools, for, apart from mere errors of classification, 
it is obvious that any classification based on the standards up to 
which the various kinds of Schools profess to educate, must be, more 
or less, liable to mislead. An Anglo-Vernacular School, for instance, 
may have a few advanced pupils preparing for the University 
Entrance Standard, entitling it to be ranked as a Higher Class 


SCHOOLS 


163 


School; but the great bulk of its pupils may be under education 
of a very much lower kind, and a considerable number may be 
under tuition of the most elementary character. Yet all these 
pupils will be shown as belonging to a Higher Class School. At- 
tempts are, however, being made in some parts of the country (espe- 
cially perhaps in Bombay) to draw a clear line of distinction bet- 
ween the different grades of Schools, and to make the education in 
one grade commence where the education of the next lower grade 
of Schools ends; and it will perhaps be time enough, when some 
progress has been made in this respect, to consider the propriety 
of altering the Statistical Forms. 

84. I proceed to offer a few remarks respecting the Schools of 
each class included in the Statement given above. 

Schools— Higher Class 
Bengal 

85. In Bengal the 50 Government Higher Class Schools consist 
of 11 Collegiate and Branch Schools attached to, or in connection 

with, the Colleges; and of 36 Zillah 
No^^ng DUrrUng ^ Schools. Four Zillah Schools were estab- 

Chyebassa (Singhboom) lished during 1865-66 at the places mar- 

Hazareebagh ginally noted, thereby supplying with 

Government Zillah Schools the only four districts in Bengal which, 
till then, were without them. Three of the existing Schools (at 
Gowalpara, Rungpore, and Darjeeling) were at the same time 
placed on an improved footing; and the Gowhatty School was 
raised to the status of what the Director of Public Instruction calls a 
“High School," by which he means an Institution capable of edu- 
cating up to the 'First Arts' Standard of the University,— the Govern- 
ment assignment being increased from Rupees 2,666 to Rupees 12,000 
per annum. A similar elevation of status has quite recently been 
proposed in respect of the Cuttack Zillah School. The Under-gra- 
duate Classes of such Institutions belong more properly to the 
statistical heading of 'College Students/ and I believe that the 
Director of Public Instruction intends to adopt this classification in 
future. One of the Bengal Higher Class Schools, called the Collin- 
gah Branch School (a Branch of the Presidency College), was until 
recently a purely Mahomedan Institution. During 1865-66, how- 
ever, it was thrown open to all classes; the fee rate being fixed at 
Rupees four per mensem for all pupils, other than Mahomedans, 
for whom the previous fee rate of one Rupee was continued. 




87. It thus appears that the annual cost of educating each pupil 
in the Government Schools of the Higher Class in Bengal is 
Rupees 46. Of this, the Imperial revenue is charged with exactly 
one-half (Rupees 23), the remainder being defrayed from local 
sources, such as endowments, subscriptions, fees, etc. It is satisfactory 
to note that by far the greater portion of the local income in Govern- 
ment Schools is derived from fees, and this source of income may be 
expected to increase not only with the number of pupils, but with 
the development of an appreciation among the Natives of the advant- 
ages of a good education, which will render it possible and proper to 
raise the fee rate. 


88. The cost of education in Private Schools of the class under 
notice is, as will be seen, much less than in Government Institutions. 
That this should De the case is not surprising, and it may be noted 


SCHOOLS 


. , * . tL'it the Private Institutions do tiot generally 

“ ” Pirt ' a “C “tT standard as the Government 

(46 per cent.) is rather more than the proportion (43 per cent.) 
Government Schools. 

89 The division of pupils into Hindoos, Mahomedans etc., shows 
that there are about 11 Hindoos attending Higher Schools m Beng 

ior every Mahomedan. ■ 

90 The University Returns bear strong evidence ot the successful 

-working of the Higher Class Schools in Bengal. The average number 

-oMBengal Studenfs who have passed the Entrance Exammauon m 

the last four vears (1862-63 to 1865-66) is 521. The following 

details of the results of the Examination lor 1865-66 ma, be gtvent- 

University Enterance Examination •" ; 

1 

Bengal Students 


Number passed 


December 1865 

Number of 
Candidates 

1st Divi- 
sion 

2nd Divi- 
sion 

Total 

Government Schools 
Private Schools (aided) 

3J (unaided) . 

School Masters 
Private Students 

548 

549 
174 

17 

33 

30 

12 

3 

191 

152 

40 

2 

3 

221 

164 

43 

2 

3 

Total 

1,321 

45 

388 

433 


North-Western Provinces 

91 The nine Higher Class Schools of the North-Western Pro- 
vinces consist of the School Departments of the three Governm 
Colleges at Agra, Benares, and' Bareilly; of the Government Schoo 
« Ajmere and Etawah; and oi the School Departments -nhe four 
Private Colleges-one at Benares, and three at Agra. A bttef reier 

The majority of these Institutions will doubtless at first stai & 
rank as Middle Class Institutions; but some will, I imagine, rom 
oiuset, be equipped in a manner ” 

eventually to be brought 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SCHOOLS 


1 66 


up to this Standard. The establishment of Zillah Schools in the* 
North-Western Provinces is a noticeable point in the history of 
education in those Provinces. The want of such Schools was a 
marked feature of the Organization; the Education Department 
holding to the idea of the gradual development of educational 
progress from below (the very opposite of the Bengal idea), and 
objecting to establish Zillah Schools till the Schools of a lower grade 
had developed a desire for higher education, and supplied the 
requisite material in the way of pupils qualified to benefit by such 
education. The step now taken may perhaps have been a little too 
long delayed, but the good substratum laid in past years, in the 
shape of efficient Schools of a lower class, will doubtless make the 
development of the new Zillah Schools all the more rapid and 
substantial. 

92. The following figures give statistical information for 1865-06, 
respecting the Higher Class Schools of the North-Western Provinces,- 


similar to those already given for Bengal:— 

Government 

Schools 

Number of Institutions .... s 

Private 

Schools 

4 

Average number of pupils 

1,416 

1 , 006 * 

Cost charged to Imperial Funds 

Rs. 

1 * 08,983 

Rs. 

18 , 333 * 

Cost charged to other sources of income 

8,892 

35*54i* 

Total . 

i>i7>875 

535874** 

Average total annual cost per pupil 

83 

53* ; 

Average annual cost to Government 

76 

18 * 

per pupil 

Statistics respecting 

Total amount of fees, fines, etc., realized 
from pupils du lag the year 

Fees 

13.5841 

12 , 122 * 

Average ditto per pupil 

8 it 

12 * 


* Yote.—The statistics in respect of the Private Schools include those of the College' 
Departments. The local Statements do not show them separately. 

t Vote. —These figures include the College Returns, there being no Separate- 
Returns for the School Department available. 


Pupils . 


Hindoos Mahomedans Others 


Government Schools 

1,487 

166 

19 

f Including C ollege 

J Department Returns;:. 

Private Schools 

873 

209 

107 

I separate Returns 

^not being available. 

Total . 

2,360 

375 

126 



95. While in Bengal the average cost of each pupil in Govern- 
ment Higher Class Schools was only Rupees 45 (of which Rupees 25 : 
were paid by Government), in the North-Western Provinces the' 


167 

average cost is Rupees 83 (of which Rupees 76 were paid by Govern- 
ment). The cost per pupil in Private Schools is in like proportion 
higher in the North-Western Provinces than in Bengal. The cause 
of this is not, as might be supposed, that the Bengal Schools are 
better filled, making the average cost of each pupil less; for in point 
of fact the Schools in the North-Western Provinces have a larger 
attendance. The inference is that the expenditure in the Institutions 
of the North-Western Provinces is on a much higher scale than in 
Bengal. 

94. The following figures in respect of fees will show more 
clearly how matters stand:— 

North-Western Provinces Average fee 

Rs. As. 

Government Collegiate Institutions . n 8 per annum 

Government Schools of the Higher Class 2 15 ** 

Private Collegiate Institutions .12 o ** 

The small fee of Rupees 2-15 per annum, or barely four annas 
per month in the two Schools, is noticeable. Even the fee in the 
Collegiate Institutions is small. 

There were 28 Students from the North-Western Provinces who 
passed the University Entrance Examination in 1865; of these, nine 
passed in the 1st Division. 

Punjab 

95. The 42 Higher Class Schools entered in the Punjab column 
of the Statement already given consist of 24 Government Zillah 
Schools and 18 Private Institutions, of which all but three are 
Seminaries maintained and managed by Missionary bodies. It seems 
probable that the Punjab Director of Public Instruction makes out 
the list of Higher Class Schools with reference rather to expectations 
than to actual result. He may, perhaps, have satisfied himself that - 
each of the 42 Institutions is really able to educate up to the Uni- 
versity Standard, — although in that case it would be difficult to deny 
that the means of education supplied are in advance of the ability 
of the pupils to take advantage of them. But whatever may be the 
explanation, certain it is that, notwithstanding the existence of 42 ' 
Higher Class Schools, the Punjab could count only 23 successful 
Candidates at the University Entrance Examination of 1865-66. There 
were actually more successful Candidates from the North-Western 
Provinces with its nine Higher Class Schools, than from the Punjab 
with its 42 Institutions. 



7 r 68 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

96. The following Statement gives statistical information res- 
pecting Higher Class Schools in the Punjab, corresponding to that 
.already given for Bengal and the North-Western Provinces:— 

Private Schools, 





excluding 


Government 

Private 

three institutions 


Schools 

Schools 

for European 




children 

dumber of Institutions 

24 

18 

15 

Ave *age number of pupils 

6,610 

4,061 

3,896 


Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Cost charged to Imperial funds . 
Cost charged to other sources of in- 

1,21,788 

54.363 

29,684 

cone . 

29,894 

79.304 

445642 

Total 

1,51,682 

1.33.667 

74,326 

Average total annual cost per pupil 

23 

32f 

19 

Average annual cost to Government 

18 

13 

7 

per pupil 




Statistics respecting Fees 



To al amount of fees, lines, etc., 
reilized fr^m pupils during 

Rs. AS. p. Rs. 

AS P. 

Rs. AS. p. 
3,518 0 0 

the yeir 

11,264 0 0 30,551 0 0 

Average dit 0 per pupil 

1 11 0 

770 

0 14 0 


Pupils 




Hindoos Mahomedans 

Others 

Government Schools 

5,926 

1,874 

340 

Private Schools 

3.451 

1,488 

358 

Total 

9,377 

3,362 

698 


I have added a column showing the results in respect of Private 
Schools excluding three Institutions for European children, as the 
inclusion of the latter interferes with the use of the statistics. 


97. The cost of Zillah School education in the Punjab is very 
moderate, being only half the amount per pupil shown in the Bengal 
Returns. But the much higher class of education (as shown by the 
University Returns) given in the Bengal Institutions, and the 
preponderance of lower class pupils in the Punjab Schools fully 
accounts for the difference. 

98. The average fee realized from each pupil in the Punjab 
Higher Class Schools is extremely small, being only 24 annas per 
mensem, while in Private Schools for Natives it is only 1 4 annas per 
mensem. The attention of the Punjab Education Department was, 
as the Government is aware, drawn to this point some time ago; 


SCHOOLS I69 

but there has not apparently been any material improvement up 
to 1865-66. It is true that the Director of Public Instruction states 
in his Report for 1865-66 that the amount collected as fees “continues 
to increase favorably/* and he gives statistics which show that while 
the fee collections in Government Zillah Schools were only Rupees 
4,690 in 1862-63, they had reached Rupees 11,264 in 1865-66; but 
it is, nevertheless, a fact that the average rate per pupil in 1865-66 
is actually slightly less than the average in 1862-63. The matter 
obviously requires further attention on the part of th" Director of 
Public Instruction in the Punjab. 

99. The large increase which of late years has taken place in the 
number of pupils attending Zillah Schools in the Punjab is due 
principally to the adoption of what is called the “Branch School 
system/’ This system was described as follows in the Report of 
1863-64:- 

“The immense increase in attendance shown above has been pro- 
duced chiefly by the opening of Branches to the Zillah Schools, as 
noticed in paragraph 38 of my last Annual Report. Commenced 
at Delhi, the system has been there carried out very completely, and 
has been gradually extended to other places. It is very economical, 
and decidedly efficient and popular. We can never depend upon 
more than a small percentage of the boys, who enter our Schools 
in the lowest class, staying until they reach the highest class, and pass 
the University Entrance Examination. The only way, then, to 
secure the full number in the highest class, which a single Master 
can manage, say from 20 to 25 boys, is to have at least 800 boys 
in all under instruction. The plan followed, as a rule, is to let all 
beginners attend the Branch Schools, which are located in the most 
convenient places all about the city or suburbs. The numbers in 
the main school are then kept up to the full limit that the main 
building can hold, and the main staff of Masters can manage, by 
drafting into it the best of the Branch scholars. Eventually these 
branch schools will, it is hoped, bring their pupils through the 
first or lowei half of the whole School curriculum; after which four 
years passed in the Main School will bring a scholar up to the Matri- 
culation Standard.” 

The system is described in subsequent Reports* as continuing to 
work most satisfactorily. 

Madras 

100. The 27 Higher Class Schools in Madras consist of 13 Govern- 
ment and 14 Private Institutions. The Government Institutions 
comprise the Collegial School attached to the Presidency College, 



170 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

three Provincial Schools (at Combaconum, Bellary, and Calicut)^ 
eight Zillah Schools, and the Madrissa-i-Azam. 

101. Respecting the Provincial Schools, it may be mentioned that 
they were originally designed to contain nine classes; of which the six 
lower were to constitute a School Department educating up to the 
University Standard, and the three higher to constitute a College 
Department. The College Classes, however, have never as yet been 
organized, though it is stated in the Report for 1865-66 that sanction 
had been obtained for raising the Combaconum School (which is by 
far the most advanced of the three) to the originally intended status.. 

102. The Madrissa-i-Azam is of interest principally owing to its 
being one of the few Institutions in India designed specially for the 
instruction of the Mahomedan population in Arabic Literature. I 
shall, therefore, reserve my notice of it for a future Section (VII),* 
of this Note. 


103. The 14 Private Schools of the Higher Class in Madras are,, 
with three exceptions, Institutions maintained and managed by 
Missionary bodies. 

104. The following Statement contains information for 1865-66- 
respecting Higher Class Schools in Madras, similar to that already; 
given for other Provinces:— 



Government 

Schools 

Private 

Schools 

Number of Institutions ..... 
Average number of pupils .... 

13 

2,821 

14. 

2,834 

Cost charged to Imperial funds . . . 

Cost charged to other sources of income 

Rs. 

1,03,986 

15,983 

Rs. 

33,996 

87,303 

Total . 

1,19,969 

1,21,299* 

Average total annual cost per pupil . 
Average annual cost to Government 

42 

36 

42 

12. 


per pupil 


Statistics respecting Fees 

Total amount of fees, fines, etc,, collected from pupils 

during the year ..... . 29,105 19,782: 

Average ditto per pupil ..... 10-5 6-1 



SCHOOLS 


171 


Pupils 




Hindoos 

Mahomedans 

Others 

Government Schools 

2,654 

353 

214 

Private Schools 

2,409 

120 

625 


Tota^l . . 5?°63 

473 

839 


There is nothing particularly worthy of note in the above- 
mentioned statistics, except that the average fee (about I B annas per 
month) is lower than it ought to be. 

105. Of the 229 successful Candidates of the Matriculation 
Examination, 120 came from Government Institutions, and 109 from 
.Private Institutions. 


Bombay 

106. Of the 11 Schools of the Higher Class in Bombay, nine are 
Government Institutions and two-Private Institutions. 

107. Great attention has been paid of late in Bombay to the 
organization of a really efficient system of High School education. 
It may almost be said that until recently there were no Higher Class 
Schools at all in Bombay, except the Elphinstone and Poona Colleges, 
which took the place of this class of Institutions. 

108. In an interesting Memorandum written by Mr Howard (late 
Director of Public Instruction, Bombay) in June 1865, he described 
at length the utter absence of anything like a good High School 
organization, and the efforts that had been made to introduce such 
.an organization. The following remarks may be quoted from his 
pamphlet:— 

“The first Matriculation Examination showed beyond doubt that 
this was true. All the Central School boys' failed; all the Poona 
School boys failed; all the other School boys in the Presidency failed. 
Only College men passed the test; and, though one and twenty 
Candidates passed from the two Colleges, a much larger number 
were rejected. 

“In subsequent Examinations, however, some boys matriculated 
from Government Schools. Each year their number has steadily 
increased; and it may now be hoped that the difficulty of supplying 
Under-graduates to the University has been, or shortly will be, sur 
-mounted. Recent grants of public money have made it possible to 
furnish the Central and Poona Schools with a fairlv sufficient staff. 
The English Schools at Ahmedabad, Surat, Belgaum, Rutnagherry, 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SCHOOLS 


17Z 

Hyderabad, and Dhoolia have been strengthened and raised to the 
High School rank. Exhibitions have been founded to be held in 
High Schools, by promising boys from the districts and perhaps, 
more than all, the Native Graduates, whose numbers are yearly in- 
creasing, are taking their place as Masters in the local Schools, to 
which they bring the method, the culture, and the corporate spirit 
of the University.” 

109. The following Extract from the Bombay Education Report 
for 1865-66 will give some idea of the success attained in the organi- 
zation of good High Schools:— 

“The numerical prosperity of the Colleges, and, through them, of 
the University of Bombay, will thus entirely depend on the number 
of students who pass the Matriculation Examination— in other words,, 
on the efficiency of the High Schools. I have shown above (para- 
graph 23) 70 as the aggregate number of matriculations from our 
High Schools in 1865-66. This stands against 49 in 1864-65, 2 4r 
in 1863-64, 10 in 1862-63, 5 in 1861-62, 8 in 1860-61, and 0 in the 
two first years of the University Examinations. Such progress is, 
so far as it goes, satisfactory; but it rather points to the utter weak- 
ness of our High Schools in former years, than to any great strength 
in their present condition. Every High School that is worthy of the 
name ought to matriculate at least 20 boys every year; and large 
Schools, like the Elphinstone and Poona High Schools, ought to 
pass annually about double that number. Our nine High Schools 
ought thus to give us more than 200 matriculations each year, though 
I fear this result will not be realized for some time.” 

110. A brief description of the several Schools is given in the 
following extract from the same Report:— 

“Of all our High Schools, that of Poona is in the most satisfac 
tory condition (see the Report of the Educational Inspector, Central 
Division, in Appendix A, I). The results of the Matriculation Exa- 
mination, and the general discipline and management of the Schools,, 
reflect much credit on Mr Kirkham, the Head Master. Elphinstone 
High School has suffered from the agitation of the share-mania in 
Bombay, from numerous changes in its staff of Masters, and from 
the unliterary tendencies of Parsees and Parbhoos and other non- 
Brahmanical castes, who form the main bulk of the pupils. This 
School requires a strong hand to reduce it to a proper state of 
discipline. The High Schools of Ahmedabad and Surat are 
in a poor and backward condition. One of the chief difficulties 
they have to contend with is the want of Gujarati Graduates to be 


employed as Teachers. Only five Gujarati Hindoos have as yet gra- 
duated in the University of Bombay, of whom one is engaged in 
mercantile pursuits, and one is deceased. Belgaum (Sirdars ). High. 
School has hitherto been chronically depressed by the privilege 
claimed by the neighbouring Sirdars of nominating boys for admis- 
sion without regard to their previous preparation. But this claim 
has now been waived, and henceforth the Standard of the High 
School Entrance Examination is to be enforced. Rutnagherry 
High School had been thoroughly disorganized by the late Head 
Master-a certificated School Master who was sent out from England 
four years ago with the highest testimonials, but who proved quite 
incompetent for his novel duties. The regeneration of the School 
has been vigorously commenced by Mr Ramkrishna Gopal 
Bhandarkar, M.A., of the University of Bombay, to whom much 
credit is due for his year's administration. Dhoolia High School was 
up to February last mismanaged by its European Head Master 
(formerly a private soldier in the Inniskilling Dragoons); it has now 
been placed under Mr Vitthal Patak, M.A., a pupil of the Reverend 
Dr Wilson, and from his administration a speedy improvement of 
the School is looked for. The Hyderabad and Kurrachee High 
Schools are really Middle Class Schools, with a small High School 
element in each. Superior education in the province of Scind is as; 
yet quite incipient.” 

111. The two Private Schools* of the Higher Class are both 

, Parsee Institutions situated in the Town 

'SjfcStXStor of Bombay; the former i, supported' 
Proprietary School. mainly by an endowment, the latter mainly- 

by School fees. 

112. The following Statement gives statistical information for 
1865-66 respecting Higher Class Schools in Bombay, corresponding; 
to that already given for other Provinces:— 



Government 

Schools 

Private ■ 
Schools 

Number of Institutions . ... 

9 

2 

Average number of pupils 

T576 

55i 


Rs. 

Rs. 

Cost charged to Imperial funds 

76,321 

1 >923 

Cost charged to other sources of income 

49,922 

31,664 

Total . 

1.26,243 

33,587 



174 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SCHOOLS 


175 


Average total annual cost per pupil 

Average annual cost to Government per pupil . 

• 

Rs. 

80 

48 

Rs 

60 

3i 

Statistics respecting Fees 




Total amount of fees, fines, etc., realized from pupils dur- 
mg the year 

28,996 

11,245 

.Average ditto per pupil .... 

* 

18 

20J 

Pupils 




Hindoos Mahomedans 

Parsees 

Others 

Government Schools . . i,335 

28 

304 

74 

Private Schools . . 2 


663 


Total . . . 1,337 

28 

967 

74 


There is nothing particularly calling for notice in the above 
statistics. The cost per pupil is certainly high, nearly as high in 
fact as in the North-Western Provinces (Rupees 83 per pupil in 
Government Schools,) respecting which remarks have already been 
made. But there is much in the local circumstances of Bombay which 
explains the high cost of education. The expense of living is excep- 
tionally high, and the salaries of the Masters are of necessity some- 
what in excess of those given in other Presidencies. The compara- 
tively recent organization of some of the High Schools has also some- 
thing to do with the high cost per pupil; and it may be hoped that, 
in future years, an increased number of pupils will make the cost 
per head less. 

The average fee realized from pupils in the Government Instfi 
tutions is nearly as large as in Bengal. 

Oude 

113. The 14 Higher Class Schools in Oude consist of 10 Govern- 
ment Zillah Schools and four Private Schools. 

114. Of the 10 Zillah Schools, five were established in 1863-64, 
the remaining five, which had been previously in existence, though 
on a lower scale, having been re-organized in the same year. 

The classification of these Zillah Schools has reference rather 
to their prospective ability to educate up to the University Entrance 
Standard than to actual results. Education of a higher class in Oude 
is of so recent an origin, that the higher classes of these Schools 
^ire not yet filled. It was only in two of these Schools (Fyzabad and 


Oonao) that there were classes preparing for the University En- 
trance Examination in 1865-66. But the Director of Public In- 
struction says that they are all “steadily working up towards the 
University Entrance Standard/' 

116. Of the four Private Schools, three are Missionary Institu- 
tions, and the other (the principal Educational Institution in the 
Province) was founded by the Oude Talookdars, and called the 
“Canning College.” It has, I believe, bee“n recently affiliated to the 
University; but for the year under review (1865-66), it stands in the 
list of Higher Class Schools. It gets a grant from Government of 
Rupees 25,000 per annum (although only Rupees 22,799 were drawn 
in 1865-66), the other moiety of the required funds being subscribed 
T)y the Talookdars and others. It sent up six successful Candidates 
to the University Examination in 1865-66. 

117. The following statistics will give some idea of the progress 
already made in higher class education in Oude; and, considering 
the very recent organization of the Schools, it must be admitted to 
be most satisfactory:— 

Private 

Govern- Schools, 

ment Private excluding 



Schools 

Schools 

the 

‘Canning 

College* 

"Number of Institutions .... 

10 

4 

3 

.Average number of pupils 

1,089 

720 

374 


Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Cost charged to Imperial funds 

32,876 

28,777 

5,978 

•Cost charged to other sources of income 

5,425 

15,910 

7,398 

Total 

38.301 

445687 

I3>376 

Average total annual cost per pupil 

35 

62 

35 

Average annual cost to Government per pupil 

30 

39 

16 

Statistics respecting Fees 



Total amount of fees, fines, etc., realized from 
pupils during the year 

1,605 

35109 

420 

Average ditto per pupil 

•ij 

4* 

1- 2 


125 p of A — 12 



I7<> SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Pupils 

Hindoos Mahomcdans Others- 


Government Schools * » 

• 

• 1,064 

324 

7 

Private Schools 

• 

-<1 

00 

1 

1 

33i 

26 

Total 

. 

1 1,842 

655 

33 


There is nothing particularly noticeable in the above statistics,, 
except the very small amount of average fee realized from the 
pupils, both in the Government Schools and in the Private Schools* 
(excluding the Canning College). The very recent organization of 
the Schools is a sufficient reason perhaps for the present, but atten- 
tion should be directed to the subject as education comes to be better 
appreciated and more valued by the people. 

118. The Chief Commissioner has recently obtained the sanction 
of Government to increasing the teaching staff in six of the more 
forward Zillah Schools; and it may be hoped that the more advanced 
standard of education, to be given in them, will render it possible 
to impose a higher fee rate. 

Central Provinces 

119. Of the two Schools of the Higher Class in the Central Pro- 
vinces, one (at Saugor) is a Government Institution, and the other 
(at Jubbulpore) a Missionary Institution. 

120. The Director of Public Instruction has properly confined his 
list of Higher Class Schools to those which actually do educate up 
to the University Entrance Standard, leaving the other nine Zillah 
Schools to be entered as Middle Class Schools. This fact ought 
to be noticed, for otherwise a comparison unfavourable to the Cen- 
tral Provinces might be drawn from the greater apparent develop- 
ment of this class of Schools in the Punjab and Oude, where evident- 
ly the classification has been based rather on a standard hoped to 
be attained, than on one actually worked up to. 

121. The Saugor School might, strictly speaking, have been in- 
cluded in the list of Colleges, for it is an affiliated Institution and' 
passed one Student last year in the First Arts Examination. It has 
recently had a Sanscrit Professor added to its staff, and will doubt- 
less appear next year in the list of Colleges. The School has not 
prospered much during the last nine years. In that period the num- 
ber of pupils has decreased from 356 to 270, a result which the 
Director ascribes to a faulty system of education prevailing in the 


SCHOOLS 


177 


Institution. It has recently been re-organized, and better results are 
looked for. Since its affiliation, the School has passed eight Students 
in the Entrance Examination (three during the last yean. 

122. The following extract gives information for 1865-66 respect- 
ing the two Higher Class Schools in the Central Provinces, similar 
to that already given for other Provinces:— 

Govern- 



ment 

Schools 

Private 

Schools 

Number of Institutions . . . 

1 

X 

Average number of pupils .... 

249 

200 


Rs. 

Rs. 

Cost charged to Imperial funds 

10,945 

1,650 

Cost charged to other sources of income 

1,260 

3,733 

Total 

12,205 

5,383 

Average total annual cost per pupil 

49 

53 

Average annual cost to Government per pupil 

43 

16 


Statistics respecting Fees 

Total amount of fees, fines, etc., realized from pupil? '} 

during the year (Not gi ve n in Central 

, f Provinces 5 Returns 

Average ditto per pupil . . . . . J 

Pupils 

Hindoos Mahomed an s Others 

Government Schools . . 

r Not given in Central Provinces 5 Returns 
Private Schools . . . J 

The absence in the Central Provinces* Education Report of 
the usual Educational Statistics according to the prescribed forms, 
makes it impossible to complete the information given in other 
cases. The attention of the Director of Public Instruction in the 
Central Provinces should be drawn to the omission. 

Mysore 

123. Of the 10 Higher Class Schools in Mysore, six are Govern- 
ment Institutions, and four Private Institutions. Out of the whole 
10, only one (Bangalore High School) has yet passed any Students 
in the University Entrance Examination. The Director of Public 



*78 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Instruction, however, says that they “educate up to the University 
Standard/' and classifies them accordingly. 

124. The Bangalore High School is reported to be making very 
satisfactory progress. The fees have been again raised, but the num- 
ber of pupils still increase. There are now 503 on the rolls. The 
Institution sent up eight successful Candidates to the Matriculation 
Examination in 1865-66. 

125. Statistics corresponding to those already given in respect of 
the Higher Class Schools of other Provinces, are here given for 
Mysore, so far as they can be got from the very meagre Report of 
the Director of Public Instruction in that Province:— 


Government Private 



Schools 

Schools 

Number of Institutions ..... 

6 

4 

Average number of pupils 

697 

435 


Rs. 

Rs. 

Cost charged to Imperial funds .... 

21,878 

13,435 

Cost charged to other sources of income 

... 

16,650 

Total 

21,878 

30,085 

Average total annual cost per pupil 

31 

69 

Average annual cost to Government per pupil 

3i 

30 


Statistics respecting Fees 


Total amount of fees, fines, etc., realized from 
pupils during the year . . . f 

| Not given in Mysore Report 
Average ditto per pupil . . . J 


Hindoos Mahomedans Others 
Not given in Mysore Report 


Pupils 

Government Schools 
Private Schools . 

The attention of the Director of Public Instruction, Mysore, has 
already been drawn to the necessity of submitting more ample Edu- 
cation Statistics. 


British Burmah and the Berars 

12 6. There are not as yet any Higher Class Schools in either of 
the Provinces noted above, but the recent organization of regular 
Education Departments in those Provinces will probably lead to 
the elevation to that standard of some of the existing Middle Class 
Schools. 


schools 

Schools— Middle Class 
Bengal 


127. As already explained, Middle Class Schools in Bengal are 
composed partly of English and partly of Vernacular Institutions 
The following Statement contains information respecting them:— 



Govern- 




ment 

Private Schools 


Schools 

Aided 

Unaided 

vt t f English . # 

Number of Institutions a 

10 

268 

54 

( Vernacular 

107 

58 i 

3$ 


117 

849 

9 * 

Average number of pupils/ 

7,635 

35,781 (not given) 

Cost charged to Imperial funds 

. . 

Rs. 

45)4°5 

Rs. 

U5M69 

Cost charged to other sources of income 

• 

19=863 

2,49,608 

Total 

• 

65,268 

4,00,777 

Total annual cost of education per pupil 
Annual cost to Government per pupil 

* 

H 

5 l 

11 

4 

Statistics respecting Fees 



Total amount of fees, fines, etc., realized from 




pupils during the year 

. 

19,240 

1,01,639 

Average ditto per pupil 

• 

2 i 

2| 

Pupils 





Hindoos Mahomedans 

Others 

Government Schools .... 

6,941 

I5O29 

154 

Private Schools . 

33)955 

3,212 

759 

Total . 

40,896 

4,241 

913 


North-Western Provinces 


128. The 343 Middle Class Schools in the North-Western Pro- 
vinces consist of two Government Anglo-Vernacular Schools (Ally- 
ghur and Shahjehanpore), 263 Tehsil Schools, and of 78 Private 
aided Schools. The Private Schools all appear to be Anglo-Vernacu- 
lar; 47 of them, although designated Private Schools, are in reality 
English Classes attached to Government Vernacular Schools, and 
supported half by Government and half by subscriptions; the manage- 
ment of the English Classes remaining in the hands of Government 

The remaining 31 Private Schools are. for the most part. Mission 
Schools. 



i8o 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SCHOOLS 


181 


The following statistics respecting Middle Class Schools in the 
North-Western Provinces are given:— 



Government 

Schools 

Private 

Schools 

Number of Institutions 

. 265 

78 

Average number of pupils . . • • 

• 17,801 

7>958 


Rs. 

Rs. 

Cost charged to Imperial funds . . • 

• 60*633 

77*320 

m to other sources 

. 28,130 

1,01,833 

Total 

* 88,763 

1*79*153 

Total annual cost of education per pupil 

. 5 

22 

Annual cost to Government per pupil 

3 

9 

Statistics respecting Fees 

Rs. As. 


Total amount of tees, fines, etc., realized from 
pupils during the year 

Average ditto per pupil . . • 

12,652 0*1 
0 11 J 

not avail- 
able 


Pupils 




Hindoos Mahome- 

Others 



dans 


Government Schools 

* 

• 13*783 3*38o 

236 

Private Schools 


, (not available) 



129. It will be observed that the statistics respecting Private 
Schools are not complete. This is owing to the confused way in 
which the Statistical Tables attached to the Education Report of the 
North-Western Provinces have been prepared, and to the existence of 
serious discrepancies. For instance, at page 40 of the Report, the 
Director shows 78 Middle Class Private Schools, and 43 Lower Class 
Private Schools aided by Government; all of which are, in the Statis- 
tical Table, shown as “Private Schools of the Higher Class.” The 
list of 47 Anglo-Vernacular Schools given at page 42 of the Report 
is represented by 50 Schools in the Statistical Table. Greater care is 
required in future on the part of those who compile the Tables; for, 
if these statistics are to be of any use, it is obviously necessary that 
they should be prepared in a clear and accurate form. 


The smallness of the fee receipts, averaging scartely one anna per 
jmensem from each pupil, is noticeable. 

Punjab 

130. The 123 Middle Class Schools in the Punjab consist of 71 
Government Schools, and 52 Private Schools. The Government 
Schools are all designated “Town Schools,” being Vernacular Institu- 
tions situated in towns in the proportion of about one to each per- 
gunnah. They are intended to “impart as liberal an education as 
can well be given through the medium of the Vernacular.” Of the 
;32 Private Schools, 40 are Elementary English Schools connected with 
Government Vernacular ones, but supported on the grant-in-aid 
principle. 

131. The Punjab Town Schools are stated to have been greatly 
improved of late years by the adoption of what is called the Pupil 
Teacher system.” The system was described as follows in the Report 
of 1862-63:- 

Para. 56.— “In the Umballah Circle, Lieutenant Holroyd has ex- 
pended the Pupil Teacher system in large Vernacular Schools, as 
far as funds and the attainments of the boys wuuld permit; so that 
in some places they have been substituted for Assistant Teachers in 
sufficient numbers, to allow of each class having a separate Pupil 
Teacher. Thus all the classes receive more attention, attendance is 
increased by the popularity of the measure, emulation is excited, and 
an incentive to study afforded as the appointments are thrown 
open to competition. The best boys are also kept longer at School 
than they would otherwise be likely to remain; and from them candi- 
dates can be selected for instruction in the Normal Schools, who 
stand every chance of turning out first-rate Teachers eventually. 
Examinations of the senior Vernacular scholars of districts have ac- 
cordingly been held by Lieutenant Holroyd at various sudder sta- 
tions, and selections of Pupil Teachers made from the best candidates. 
In Ferozepore, no less than 18 were thus appointed after an exami- 
nation of this kind. Under really good Teachers, the appointment of 
Pupil Teachers is no doubt preferable to the maintenance of an 
Assistant on a high salary, and may be effected at a very little more 
expense.” 

The system has been largely extended in subsequent years, princi- 
pally in the Umballah Circle. 



182 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SCHOOLS 


132. The following statistics respecting Middle Class Schools ir*. 
the Punjab are given:— 





Govern- 

ment 

Schools 

Private 

Schools 

Number of Institutions 

. , 

. 

71 

52- 

Average number of pupils 

• 

• 

5,852 

1,267 




Rs. 

Rs. 

Cost charged to Imperial funds 

• 

. 

19,924 

14,087 

„ to other sources 

• ♦ 

• 

12,080 

16,812: 

Total . 

* * 

• 

32,004 

30,899' 

Total annual cost of education per pupil 

0 • 

5* 

24 

Annual cost to Government per pupil 

• 

3i 

II 

Statistics respecting Fees 



Total amount of fees, fines, etc., 
during the year 

realized from pupils 

i,330 

986' 

Average ditto per pupil 

* 

• 

3§ annas 

12 annas 


Pupils 






Hindoos 

Mahome- Others 
dans 

Government Schools 

. 

4,717 

1,884 

398 

Private Schools 

• 

1,067 

354 

94 

Total . 

. 

5*784 

2,238 

492 


133. The extremely small average fee realized from each pupil in* 
the Government Town Schools is noticeable. A fee of scarcely four 
pie per mensem is surely a miserably small payment by the children 
of townspeople for a good Vernacular Education. The matter 
requires attention. 

Even in the Private Schools, which, as already explained, are, for 
the most part. Grant-in-aid English Classes attached to Government 
Vernacular Schools and managed by Government, the fees, though 
larger, are very small. One anna per mensem is a mere nominal 
payment for an English Education. The high total annual cost per 
pupil (Rupees 24) in these Private Schools is also noticeable. 

Madras 

134. Of the 237 Middle Class Schools in Madras, 68 are Govern- 
ment Institutions, and 169 Private Institutions. The Government 
Institutions are designated either Anglo-Vernacular School or 
Talook Schools, the difference being that the former are of a higher 
grade nearly approaching to the 2!illah Schools, while the latter arc 


183, 

of somewhat less pretensions, the prescribed course of study being, 
described as “sufficient to impart a good scholar-like knowledge of 
the Vernacular language of the pupils, a fair acquaintance with the 
English language, a good knowledge of arithmetic and of the ele- 
ments of geometry and algebra, a fair knowledge of general 
geography and of the leading facts of the histories of India and of 
England, and some acquaintance with the outlines of astronomy 
and the leading principles of political economy." 

The Private Middle Class Schools in Madras are for the most 
part Mission Schools. 

135. The following statistics respecting Middle Class Schools in* 
Madras are given:— 

Government Private 
Schools Schools 


Number of Institutions ••••.. 

68 

169 

Average number of pupils . . 

3,609 

9,385 


Rs. 

Rs. 

Cost charged to Imperial funds .... 

37,969 

50,204 

m to other sources . 

9,355 

1,31,724 

Total 

47,324 

1,81,928- 

Total annual cost of education per pupil 

] 3 

19 

Annual cost to Government per pupil 

10 


Statistics respecting Fees 



Total amount of fees, fines, etc., realized from pupils 
during the year 

n,934 

31.821 

Average ditto per pupil ..... 

3 * 

3 * 

Pupils 



Hindoos 

Mahome dans 

Other. 

Government Schools , 3.861 

256 

127 

Private Schools . 8,224 

426 

2,47 2 

Total . . . 12.085 

682 

2,599- 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


Bombay 

136. Of the 185 Middle Class Schools, 165 are Government Insti- 
tutions, and 20 Private Institutions. All the Middle Class Schools 
in Bombay are Anglo-Vernacular Institutions. The Government 
Schools are divided into two classes, viz,, 1 st Grade and 2nd Grade; 
there being 23 of the former and 142 of the latter. The standard* 

*Vide Appendix [aid down for entrance to Higher Class Schools 
Bombay e Edu 8 -ation forms a standard up to which Middle Class Schools 
Report for 1865-66 a im at teaching. The following general definition 
of a Middle Class School is given in the Bombay 
Report for 1865-66:— 

“The Middle Class School is defined to be one in which, being 
inferior to the High School, some English is taught; its function 
used to be generally the preparation of boys for clerkships or 
other small appointments, but it has now the additional function 
of definite preparation for the High School, thus leading up to the 
University course.” 

137. The Bombay Middle Class Schools are stated by the 
■Director of Public Instruction to fall as yet short of their proper 
standard, and he has proposed, therefore, a re-organization of 19 
of these Schools on a standard which will make them “adequate 
feeders” to the High Schools. 

138. The following statistics relate to Bombay Middle Class 
Schools:— 


G overnment Pr i\ ate 
Schools Schools 


Number of institutions 

165 

20 

Average number of pupils 

17,999 

1,844 


Rs. 

Rs. 

Cost charged to Imperial funds 

1*03,346 

30,113 

Cost charged to other sources ..... 

1 ,36,274 

98,191 

Total 

2.39,620 

1,28,304 

Total ammo! cost of education per pupil 

13 

69 

Annual cost to Government per pupil 

5i 

/ 16 

Statis tics respecting Fees 



Total amount of fees, lines, etc., realized from pupils 
during the year 

54,084 

44 980 

Average dHto per pupil 

3 

24 


SCHOOLS 


I85 


Hindoos 

Mahome- 

dans 

Parsees 

Others 

21,010 

G593 

1*032 

I5y 

197 

4 * 

1 332 

706 

2I,2C7 

1,634 

2,364 

865 


Gov eminent Schools 
Private Schools 

Total . 


xne average cost of education per head in the Government 
Schools is somewhat high, but this is probably explainable both bv 
the relatively high rates of pay obtaining in Bombay 7nd by an 

unusual amount of extraordinary expenditure in the way of cons- 
tructmg School buildings. ' 

«, I40 ‘ T h , e com P arativel y Iar ge extent to which these Schools are 

able Tht°T SOUrCeS ^ *** ImperiaI Funds is also notice- 
Srhnol 7 1 pnnC ' paIIy owin S to lar ge assignments to these 

•tht S ° m l r- proceeds o£ the “ Loca l Rate of Assessment,” i * 
the Education Cess recently introduced in Bombay. The assim' 

ments from this source to Middle place c^i^ 1 y , e assi ^ n ‘ 
cc . LO ivuaa ie Glass Schools aggregated in 1885. 

66 as much as Rupees 1,10,875. 6 ^ ™ 

frora ,he Bomba? «* 

the A h committees have been set to consider and make known 
the educational wants of their „„„ tatook,, and 

E „ r:; Mi'dii"' 1 ,']" ‘ h c comn >i“ees to seek the extension of 

koL 

STe to paraZ’h S . ^ 1865 <" hid > » <° 

authoritaLlv^ttoftoifprt'Ind ^ h » 

funds f„ f„ i- l , . P olnt > an d now no assignments of local 

lector of ^ Z 

h^HedT;,^;^ - resards ■— 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SCHOOLS 


1 86 

141. It may be noted further as a fact unexplained in the: 
Director’s Report that the Tables of Receipts and Charges under 
the head of Middle Class Schools showed for 1865-66 a net excess 
of Receipts over Charges amounting to no less than Rupees 48,864, 
being more than 20 per cent, of the whole charges. 

142. The figures given in the preceding Statement in respect ot 
Private Middle Class Schools show an exceptionally high rate of cost 
per pupil; but this is partly explained by the fact of some very 
heavy items of “extraordinary” charges for building, etc. (aggre- 
gating nearly half a lakh), being included among the disbursements. 
Making allowance for this, and for one or two expensive Schools for 
European children included in the list, the cost per pupil is not su 
unreasonably high. 

Oude 

143. Of the 46 Middle Class Schools in Oude, 34 are Government 
Institutions, and 12 Private Institutions. The Government Insti- 
tutions are all Tehsilee Schools, of which 19 are Anglo-Vernacular 
and 15 Vernacular Institutions. Of the Private Institutions, three 
are Mission Schools, and the remaining nine are Schools supported 
principally by the Talookdars and Native gentry. 

The following statistics respecting Middle Class Schools in Oude 
are given:— 

Government Private 




Schools 

Schools 

Number cf Institutions .... 

• • 

34 

12 

Average number of pupils 

• 

2,089 

677 

Cost charged to Imperial funds 

. 

Rs. 

26,753 

Rs. 

3,829. 

to other sources 

* 

10,151 

6,566 

Total . 

• 

36,904 

10,39 5 

Total annual cost of education per pupil . 

• 

17! 

15 

Cost to Government per pupil . 

• 

12 

5 

Statistics respecting Fees 




Total amount of fees, lines, etc., realized 
from pupils during the year 

Average ditto per pupil 

Pupils 

1,428 
11 annas 

Hindoos Mahomedans 

292 

7 annas 
Others 

Government Schools .... 

Private Schools .... 

2,032 

755 

956 

232 

1 

Total 

2*78? 

i-jKS 

1 


187 

144. The extraordinarily high average cost of education per head 
is noticeable, also the smallness of the fee receipts, which average 
scarcely one anna per mensem in the Government Schools, and 
little more than half anna per mensem in Private Schools. 

Central Provinces 

145. Of the 116 Middle Class Schools in the Central Provinces, 
105 are Government Institutions, and 11 Private Institutions. Of 
the Government Institutions, nine are Zillah Schools which do not 
yet educate up to the University Entrance Standard, and 96 are 
Town Schools. Of the 11 Private Institutions, six are Mission 
Schools (of which four belong to the Free Church Mission). 

146. The following statistics respecting Middle Class Schools in 
the Central Provinces are given:— 

Government Private 



Schools 

Schools 

Number of Institutions . 

105 

11 

Average number of pupils 

6,836 

694 


Rs. 

Its. 

Cost charged to Imperial funds 

50,080 

9*54i 

Cost charged to other sources 

39*433 

10,438 

Total 

89,513 

*9*979 

Tota 1 annual cost of education per pupil 

13 

28 

Cost to Government per pupil . 

- • 7* 

*3 

Statistics respecting Fees 



Total amount of fees, lines, etc., realized 
from pupils during the year . 

Average ditto per pupil 

4*638 y 

V (not given) 

. . 10 annas J 

Pupils 

Hindoos Mahomedans 

Others 

Government Schools . . . 

Private Schools 

(not given) 



147. The average fee is excessively small, viz., something below 
one anna per mensem. If the returns for Government Zillah 
Schools (which are only temporarily rekoned in the Middle Class 
till they can work up to the Entrance Standard) be separated from 
those for Government Town Schools, the result is that the average 



i88 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


fee in Zillah Schools is Rupees 1J, or two annas per mensem, and iir 
Town Schools not quite eight annas, or eight pie per mensem. The 
matter of fees evidently requires to be looked into in the Central 
Provinces. 

Mysore 

148. Of the 16 Middle Class Schools in Mysore, nine are Govern- 
ment Institutions and seven are Private Institutions. Scarcely any 
information respecting these Schools is given by the Director of 
Public Instruction, and the statistics are so meagre that nothing 
more is obtainable than what has already been given in the General 
Statement at the commencement of this Section. 

British Burmah 

149. There are three Government Zillah Schools coming under 
this head in British Burmah with 398 pupils, the expenditure being 
Rupees 13,612 from Imperial funds, and Rupees 2,765 from Local 
Funds. There are also 28 Private Schools of this class aided by 
Government, with 2,077 pupils. These are almost all under the 
management of Missionary bodies. 

As noted in the last column of the General Statistical Statement 
given at the commencement of this Section, the Education Report 
from British Burmah, written before the appointment of a Director 
of Public Instruction, does not give the required statistics, and hence 
these Schools have not been included in the general return. 

Berars 

150. No Educational Statistics for the Berars have been entered in 
the General Statement given at the commencement of this Section, 
because no regular Education Report, with statistics in the pres- 
cribed form, has yet been received. The recently appointed Director 
of Public Instruction for the Berars will doubtless give full informa- 
tion in future years. 

Meantime, it may be stated that there are apparently five Middle 
Class Schools in the Berars. two of which it is proposed to raise 
to the standard of Higher Class Zillah Schools. 

Schools— Lower Class 

151. The Lower Class of Schools may be described generally as? 
consisting of elementary Institutions for educating the lower orders 
of the people. The subject of primary education is justly regarded 
as a most important one, and has had a prominent place assigned to 
it in the Educational Despatches of 1854 and 1859. 


SCHOOLS 


i 89< 

152. In the Despatch of 1854 the Home Government declared 
its wish for the prosecution of the object of Vernacular Education 
“in a more systematic manner/* and “placed the subject on a level 
in point of importance with that of the instruction to be afforded 
through the medium of the English language.'* An attempt will 
now be made to describe the measures taken in accordance w\th the 
above instructions in the several Presidencies and Provinces. 


Bengal 

153. In Bengal no fixed system was at first adopted, but various 
schemes were set on foot in different parts of the Lieutenant- 
Governorship, with the object of promoting Vernacular Education. 
The measures in operation on the 1st of May 1858 were described 
in the following terms in a Minute by the Lieutenant-Governor, 
dated the 24th March 1859:— 


“Speaking of them generally, it may be said that 228 Schools have 
been aided by grants in 27 districts, educating 16,633 pupils at an 
average cost to Government for each pupil of one Rupee two annas- 
and one pie per mensem for English Schools, seven annas for Anglo- 
Vernacular Schools, and three annas eight pie for Vernacular 
Schools. Further, there have been 197 Model Vernacular Schools 
established in 30 districts, at a total expense of Rupees 3,339-14-2 


per mensem, or an average of about Rupees 17 for each School.* 
There have been established 55 Circles, embracing 158 indigenous 


a *This low average Schools established! in four districts; and there have 
insertion* in the^st beerl 12 itinerant Teachers employed in indi- 


. uu auwi uj ^ ^ 

Behar^ districts payments have been made to indigenous 

Assam. School Teachers, for improvement in their pupils, 

at the rate of one Rupee a month for every 10 boys under instruc- 
tion, besides rewards for success given to such Teachers in 11 other 


districts; and 10 Scholarships have been provided, of Rupees four 
each per annum, to meritorious Vernacular pupils in 32 districts/' 


154. Referring to the above statement, the Government of India 
remarked, under date the 17th of May 1859, as follows :- 

Para. 2.— His Excellency in Council readily admits that it is 
shown in this Minute that effective measures have not been wanting 
on the part of the Bengal Government for the encouragement of 
Vernacular Education among classes lower in the social scale than 
any which had been affected by the operations of Government pre- 
viously to the receipt of the Court of Directors* Despatch of 1854; 
and he wdl have much pleasure in furthering the extension of those 



190 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

measures as soon as the means of doing so are again available. The 
Governor General in Council gladly expresses his concurrence in 
the opinion of the Lieutenant-Governor that, for what has been 
done, credit is due to the Officers of the Education Department in 
the Lower Provinces.” 

155. Very little, if any, advance in these directions has until 
recent years been made owing principally to financial restrictions 
and partly to a prolonged discussion which ensued between the 
Bengal Government and the Government of India, in which the 
latter argued that it was not the intention of the Home Government 
that the grant-in-aid system should be applied to the extension of this 
class of Schools, but that any measures which might be taken should 
be based on the principle of having the Schools under the direct 
management and control of the Government. The Bengal Govern- 
ment, having taken a different view, had contemplated a system of 
grants-in-aid to such Schools, and had asked for a relaxation of the 
Grant-in-aid Rules in its favor. 

156. The Bengal Government maintained that the cost of any 
system of Vernacular instruction, by the direct instrumentality of 
Government, would make its general introduction impossible. It 
was argued that although cheap Schools, costing, as in the North- 
Western Provinces, from Rupees five to Rupees eight per mensem 
each, had been to some extent found practicable in Behar and 
Assam, they were not practicable in Bengal Proper. The great 
problem of a sufficiently cheap system of Vernacular Education, 
through the direct instrumentality of Government remained the 
subject of discussion and report till 1860, when the Lieutenant- 
Governor, writing with reference to previous correspondence, and 
especially to a recent call for a definite report of the measures desired 
to be introduced in connection with the Secretary of State’s Des- 
patch of 1859, propounded a system the basis of which was the 
encouragement of the best of the indigenous Schools by rewards to 
the Masters, supply of books, etc.; a proportion of Model Schools 
being also established, and arrangements being made for maintain- 
ing an efficient inspection. 

157. Sir John Peter Grant’s scheme was very much modified in its 
actual application. It was transformed into a scheme of which the 
following description was given in the Report of 1 862-63: — 

The villages where Patshalas are already in existence are invited 
to send, for a year’s training in a Normal School, either their present 
Guru, or some other person whom they will undertake to receive as 
their future School Master. Their nominee if accepted by the 


SCHOOLS xgj 

Inspector is sent to a Normal School with a stipend of Rupees five 
per mensem, and a written agreement is entered into on the one 
hand with the heads of the village that they will receive him back 
as their Guru when he has completed his course of training and 
received a certificate of qualification; and on the other hand, with 
the nominee himself, that he will return to the village which select- 
ed him, and there enter upon and discharge the duty of Village 
School Master, to the best of his ability, on condition of being 
secured a monthly income of not less than Rupees five, in the shape 
of stipend or reward, so long as he continues to deserve it. 

“Each of the three Training Schools at present established 
receives 75 stipendiary students. They have been opened but a few 
months, but no difficulty has been experienced in filling them. Each 
had its full complement at the end of the year.” 

158. There can be no question that this is by far the most pro- 
mising scheme for encouraging primary education that has ever 
been tried in Bengal, and I shall, therefore, endeavour to follow out 
its later history somewhat at length. At first its operation was con- 
fined to three selected districts (Burdwan, Kishnaghur, and Jessore), 
■in each of which a Normal School for Gurus was established. In 
the first year of their working they had an average attendance of 
217 Gurus come from their respective villages to draw stipends of 
Rupees five per mensem, and be trained as Teachers. In the course 
of the year 171 students passed their final examination. In the 
second year of their existence (1864-65) they had an average attend- 
ance of 234 Teachers, -certificates being given to 203. In the third 
year (1865-66) only 75 certificates were issued; the cause of the 
decrease being the great prevalence of epidemic disease, which 
necessitated the closing of one Training School during several 
months of the year, and greatly interfered with the operations of the 
others. During the year sanction was obtained to the extension of 
the operations, under the same Inspector, to three more districts, viz., 
Bancoorah, Midnapore, and Moorshedabad. Only one additional 
Training School was added on this account, four Training Schools 
being considered sufficient for the six districts. 

159. In addition to this, another Inspector was appointed to 
superintend similar operations in North-East Bengal, in the dis- 
tricts of Rajshahi, Dinagepore, and Rungpore-three new Training 
Schools being opened for the purpose. 

160. So great is the number of applications for admission to the 
Normal Schools that, even in the newly created Institutions, it was 
found possible to get several “Free Students,” i.e.. Students in excess 
J25 Dir. of Arcli — .13 



192 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

of the authorised complement (75 per School), for whom there are 
no stipends, and who yet entered into the usual engagement to 
remain at the School, and to return to the nominating village as 
Teachers when qualified. 

161. It will be interesting to note the progress of this scheme in 
the three districts last taken up (Rajshahi, Dinagepore, and Rung- 
pore), where Mahomedans constitute above two-thirds of the entire 
population; and where, from the small number of existing Patshalas, 
it is necessary to get the villagers to bind themselves not merely to 
hand over an existing School to the Teacher when qualified, but,, 
if there be no School, to get one up. The number of Mahomedan 
nominees is already reported to be considerable. 

162. It may be explained here that the scheme contemplates not: 
merely the training of Teachers, and the subsequent grant of Rupees 
five towards the salary of each qualified Teacher, but it provides 
also for the inspection of the Village Schools. For this purpose 
each of the two special Inspectors has under him a staff of Deputy 1 
Inspectors. There were in 1865-66 altogether 19 Deputy Inspectors- 
employed in this work. 

163. The salary of Rupees five paid to qualified Teachers by' 
Government is calculated to represent about half of their total 
income. That this is actually the case will be seen from the follow- 
ing statistics for 1865-66 given by the Inspector in charge of the 
districts first selected:— 

“The Patshalas have, on the whole, gone on well during the 
year. They have increased in numbers and in attendance of pupils*-, 
and yielded no inconsiderable amount of income to their Gurus in 
the shape of schooling fees. Exclusive of the four Training Schools, 
and as many model Patshalas attached to them, I had under me, on 
the 30th April last, 521 Village Schools, with an attendance of 16,561 
pupils, who paid Rupees 26,507-1 in fees and otherwise to their 
Gurus. The total cost to Government in these Schools was Rupees 
21,643-11, and therefore less than two annas per month per pupil 
The scheme of Patshala improvement, therefore, still fully main- 
tains its character of being the cheapest to Government, and most 
easily expansible of all the systems of elementary education yet 
brought into operation.” 

164. The model Patshalas above alluded to form another not 
unimportant feature of this scheme, for it is, of course, desirable that 
the embryo Teacher should have some practical experience in the 
art of teaching before he leaves the Normal School, and the means 


SCHOOLS 


T 93 


of this is afforded by the model or practising Patshala attached to 
the Central Institution. In these model Patshalas the Native sys- 
tem is adhered to as much as possible, so as to secure their being 
really models of what it is intended that the Village Patshalas should 
be. The following account of the model Patshalas is given by the 
Inspector of the Eastern Circle:- 


“In the constitution of the model Patshala, the Native Patshala 
system has been scrupulously preserved, but with such improve- 
ments as are desirable, which, while they promise success, avoid all 
unnecessary offence to established notions. The young lads attend 
School twice a day, and are arranged into the plantain-leaf, the 
palm-leaf, and the paper classes. Zemindaree and Mahajanee 
accounts are largely taught. The Schools open and close with the 
recitation of short songs in praise of our Maker, and on other appro- 
priate subjects/' 


165. The following interesting account of the signing of the 
village contract is given by the same Inspector:- 

It was past 11 A.M., when I reached Momilpore, a village in 
Rungpore. I was taken to where the head-man of the place, a 
Maliomedan, with his relatives and servants, was preparing a mill 
for clearing the sugar-cane of its juice. At my approach he came 
up to me, saluted me respectfully, spread with his own hands several 
bundles of straw, on which one of his relatives hastily spread out a 
mat quickly snatched from a house close by. I took off my shoes 
and hat, and sat there. A large number of villagers assembled round 
me. They enquired, and I explained to them, the object of my 
visit. They heard me with attention, appeared pleased, but no less 
surprised; and, after some further enquiries, expressed themselves 
willing to set up a Patshala. A nominee was after much difficulty 
fixed upon. They then desired me to wait till their brethren 
returned from the fields, as their consent and signatures were also 
necessary. On my telling them that I was willing to proceed to 
where their friends were, they seemed much pleased, and those who 
were not to accompany me were about to sign, when, considering that 
all this hasty consent might as quickly be withdrawn, I now 'spoke 
m such a way that less willing men might easily have found some 
pretext for withholding their signatures, or, what is a polite way 
of evading, ask time to re-consider the matter. When I spoke in 
strong terms of the engagement to refund Rupees 60, in case they 
failed to establish the Patshala, the younger brother of the head-man, 
after some expressions about their sincerity, volunteered to make 
good the money himself, and gave the Guru two slaps on the back 



194 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

to cheer him on. Finding them really in earnest, I again clearly 
explained myself; and having got the signatures of some, after the 
contract was read out once more by one of them, proceeded with 
the rest to where their comrades were reaping in the fields. We all 
walked together, and new accessions swelled the party, till in about 
15 minutes we reached our destination. The men left their work 
and drew near. We sat down and the head-man undertook to 
explain the scheme. This is always very desirable. When he had 
done, I spoke. Their consent and signatures soon followed. Some 
of the elders could actually sign, while others made marks. I had 
previously come to know that there was a Patshala in this village 
some 10 years ago. Having then talked with them of the threatened 
famine, and of the best way of manuring their fields, I left the place 
at past 1 P.M.” 

It is quite clear that the village contract is a useful feature of 
the scheme, for it secures for the future School the interest and 
patronage of the influential residents of the village. 

166. I have already devoted more space in this Note than can 
well be spared to the description of this most interesting scheme 
for encouraging the education of the lower orders of the Bengal 
people. There can be no doubt that it promises to be the best 
scheme that has been tried. It takes as its basis the national Schools 
of the country, and it improves them at a cost sufficiently small to 
admit of a really wide extension of the system. The schemes 
attempted hitherto failed in one or other of two ways, viz., either— 
(1) by establishing Government or Grant-in-aid Model Schools which 
were filled by a class of the people far higher in the social scale than 
the laboring and agricultural population whom it was desired to 
influence; or (2) by attempting to encourage good teaching in 
Village Schools, the Masters of which, however ready to take the 
offered rewards and to do their best to win them, were, from 
defective education, quite unable to carry out the desired reforms. 

167. 1 do not mean to say that the new system affects only the 
laboring and agricultural population. In some parts of Bengal per- 
haps its principal effect is upon, what may be called, the middle 
classes of the people. This is shown by the following extract from 
the Report of the Inspector of the Central, or first instituted, 
Circle:— 

“I tried to point out in my last Annual Report, as well as on 
other occasions, that the Patshalas are not and cannot be Schools 
tor the masses exclusively . I showed in that Report that they are 
primarily preparatory Schools for the children of the higher and 


SCHOOLS , 195 

middle ranks; and, at the same time being extremely cheap, are 
attended largely by children of the lower orders.” 

In the other or Eastern Circle, it would seem that the scheme 
is more directly operative on the agricultural population, as may be 
gathered from the following extract from the Inspector's Report:— 

“I have heard it talked of, even in high quarters, that the Pat- 
shala system is not working among the masses. This, I think, is 
far from being the truth, though it is certainly to be owned that it 
does not influence the masses alone. 

"Of the Schools I visited in the Burdwan Division (belonging 
to the other Inspector), some had a sensible falling off in attendance 
during the growing and reaping seasons, when laborers cannot 
forego the assistance of their children. These children will, on all 
hands, be allowed to belong to the masses. 

“My own Division, however, is peculiarly the land of the masses. 
In Dinagepore and Rungpore, I do really feel that I am working 
among the lower classes. There the bulk of the people are agri- 
culturists, while the higher orders are almosa unknown. 

• ##**## 

The diaries of Deputy Inspectors teem with names of villages 
composed entirely of agriculturists.” 

168. It would be wrong if I were to pass from the description 
♦Baboo Bhoodeb of this scheme without mentioning the names of 

DMsion! 3 ^* entra * the Inspectors* to whose able and zealous super- 
Baboo Kassee vision the successful working of the system is 

Ea”t doubtless due in no small degree. 

169. A somewhat similar system was tried with less success in 
Assam, where it was attempted to improve the Village Schools by 
training the Teachers at a Normal School at Gowhatty. Recently 
two new Normal Schools have been opened at Tezpore and Seeb- 
saugor; and the subsidy allowances formerly given to the Teachers 
in proportion to the number of pupils on their rolls have been re- 
distributed at fixed rates of Rupees five and six each for 114 Schools. 
Better results are looked for. 

170. The other systems of Primary Education in Bengal were 
thus described in the Report of 1 863-64: — 

“The Lower Class of Government Schools consists of the practis- 
ing Patshalas attached to the Normal Schools for training Village 
Gurus (to be mentioned below), and of some very cheap and 



*9^ SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

elementary Schools in Behar, which are at present far from being 
in a satisfactory condition. These latter have, for the most part, 
been working with untrained and unteachable Masters, and little 
improvement is to be expected till this incubus is removed, and the 
present useless Teachers are succeeded by men of a different stamp 
who have been properly instructed in the duties of their calling. 
An account of these Schools will be found in Mr Fallon’s Report 
printed in Appendix A. 1 

******* 

The private Schools of the Lower Class, in which the standard 
of instruction is such as is suitable for the education of the 
‘masses,’ comprise some ‘Circle’ Mission Schools receiving allowances 
under the Grant in-aid Rules; a large number of Schools in the 
Central and South-East Divisions, established under what is called 
the Circle system; the Village Patshalas, under the charge of the 
additional Inspector in Zillahs Burdwan, Nuddea, and Jessore; the 
Indigenous Schools, under improvement, in Behar and elsewhere, 
by a system of rewards; the subsidized Village Schools in Assam; and 
many Misstonary Schools maintained with the aid of Government 
for the education of the Sonthals, Cossyahs, Kacharis, and other 
uncivilized tribes. For details regarding these Schools, a reference 

must be made to the Reports of the several Inspectors, which are 
annexed in Appendix A.” 

171. Of these, perhaps the Circle system is the most important. 
It is thus described in the Bengal Report of 1863-64:— 

“Former Reports have described at length the system of Circle 
Schools originally brough into operation by Mr. Woodrow. The 
primary object of the scheme was the improvement of the indi- 
genous Village Schools by giving rewards to the Gurus and their 
pupds and providing each ‘Circle,’ which generally consisted of 
three Schools, with a ‘Circle Teacher,’ whose duty was to give 
instruction in each School for two days a week in rotation. The 
p an. with such modifications as circumstances have suggested is 
working with considerable success in the Central and South-East 
uivismns; but, as observed above, the Schools are not mainly attend- 
ed L* C 'Te ° rderS Whkh are su PP° sed to constitute the masses, 

the M drn °L them have come to be g° od Vernacular Schools of 
tie Middle Class, competing successfully in the Vernacular Scholar- 

re^ a * armnatlon - These Schools, however, cannot generally be 
J™ 6 : aS “ an 7 sense the representatives of pre existing indi- 
genous Schools, since very few such Schools were found in the 
istricts m which the scheme has been introduced. 


SCHOOLS 


197 


“The actual plan of operations is thus described by Mr Martin:— 
”A good locality for a circle is fixed upon. If there is a bona fide 
Guru there, he is persuaded to admit the Circle Pundit; and then 
by his and other assistance two or more Schools are established in 
neighbouring villages at the expense of the villagers, and placed 
-under the care of young and intelligent men (chosen by the Deputy 
Inspector), who have received some education, and are capable of 
improving themselves with the assistance of the Circle Pundit. If 
there are no Schools, the villagers are promised a Pundit if they open 
-Schools attended by 120 pupils, and taught by men nominated by 
the Deputy Inspector, and as a suitable locality is fixed upon in the 
first instance (one too in which there is no chance of an aided 
School) there is generally little, if any, difficulty. When there has 
been a Guru of the old School, it generally occurs that within a 
short time he finds the work tedious and competition hopeless, and 
betakes himself to some other occupation, leaving the field to be 
worked by a set of young men taught in our own Institutions.’ 

In 1855 a grant of Rupees 1,500 per mensem was sanctioned 
for working the Circle system, and this was subsequently divided in 
-equal portions between the Central and South-East Divisions. Last 
year Mr Martin, having reported that he should have no difficulty 
jin doubling the number of his circles within a very short time if the 
necessary funds were placed at his disposal, sanction was obtained 
for the establishment of 30 additional circles in his Division, at a 
cost of Rupees 750 a month. The entire grant for Circle Schools 
amounts, therefore, at the present time, to Rupees 27,000 per 
annum; of which. Rupees 18,000 is assigned to the Soutih-East Divi- 
sion, and Rupees 9,000 to the Central Division.’’ 

f72. In 1864-65 an attempt was commenced to improve the 
-Sanscrit Toles in some parts of East Bengal. The Sanscrit Toles 
-are quite distinct from the Patshalas, being Schools in which the 
philosophy and religion of the Hindoos are taught through the 
medium of the Sanscrit language. The Tole Gurus exercise a 
-considerable influence over the people, so that any improvement in 
-the instruction which they give is an object of importance. The 
following account of the experiment is taken from the Report of 
.1864-65:- 1 1 

“A grant of Rupees 350 has been sanctioned for one year for 
the introduction of an experimental measure in East Bengal for 
the improvement of indigenous Sanscrit Toles, by systematizing the 
instruction conveyed in them and improving its quality. A scheme 



I9§ SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

of studies has been prepared, and scholarships and prizes have been* 
offered to the Tole Students who pass an examination in the pres- 
cribed subjects with credit. Rewards are also promised to the 
Pundits of those Toles which send up successful candidates. Under 
this scheme 11 Toles have sent up 3D candidates for examination. 
The result was not known at the end of the year.” 

From the Inspector’s Report for 1865-66, the system appears to* 
be at a standstill, owing to “a hostile social movement” raised 
against it. 


North-Western Provinces 

173. The 8,258 Lower Class Schools in the Nor th-Wes term 
Provinces are made up as follows:— 



Number 
of Schools 

Pupils 

Government Institutions Hulkabundee Schools 

3?°97 

95,535 

f Aided Schools 

43 

2,827 

Piivate Institutions •{ 

(_Indigenous Schools, Unaided , 

5,118 

56,893 

Total 

8,258 

h55,255 


174. The 'Hulkabundee’ or 'Circuit’ Schools were introduced 
first some 15 or 16 years ago. The villages were portioned off into 
circuits, in each of which a School was established under the direct 
management of Government. The salaries of the Teachers varied 
from Rupees 36 to Rupees 60 per annum, and the expense was met 
by a local contribution or cess nominally voluntary. The cess is 
calculated in different ways in different districts. The Collector 
either determines the number of Schools on the area and population 
of the district, and distributing the cost of maintenance over the 
revenue deducts an equivalent percentage; or he may consider one 
per cent, on the revenue a fair cess, and adapt his expenditure and 
number of Schools to the amount which this percentage realizes; 
or he may take into account the wants and capabilities of the 
several circuits and deal separately with each. In all this he is 
presumed to have the consent of the people who are so assessed. 
It has recently been attempted to put the system of local assessment 
on a more secure footing. The late Lieutenant-Governor, Mr 
Colvin, recommended, and the Court of Directors sanctioned, the 
imposition of a one per cent. School Cess in all new Settlements, 
to be so calculated as to fall half on the proprietor and half on 
Government. The Rules promulgated for guidance in this respect 


SCHOOLS 199 

are included in what are known as the “Seharunpore Settlement 
Rules.” 

175. In his Report for 1858-59 the Director of Public Instruction 
wrote:— 

'The Circuit School system, wherever it has been introduced* 
has revolutionized popular education. It has trebled or quadruple 
ed the attendance at School. It has introduced useful and instruct 
tive studies, and an efficient organization in place of an utter absence 
of books without any system. It has improved the status of the 
Teacher, has rendered him independent of individual caprice, and 
has placed the School on a more permanent footing’. In the Report 
for 1860-61 it is further observed that the system 'is gradually 
spreading, and will before long cover the land.’ The present con- 
dition of the Hulkabundee Schools is thus described in the Report 
for 1860-61:— 

“The Schools are very unequal in merit. Those in the 1st, 2nd 
and 3rd Circles are in many instances superior to many of the 
Tehsilee Schools in those Divisions, while a large proportion of 
them are better than the Tehsilee Schools in the Saugor and 
Nerbudda Territories. The average attendance per School, which 
for the whole North-Western Provinces is 21.6, ranges from 4.7 
in Seonee to 42.8 in Etawah.” 

The following remarks, taken from the Report of 1861-62, may 
also be added:— 

'Para. 1.— The results to be considered in this Section go to 
prove that the system of popular Vernacular Education, which has 
been on trial for 12 or 13 years in these Provinces, and has been 
regarded with interest, or taken as a model by other Governments, 
is extending its usefulness year by year. Its stability and aptitude 
for internal development and improvement is no longer doubtful, 
but the need of a vigilant system of inspection, and particularly of 
local encouragement, to aid the work of the Departmental Officers, 
is strongly marked, and is a feature peculiar to the country. The 
prosperous establishment of the Etawah District Schools is a proof 
of what may be accomplished by local encouragement, but the state 
of those Schools, as reported on by the late Inspector of the 2nd 
Circle in December 1861, shows the absolute necessity of an 
organized departmental supervision. 

“2.— The extension of the Hulkabundee School system over every 
district in the North-Western Provinces is a matter of time. When 



200 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SCHOOLS 


20 r 


that is accomplished, a very considerable proportion of the School- 
going class will be brought under our direct teaching. At present 
-Strange contrasts exist; for instance, in the rich district of Bareilly, 
to the north, there is not a single Hulkabundee School; in the poor 
district of Jhansi to the south there are 77 Schools, with 2,202 boys, 
and a fund available for building purposes of Rupees 20,000. In 
many of the districts of the Doab the Schools have been long es- 
tablished, and are increasing month by month. In Furruckabad. 
one of the wealthiest, they are just beginning to exist. In some of 
the famine-stricken regions the Hulkabundee Schools maintained 
their vigor, whereas in more favored places at the same period 
they apparently fell away/' 

176. In some instances, and especially at certain periods of the 
year, it is difficult also to keep up the attendance. The following 
remarks made by Mr Griffith, Inspector, 3rd Circle, in the Report 
of 1860-61, will illustrate this; — 

“The bulk of the Hulkabundee scholars are agriculturists; their 
time is most precious to their parents, and when the mangoes are 
ripe, or the crops are being stocked, on no account they can be 
■spared: nay, each family has some cattle, and each family must send 
a child to look after them, and the more so since pounds have been 
introduced in these Provinces. The agriculturist boys are tempo- 
rary visitors, and they flock to our Schools periodically; and, as 
the average is struck for the whole year, it must be a low one for 
the Hulkabundee Schools, if they are reported truly, till people 
value education more than food and necessaries of life." 

177. In 1863-64 the Hulkabundee system was extended to the 
•districts of Jaloun, Humeerpore, and Cawnpore. The School Cess 

(which provides funds for these Schools) was also successfully 
introduced throughout the 3rd or Benares Circle, notwithstanding 
that it comprises four permanently settled districts. In all these 
districts the landholders have voluntarily consented to pay the 
education rate,— a fact which may justly be regarded with great 
satisfaction. 

178. There are still districts, or portions of districts, without 
Hulkabundee Schools; and the Educational Officers all look for- 
ward to the extension of the cess by the progress of the re-settlement 
operations. The following remarks made by the Inspector of the 
1st Circle (embodied in the Education Report of 1865-66) give an 
encouraging proof of the growing appreciation of these Schools:— 

“There can be no doubt that these Schools have now taken 
■deep root. The difficulty no longer is to persuade the Zemindars 


to allow a School to be opened in their village, but to select, as 
localities for the number of Schools that can be afforded, villages 
the residents of which manifest the greatest desire for instruction, 
•and where the greatest amount of good is likely to be effected. No 
inconsiderable portion of the Inspector’s time while on tour is now 
occupied in listening to the petitions of Zemindars for new Schools, 
or for the restoration of Schools which for some reason have been 
withdrawn.” 

179. The 43 aided Lower Class Schools in the North-Western 
Provinces are composed for the most part of Mission Schools, or 
Schools supported by Native gentlemen. 

180. The 5,118 indigenous Schools entered in the Returns were 

'described' generally in the Report of 1863-64 in the following 
terms:— ® 

“Schools of the lower order, which have generally received the 
designation of indigenous, are the Persian, Arabic, and Sanscrit 
bazar Schools, which are visited from time to time by the Deputy 
Inspectors of the Department. An accurate calculation of the 
attendance and expenditure on these Schools is next to impossible. 
The Teachers keep no registers, and the salaries paid are irregular. 
As a rule, the average attendance seldom exceeds nine boys; and, 
as a better style of education creeps into fashion, attendance at these 
Schools will fall lower. The character of the teaching has often 
been described. The hope of reform is very small, for the 
Teachers, are set against it, and desire no assistance from Govern- 
ment which shall involve the trouble of improvement. 

"Indigenous Schools are gradually giving way before the steady 
advance of the Government system of education. I observe that 
in the 1st Circle alone 142 Schools have been closed during the 
year. As might be expected, the largest number of existing Schools 
are to be found in the Bareilly and Bijnour Districts, where the 
Hulkabundee system has not been introduced. In Bareilly there 
are 557 Schools, with 4,804 scholars; in Bijnour there are 373 
Schools, with 3,558 scholars. Again, take the two best districts of 
the Circle, and the result is that in Boolundshuhur alone 43 Schools 
have closed this year, and in Meerut 33.” 

Since 1863-64 about 600 more of these indigenous Schools have 
been closed, yielding apparently to the advance of the Hulkabundee 
system. 



202 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Punjab 

181. The 1,771 Lower Class Schools in the Punjab consist of 
1,746 Village Schools (supported by the proceeds of the Education 
Cess, and corresponding to the “Hulkabundee” Schools of the 
North-Western Provinces), 22 Jail Schools and three Indigenous 
Schools aided under the Grant-in-aid Rules. 

182. There has been no advance in late years in the number 
of Village Schools in the Punjab; indeed the number in 1865-66 is 
61 less than in 1863-64; but the number of pupils has increased 
from 51,753 to 56,593. 

183. The Jail Schools (numbering 22) were first placed under 
the Education Department in 1862-63. One or two trained Teachers, 
aided by Pupil Teachers selected from the prisoners, conduct the 
classes. The Pupil Teachers are excused from labor, and occupy 
themselves partly in teaching and partly in learning, with the view 
of better qualifying themselves as Teachers. 

Madras 

184. The Lower Class of Schools in Madras is represented by 
one Government School at Striharicottah for the Yenadis,—a wild 
tribe inhabiting a jungly island to the north of Madras; 16 Govern- 
ment Schools for the Hill Tribes in Ganjam, and 825 Private Aided 
Schools. These Private Aided Schools are composed of the follow- 
ing, viz 

(1) — “Rate Schools” supported by an Education rate, levied 

under the Madras Education Act. Of this kind there 
are 79. 

(2) — Schools managed by Missionary bodies. The majority 

of these are managed by the Gospel Society (in various 
districts, but principally in Tinnevelly,) and by the 
Church Mission Society (also for the most part in 
Tinnevelly). 

(3) — The indigenous Aided Schools inspected by Government 

Officers. 

185. The development of education, under the Madras Educa- 
tion Act, has certainly not been great. The following remarks are 
made on the subject in review by the Madras Government of the 
Education Report:— 

“The establishment of Schools, under the provisions of the 
Madras Education Act, has not made much progress during the 


SCHOOLS 


203 


year under review. According to the Returns appended to the last 
Report, the number of Schools supported by a rate at the close of 
the official year 1864-65 was 75, including 72 Schools of this class 
in the. Godavery District. At the end of 1865-66 that number had 
only risen to 79. Of the four new Rate Schools, one is in South 
Canara, and three in Malabar; the first mentioned being the Talook 
School of Mulki, which, at the request of the inhabitants, has been 
converted from a Government School into a Rate School. The 
working of the Act in the Godavery District has not been satis- 
factory. The Inspector states that the machinery of the Act is ‘ill- 
adapted to the purpose to which it has been applied in the Godavery 
District, viz., the maintenance of elementary Schools in villages the 
population of which is chiefly agricultural. The Commissioner, 
Mr Bowers, observes, ‘are ignorant ryots, who care nothing for 
the School, and neglect their duties/ ‘The only way/ he writes, ‘in 
w ich they can be prevented from causing the abolition of the 
Schools by simple inaction is to place them, in their capacity of 
School Commissioners, as they are in their capacity of Village 
Kurnums, under the authority of the Sub-Collector, but in that 
case the Act becomes a dead letter and a superfluity. This would 
be virtually a return to the ante-Act state of things, and would be 
an admission that these Schools could never have been voluntarily 
maintained. Up to a very recent date, many of the Masters had 
received no salaries for months/ From the Returns appended to 
the Directors Report, it appears that, in two of the talooks in 
w ich these Schools are in operation, the amount of the collections 
tinder the Act was somewhat less than the Government grant. 

Ihe difficulty of obtaining competent School Commissioners 
for the management of the Rate Schools is also adverted to by the 
Deputy Inspector of Schools in Malabar and Canara, in which dis- 
tricts, however, the Act appears likely to work well. In the latter 
district five Middle Class Schools have been established, and the 
preliminary measures for the establishment of five more, under 
the provisions of the Act, had been carried out before the 
close of the year. One of the latter, an Anglo-Vernacular 

School at Palghat, has b£en opened since the close of the year 
with an attendance of 400 pupils. The Deputy Inspector 
reports that for this School a building, capable of accommodating 
500 boys, is to be provided, at an estimated cost of Rupees 16,000, 
and the School is to be eventually placed under a Graduate of an 
English University. He adds, that the introduction of the Act 
would succeed as well in Canara as in Malabar, were trained 
Teachers available. In Coimbatore the inhabitants of 54 villages 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SCHOOLS 


204 

had placed themselves under the Act, and in 24 of them Commis- 
sioners had been appointed; but in none had any Schools been 
opened before the close of the year. In only two had the Commis- 
sioners commenced to levy taxes, and even in these they had not 
ventured to employ any coercive processes, but had collected only 
from those who paid, if not willingly, at least without legal pres- 
sure. From what is stated by the Inspector, it is to be feared that, 
in this district, the applications for the introduction of the Act can 
hardly have been voluntary in the true sense of the term. The 
matter is one which should be at once looked into.” 

186. In the Schools managed by Missionaries no material ex- 
tension of operations has of late taken place. About 245 of the 
Lower Class Schools appear to belong to this head. 

187. The indigenous Schools under inspection number 498. 
They received grants aggregating Rupees 3,777 on the “payment 
by results” system. The system is considered to have worked well, 
and its extension to indigenous Schools in every district has been 
directed by the Madras Government. 

Bombay 

188. Of the 1,177 Lower Class Schools in Bombay, 1,108 are 

Government Institutions and 69 Private Institutions. In Mr. 
Howard’s Memorandum of June 1865, the following account is 
given of the recent history of primary education in Bombay, and 
the difficulties which were encountered in the attempt to improve 
it. : | 

“Para. 47.— No less pains were spent on the great question of 
popular education. It was long disputed in the time of the Board 
of Education, whether instruction for Natives should be chiefly 
Vernacular or chiefly English. The Vernacularist party in 
the main prevailed; and while English was little cared for, except at 
the Presidency town, Vernacular Schools were opened in large 
numbers in the Mofussil at the sole expense of the State. 

“48.— Afterwards, in 1854, a partially self-supporting system was- 
established. Henceforth no new School was to be opened unless it 
was provided with a house, and more than half maintained by the 
people. It was hoped that existing Schools would, by popular con- 
tributions, be gradually put on the same footing. The Educational 
Department inherited the partially self-supporting system from the 
Board; and under it more than 200 Vernacular Schools were opened 


205 

in the course of two years. A zealous Educational Officer could with- 
out much difficulty induce village communities to consent to establish, 
a School, and to enter into the necessary agreement for its partial 
maintenance, but it was not foreseen that the agreement might not: 
be observed and could not possibly be enforced. Further expansion 
in this direction was checked in November 1856 by the Supreme- 
Government, who disapproved of the partially self-supporting system. 
Financial difficulties, caused by the mutiny, soon followed. All- 
increase of educational expenditure was absolutely forbidden; and 
the work for the Educational Department then was to retrench,' and, 
if possible, not to go back. The two years that followed ' were 
employed in organizing the existing Schools. Stricter discipline was 
introduced. The School fee was levied from all but 20 per cent, of 
poor scholars, cheap and improved School books and maps were 
produced. Each boy was compelled to buy the text book of his 
class. Registers were more carefully inspected, and nominal atten- 
dants were struck off the roll. It was a time of hard work, and the 
Village Schools were reduced to order. But their number could not 
be increased, and the apparent, though perhaps not the real, atten- 
dance was diminished. A new impulse was given in 1859 by an 
order of the Secretary of State, permitting, what before was forbidden, 
the re-distribution of School expenditure. The Statistical Returns 
at once began to improve, and from that day progress has been un- 
interrupted. The number of the Vernacular Schools has, since 1854- 
55, risen from 240 to 925, the attendance from 18,888 to 61,629. 

“49.-This development is due, as before has been set forth, not 
to the increase of the Imperial grant, but to the voluntary contribu- 
tions of the people. It was not, however, supposed that the ultimate 
wants of the country under the head of National education could 
thus be provided for. How to meet those growing wants was 
earnestly debated. The partially self-supporting system was 
gradually dropped by common consent. In place of the popular 
subscription so lightly promised, so reluctantly paid, an enhanced- 

lee was levied amid general satisfaction. Mr Coke deserves the 
credit of this change. 

50.— Every suggestion for extending the area of popular education 
was iscussed. The project of working through the existing indige- 
nous Schools was carefully considered, and unanimously, or almost 
unanimously, rejected. Fhe grant-in-aid system was clearly inade- 
quate, and was pronounced by the Secretary of State to be so. It was 
necessary to look to the direct action of the Government. Proposals 
were made to levy an educational tax, and whether this should be 



:20 6 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SCHOOLS 


compulsory or voluntary was warmly disputed. I took the volun- 
tary side, on political grounds, and drafted an Act analogous to the 
Municipal Act (XI. of 1853) to enable communities to tax themselves 
for common Schools. I also recommended the immediate levy, 
where it was legal, of the extra land assessment, which had been 
reserved for education, and the collection of all other local funds 
(as ‘chilhur' and the like) which might be made applicable to the 
same purpose. I also sketched a plan for constituting each talooka 
an educational district, with one principal and affiliated humbler 
Schools. This is known as the 'talooka system/ and has been kept 
in view in all recent developments of Vernacular Education. 

“51.— At length in 1864 the Bombay Government were pleased to 
levy the extra land assessment, and declared a proportion of it to 
belong to education in the district where it was levied. Local funds 
of other kinds were also collected, and Zillah Committees, in which 
both the Revenue Authorities and the Director of Public Instruc- 
tion were represented, were appointed to control the expenditure of 
the local income on Schools and other objects. This system is new, 
and has hardly had time to bear fruit.” 

189. The local cess above referred to yielded in 1864-65 Rupees 
2,15,359, and in 1965-66 Rupees 3,19,524. The agriculturist 
rate payers however do not seem to get the full benefit of it. I have 
.already noticed the fact (paragraph 157 above) that no less than 
Rupees 1,10,875 of the proceeds of the “local rate of assessment” were 
credited in 1865-66 under the head of “Middle Class Schools.” 
Rupees 11,930 were credited und*er the head of “Higher Class 
Schools,” and Rupees 14,469 under the head of Institutions for special 
or Professional Education principally on account of Normal Schools. 
The above items aggregate Rupees 1,37,274, deducting which from 
the total receipts, Rupees 3,13,524, there would be left Rupees 
1,76,250 available for Lower Class Schools; but, in point of fact, only 
Rupees 49,301 are credited under the head of Lower Class Schools. 

Good use, however, appears to have been made of this sum, as 
may be inferred from the following extract from the Director's 
Report of 1865-66:— 

“Para. 52.— The operation of the local cess has given us an in- 

Primary or Vernacular Schools. crease of 229 in the number of 

these Schools, and of 23,041 in 
the number of scholars, during the year. In Guzerat I was impressed 
with the vitaliy of primary education, and was pleased to find that 


207 


boys belonging to the cultivator class were beginning to attend the 
Vernacular Schools in considerable numbers. But 1 am not yet in 
a position to pronounce, from personal knowledge, on the primary 
■education of the Presidency. Two points in the subject are clear:- 
-First that, in order to form a judgment, we require more definite 
standards of examination; secondly, that, in order to improve the 
teaching of the Native Masters, we require an enlargement and in* 
■provement of our training Establishments." 


Oude 


190. The Lower Class of Schools is represented in Oude by 61 
'Government Hulkabundee Schools, and 36 Private Schools. The 
Private Schools are all aided under the ordinary Grant-in-aid Rules. 

191. The Hulkabundee Schools are all situated in the Oonao 
■District, the recent re-settlement of which provided the means of 
.establishing Village Schools on the system first adopted in the 
North-Western Provinces. These Schools were only started in 
1865-66; and the results are very encouraging. As the settlement 
.operations advance, the system will be extended to all districts in 
-Oude. 

^92. The Village School Teachers are all trained for their work 
in the Lucknow Normal Schools, to which they go for a year for 

the purpose, getting stipends of Rupees four each while under 
training. 


Central Provinces 

193. The Lower Class of Schools in the Central Provinces con- 


There are also a number of Police and 
[ail Schools, of which mention is made 
n the Report, but they arenc* directly 
'under the Education Department, and 
are not therefore included in the Stat- 
istical Returns 


sist* of 546 Village or Hulka- 
bundee Schools supported by 
the Education Cess, and 680 
Private Schools. The latter 


number is made up of 661 indigenous Schools, and 19 
Zemindaree Schools maintained by Feudatories and Zamindars on 
their estates. The School Cess in the Central Provinces was doubled 
in 1864-65, and the extra funds thus made available were found 
very useful in increasing the salaries, and thus securing a better 
class of Teachers. The number of Vernacular languages existing 
almost side by side in the Central Provinces, renders it particularly 
difficult to get good Teachers on small salaries. The additional 
funds were also partly expended in the erection of suitable School 
houses. 



208 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SCHOOLS 


194. The indigenous Schools are thus described in the Educa- 
tion Report:— 

“These Schools may be divided into three classes— 

“ 1$£. — Those receiving a regular monthly grant from Gov- 
ernment. 

“2nd.— Those receiving grants under the payment by result 
Rules. 

“3rd.— Those receiving casual gifts, in money or books, for 
the Masters or pupils. 

“Of the 1st Class there are only five; the grants have all been 
made recently, and with the object of establishing Schools in locali- 
ties where none previously existed, and where it was not desirable 
to establish a Government School, or where a Government School 
could not be established at so low a cost. Schools of this kind should, 
after having been established two full years, be aided not by a regular 
monthly grant, but according to the rules for payment by results. In 
the 1st Class there are five Schools receiving monthly grants aggre- 
gating Rupees 45. 

“Of the 2nd Class, during 

Tnese have net been included in 

the Statistical Returns 

largest amount paid to one School was Rupees 47—4. Of 273 pupils 
examined, about 20 per cent, failed. The only districts in which 
Teachers have come forward to claim rewards are Saugor, Nimar, 
Nursingpore, and Nagpore. I do not feel satisfied that proper 
attention has been paid to this very important branch of our 
educational system, and District Inspectors have not yet thoroughly 
explained the Rules to the Teachers. A number of School Masters 
in the Jubbulpore District, who received grants last year, refused' 
to receive them this year; and one of the most intelligent of the 
class informed the Inspector the reason was that the parents of the 
children objected strongly to his taking any aid from Government; 
they seemed to dread it as the insertion of the thin-end of some- 
mysterious wedge. When the rules for regulating these payments 
by results were drafted, I thought them sufficiently liberal: but a 
revision will be necessary, as they are not so liberal as the rules in 
other parts of India, which have for many years enjoyed greater 
educational advantages than the Central Provinces. I shall submit 
shortly a revised Code of Rules. 


the past year, 25 Schools* have 
presen ted pupils for examina- 
tion, and a total of Rupees 
408- 1 has been paid,— the 


209 


“The Schools of the 3rd Class now number 656, with 12,267 
pupils. The most remarkable development of these has taken place 
in the district of Sumbulpore, and particularly in the Burghur 
Tehsilee. At the close of 1864-65 there were 42 indigenous Schools 
in Sumbulpore, with 647 pupils; there are now 114 Schools, with 
4,340 pupiks, and during the same period Schools of every descrip- 
tion and scholars have very largely increased. The people also have 
subscribed liberally; besides what they pay directly to the Teachers, 
and which it is impossible to state with any degree of accuracy, they 
have subscribed for the building of School houses, and for the 
maintenance of the Schools, a sum of Rupees 3,350. When it is 
remembered that only four years ago this district was not free from 
rebels; that at that time, what the Central Provinces were to the 
other Provinces of India, so was Sumbulpore, the Boetia of the 
Central Provinces, I think it will be admitted that the good work 
inaugurated by Captain Cumberlege is not the least important, or 
the least interesting page of this year’s History of British India. 
The hearty manner in which the people have seconded the District 
Officer’s exertions for the education of their children is a proof 
that old animosities have passed away; and in their enlightenment 
we have some security for their continued loyalty. I append 
extracts from the Memorandum of Education by Captain 
Cumberlege and his District Inspector for the last Quarter of 1865- 
66, detailing more fully than I can do in this Report their opera- 
tions during the past year. They will well repay perusal, and their 
publication would be useful to the Officers of their districts.” 


Mysore 

195. The Lower Class of Schools is represented in Mysore by 32 
Government Vernacular Schools and bv 15 Grant-in-aid Schools of 
a similar class. The Private Schools are designed almost exclusively 
for Mussulmans, and are reported to be wanting in order and system. 
Improvement, however, is expected, as they are stated to have been 
recently better supplied with books, and regularly visited by the 
Deputy Inspector. 


j British Burmah 

196. The statistics for British Burmah have not. as already ex- 
plained, been included in the general statement; but it may be hoped 
that the recent appointment of a Director of Public Instruction will 
ensure the receipt of full information with the prescribed statistical 
statements in future years. 



SCHOOLS 


211 


2 10 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

197. There are about 259 Lower Class Aided Village Schools in 
British Burmah superintended by Missionary bodies, with about 
5,691 pupils. 

198. It is expected, however, that it will be soon possible to make 
progress in the direction of encouraging the existing indigenous 
Schools of the Province. The following account of these Institutions 
was given in 1864 by the Chief Commissioner:— 

“The existing Native Schools of Burmah are the Buddhist 
monasteries. The monks are supported by the daily alms of the 
people. The fabrics are generally built by private individuals as 
works of religious merit. The monasteries have no endowments. 
The monks, who inhabit them, perform the priestly offices required 
by the laity and educate children. For these services they arc 
supported by voluntary gifts and daily alms. There is scarcely a 
village in the whole country without one of these Institutions. For 
the great mass of the pupils, it may be said that the education 
imparted does not go beyond instruction in reading and writing the 
Vernacular language,— that is, Burmese, and the rudiments of 
arithmetic. For those who intend to enter the priesthood, of course 
a higher degree of instruction is necessary, which need not here be 
described. As a general rule, it may be stated that all instruction 
among the Burmese people is carried on in the monasteries. There 
are a few private Schools here and there, but they are exceptional. 
There is no other regular plan or system of Schools which could be 
taken in hand and improved. I would not recommend that Govern- 
ment should set up Schools in the villages as additional, or in 
opposition, to the monasteries,— such a scheme would inevitably be 
a failure.” 

199. As regards the proposed plan of improving these Schools, 
the Chief Commissioner expressed the following opinion:— 

“ Far a . 15— To carry out this plan, I am of opinion that we 
should do nothing more than induce the monks in the several 
monasteries to accept certain books for the instruction of the pupils. 
We may already have some excellent School books in the Burmese 
T anguage. They are as follows:— 

“L Geography by the Reverend G. H. Hough (maps wanting). 

“2. Treatise on land measuring and triangulation. 

“3. Stilson’s Arithmetic,— an admirable work. 

“4. 'The house I live in/— translation of an interesting 
little work on Human Anatomy. 


■f “5. Sketch of Ancient History, by the Reverend E. A. Stevens, 
American Baptist Missionary. 

“6. Legendre’s Geometry. 

“If there were only a work on elementary astronomy, we really 
have every book required to commence the work now proposed. 

“The task of inducing the Buddhist monks generally to accept 
of and teach these works in their Monasteries, of course in addition 
to the existing ecclesiastical or theological course of education, 
would require very great tact, judgment, and discretion. Some 
Buddhist monks, to whom I have spoken on the subject, have not 
been averse to the plan. The work would have to be superintended 
by a man of superior attainments, one well acquainted with the 
Burmese language and the character of the people.” 

200. In pursuance of the above suggestion, steps were taken for 
the appointment of a Director of Public Instruction. The appoint- 
ment did not actually take place till August 1866. The following 
account of the success already met with was given by the Chief 
Commissioner in February last:- 

“It will be seen that, notwithstanding some opposition, there has 
been so far very encouraging success. In the towns of Rangoon and 
Moulmein the Buddhist monks of 45 monasteries, having 115 pupils, 
have allowed the books on arithmetic and land-measuring, and in 
some instances geography, and a small book on anatomy, to be 
taught. The monks themselves will not teach these books, partly 
from a feeling of pride which will not allow them to teach foreign 
books, and partly from an ecclesiastical prejudice peculiar to 
Buddhist ascetics, that the only true knowledge is contained in the 
Beedagat, and that worldly knowledge is waste of time. Still they 
allow the books to be taught.” 

Berars 

201. There are apparently 29 Mahratta Village Schools in the 
Berars. It has been proposed to increase this number by the addition 
at once of 72 new Schools; no detailed information is available 
respecting these Schools; but, now that a regular Education Depart- 
ment has been organized in the Berars, it may be hoped that foil 
information will be available in future years. 



212 SELECTIONS FROM dS»UCATlONAL RECORDS 

Female Schools 
Bengal 

202. In Bengal there are three Government Schools lor the edu- 
cation of Native girls, with 153 pupils, and 217 Private Schools, with 
5,559 pupils. 

203. The Director of Public Instruction has made no remarks 
whatever in his Report for 1865-66 on the important subject of 
Female Education. This is a great omission; for, though some of 
the appended Reports of the Inspectors contain information on the 
subject, it would have been only proper to give prominence to the 
matter by a few remarks from the Director himself- 

204. Mr Woodrow, the Inspector of the Central Division evident- 
ly takes a great interest in the subject. He opens his remarks on the 
subject with the following' paragraph:— 

“ Female Education .— The most interesting feature in the 
educational operations of the year is the extension of Female 
Education. Not only is there an increase of the numbers under 
instruction, but owing to the beneficial action of the Ooterparra Desh 
Hitoyseni Shova, there is a prospect of general improvement in the 
quality of the instruction imparted. I last year reported that ‘the 
total number of girls attending Schools in the Central Division, 
exclusive of the Bethune and several private Schools, was 999 in 
April 1863, and 1,530 in 1864.’ In 1865 the number had risen to 
1,963. In April 1866 it amounted to 2,823. Counting in the 
Bethune School and the girls in six Missionary Schools in the 
Nuddea Zillah, the number is 3,307. Female Education being yet 
in its infancy, it is interesting to the public to know how these 
numbers are made up, and in what parts of the country the advance 
is most perceptible/' 

Mr Woodrow then goes on to give a detailed list of Girls' Schools, 
showing the following results:— 

Pup in 


("Schools ...... j ,877 

Aided by Government *{ Circle Pa tsha las ..... 90 

(^Zenana Associations .... 6’io 

Unaided . . /Under Missionary Bodies • . . 442 

\ Under Native Managers . . . X03 

Girls attending Schools for boys ...... 60 

Government Female School (Bethune School, Calcutta) • . . 125 


Total . 


3.307 


SCHOOLS 


213 


He adds the following remarks:- 

“There are now 58 Grant-in-aid Schools with 1,877 girls m 
timm^gtiniTsS Schools with 1.219 gi* ^ 

Zenana Associations with 278 ladies under ■ nstI “ t ' on ; u ^ b " / 
-creased to four Associations with 610 ladies. , 

increasing monthly, and want ol funds, rather than want of house 
Ltruction, now plates the limit on ntpd -tenstom The 
girls attending Circle Schools have fallen off from 135 to , 
fht attending Schools for hoys iron. 82 to 60; h». **««■£ 
ing unaided Girls’ Schools have increased from M9 Jo 208. O 
the whole, the total shows an increase this year from 2,008 ~, , 

or of 962 girls. This success attending the efforts ° 1 € ° er P a . 

Association for promoting the good of the country ^ eserves 
brought prominently to the notice of Government. 

205 In the South-East Division there is a Government Training 

School for Mistresses at Dacca, with 24 pupils on its rolls; and it is 
stated by the Inspector that ‘‘applications have been receiv 
Mistresses from Rajshahi, Rungpore, Calcutta, “ d “ 

There are altogether in the South-East Division 64 Girls Schools 
(53 of which are aided by Government) with 917 pupils. 

206 In the South-West Division there are 30 Girls’ Schools (26 
of which are aided) with 1,010 pupils. In the North-West Division 
there do not appear to be any measures on foot for Female Educa- 
tion, and the Returns do not include any Girls’ Schools. 

207. In the North-East Division there are 25 Girls’ Schools (all 
aided) with 530 pupils. 

North-Western Provinces 

208. In the North-Western Provinces there are 497 Government 
Schools for girls with 9,269 pupils, and 77 Private Schoo s wi 
1,494 pupils. 

209. About 100 of these Schools were added in 1865-66. The 
Director of Public Instruction refers to Female Schools in 
Report for that year in the following terms:— 

"These Schools are all of the most elementary description, the 
■expenditure is limited, and the parents of the children are generaUy 
poor. They are a beginning by no means despicab e, an 
under careful inspection. Coming across, as I o, in t e con ^ 
my tours, towns where formerly at the mention of the Girls Schools 
one’s Native advisers and coadjutors would shake their .heads, bn 



214 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


where now Girls’ Schools are in healthy operation, I cannot but. 
look forward to more extended results, though it will be long before 
we overtake the ignorance of the population. The visits of 
experienced Officers are not regarded with distrust. The Natives 
soon grow familiar with an Inspector who performs his work 
honestly and regularly, and place confidence in his advice. Younger 
and less experienced Officers, who are naturally less able to make 
allowance for deficiencies, which even the most cursory inspection 
will disclose in Schools perhaps of only a few months’ standing, 
have in some instances caused discouragement by the tone of their 
remarks. Deception in the matter of attendance cannot at first be 
altogether avoided, and will gradually disappear before a patient 
examination into results such as that which has been conducted 
during the year of report.” 

2L0. There are also two recently established Normal Schools for- 
Mistresses, one at Agra and another at Ourai, a village about 13 : 
miles from Futtehpore. Both these Institutions are favorably 
noticed by the Inspectors, and the Director makes the following, 
remarks regarding them:— 

“Small Normal Seminaries of this character are manageable; 
and, when the experiment has been fully tested, I shall ask the 
Inspectors to consider the advisability of establishing one in each 
district, for the improvement of the Girls’ Schools in that district,— 
it being manifestly unadvisable, if not impossible, to institute one 
large Normal School for the whole of the Circle, as, in the case of 
School Masters, steadiness, rather than rapidity of progress, has 
hitherto been our aim, and results seem to prove the wholesomeness 
o£ the principle/' 

Punjab 

211. The 1,029 Female Schools in the Punjab, with their 19,561 
pupils, are composed of 333 Government Schools and 696 Private 
Schools. 

212. As the Punjab stands foremost of all other Provinces in 
respect of the numerical results of Female Education, it may be 
well to give here some account of the rise and progress in that Pro- 
vince of so recent but important a feature of educational operations. 

213. The following paragraph extracted from the Punjab Edu- 
cation Report of 1862-63 refers to the period when the first real 
impulse was given to the movement in favour of Female Education in 
the Punjab:— 


schools 


215 * 


' At the Educational Durbar* * * * ' * His Honor 

Training of the Lieutenant-Governor addressed the Chiefs of 

Lahore and S 31 Lahore and Umritsur, and called their special at- 

Umritsur tention to the necessity for providing education for 

their daughters as they had already for their sons, and promised them 
assistance in carrying out any plan they might devise for that pur- 
pose. Accordingly Committees were appointed at each of the two 
cities, and it was arranged that the family priests of certain of the 
best families, viz., 30 at Lahore and 40 at Umritsur, should under- 
take to teach, each of them at least, one female from his own or his 


client’s families. While giving this instruction, the priests are to be 
paid at the rate of Rupees 10 per mensem; and as soon as the pupils 
become proficient enough to impart knowledge themselves, they will 
be taken into the service of the families with which they are connect- 
ed as Governesses, and the pay of the priests will cease. The 
Governesses will teach the females not only of their own or their 
patrons' families, but also of respectable neighbours of a lower social 
grade. These again will probably be glad to open Schools of their 
own, or to take service as School Mistresses with Government or 


private persons. And so it is hoped that, beginning with the upper 
classes, the stream of Female Education will gradually permeate 
through the several strata of Native society. For starting the scheme,, 
which amounts to supplying the means of training within their 
home circles, at least 70 Governesses, most of whom will be fit to act 


as Teachers by the end of a year, the sum of Rupees 8,000 is required: 
for the year 1863-64, and special application has been made for it.” 


214. In the following year (1863-64) the Director of Public In- 
struction gave the following account of the result of the scheme 
referred to above:— 


"In paragraph 64 of my last Annual Report I explained how a 
scheme had been proposed for training up Governesses, and placing 
them in the families of the upper classes of Native society at Lahore 
and Umritsur. This scheme was afterwards changed; for it was 
found that the adult females, who were taken under instruction in 
the first instance, had domestic cares and duties which sadly inter- 
fered with their speedy advancement in study, and young girls were 
found much sharper learners than adults. Again it was found that 
there was no real objection to the employment of male Teachers; 
whatever objection there was, was directed against the innovation 
of teaching females at all. And when, through the example set and 
arguments used by a few leading members of the Native community 
these objections were gradually overcome, the system of private 
female instruction by family priests in the houses of the Chiefs and 



SELECTIONS FROM /EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SCHOOLS 


,216 

Notable?, and of Schools in every Mohulla for the wives and -daught 
<ers of the .middle classes, soon became generally prevalent. As these 
Schools are not open to inspection, I am dependent for my informa- 
tion regarding them on the /Reports of the Committees of Native 
/gentlemen; but from these Reports, and from the great interest shown 
in the matter throughout by His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor, 
there can be no doubt about the subject of /Female Education having 
been taken up far more earnestly than could have been expected in 
so short a time. Most of the Schools are probably very elementary, 
and a good deal of the scholars’ time is no doubt devoted to instruc- 
tion in their own religious books; yet a fair amount of attention 
seems to be paid to secular studies as well, and some few girls 
have made good progress, judging from the specimens of hand- 
writing produced as the result of their unassisted efforts. I also 
understand that the teaching of plain needle-work has been com- 
menced, and proves decidedly popular. One thing is at any rate 
very certain that the formation of these Schools to so large an extent 
at the two chief cities of the Punjab has brought the subject to the 
notice of all classes throughout the Province, and has greatly facili- 
tated the spread of Female Education in other districts. 

“I may also mention here that, within the last two or three 
months, Baba Khem Singh, a lineal descendant of the Guru Baba 
Nanuk, and greatly revered by all classes of his countrymen, has been 
preaching at Jullunder and its neighbourhood in favour of Female 
Education. He has since then spontaneously proceeded as far as the 
Rawul Pindee District, bent on the goodly work of stirring up the 
people to educate their daughters. The success of his mission has 
been immense, and Girls’ Schools are now starting into existence 
by scores and even hundreds, I believe, in those parts of the Punjab 
which he has visited.” 

215. The results for 1863-64 in respect of Female Schools were 
thus described in the same Report:— 

“There are now 204 Government Female Schools, instead of only 
103 at the beginning of the year. The number of girls has increased 
from 2,224 to 3,993; of whom 3,414 are Mahomedans, and 579 Hin- 
doos; 53 of the girls in the Jullunder District are learning English, 
439 Persian, 3,312 Oordoo, and 561 Nagree. The average daily 
attendance has nearly doubled, being now 3,058. 

“These Schools are all under the direct control of District Officers, 
many of whom have interested themselves greatly ini the matter, and 
have set them on foot at considerable personal trouble. The charges 
are borne exclusively by the one per cent. Educational Cess Fund. 


217 

'Tfae great difficulty is to exercise proper supervision over them. 
Although it would be obviously preferable to employ female Teach- 
ers, and the want of them is felt by some District Officers to be a 
.great impediment to the progress- of Female Education, yet the people 
do not seem to object to male Teachers for their daughters, to 
long as they are allowed to make their own selection. And, strange 
to say, the selection not unfrequently falls upon young men, as 
well as old,— occasionally on a mere lad, one of the senior scholars in 
a neighbouring Town or Village School. The prejudice against in- 
spection in many places continues very strong, though it has been 
completely removed in others by the District Officers. All that is 
necessary at present seems to me to, be to withhold any good rate 
-of pay from the Teacher where the School is not open to occasional 
visits from the Deputy Commissioner, or at any rate from some 
trustworthy Native Officer selected by him, and approved of by the 
people who send their children to the School. Money and official 
favor are the two great motive pioneers in this matter." 

• * * * • • * 

“Of Private Female Schools there are seven ordinary aided 
Schools, six of which are connected with Missions, and one is a 
School for girls of European parentage at Anarkullee, Lahore. This 
last is of a superior kind, and so are the Orphanages at Loodianah, 
Umritsur, and Kangra. But, besides all these, there are the very im- 
portant, though as yet elementary, Female Schools in the cities of 
Lahore and Umritsur, numbering no less than 223 , and containing 
3,841 scholars. These Schools are entirely under the management 
of Committees of Native gentlemen at the two chief cities of the 
Punjab. Rupees 8,000 were assigned for their support as a special 
grant by the Supreme Government; but the amount actually ex- 
pended on them has been Rupees 11,520 from Government, and 
Rupees 1,404 from private subscriptions and donations of the Chiefs 
.and Notables.” 

216. So far as the Female Schools under private management 
were concerned, the requisite funds were supplied from Imperial 
revenue as a charge under the head of grants-in-aid. In respect of 
the Female Schools under Government management, the funds were, 
in the first instance, made available from the Education Cess Fund. 
Towards the close of 1864 the Female Schools, under the direct 
management of Government, numbered 192, costing Rupees 1,633 
per mensem; and there were 55 more, costing Rupees 270 per men- 
sem, which had been started and kept up on promises held out to 
the Teachers that Government would eventually grant them salaries. 
On a representation shortly after made by the Lieutenant-Governor, 



218 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


the Government of India sanctioned an assignment of Rupees 10,000 
per annum for three years from Imperial revenue towards the sup- 
port of these Schools, leaving the cost of such Schools as were situat- 
ed in agricultural villages to be met from the Education Cess Funds. 
It was at the same time observed that any further extension of 
Female Schools should be carried out on the grant-in-aid principle, 
which, it was remarked, if readily accepted, would “afford some 
test and pledge that the spread of Female Education is real and 
truly desired by the people of the Punjab”. While anxious to afford 
every encouragement to the spread of Female Education, the Gov- 
ernment of India did not wish that Educational or District Officers 
should allow their zeal to betray them “into so exercising their in- 
fluence with Natives of the better classes as to amount in fact to a 
pressure which the Natives do not feel able to resist”. 

217. The Report for 1865-66 shows an increase since 1863-64 on 
the Government Female Schools from 204 to 333, the number of 
pupils having likewise increased from 3,993 to 6,834. As regards Pri- 
vate Female Institutions, the number of pupils had risen to 12,727, 
of whom 8,352 were Hindoos, 4,161 Mahomedans, and 214 Sikhs and 
others , 

Madras 

218. Female Education does not seem to have been as yet the sub- 
ject of any special interest of exertion on the part of the Educational 
Authorities in Madras. There are no Government Female Schools; 
but the Returns show 139 Female Schools under private manage- 
ment with 3,315 pupils. Many of these are probably for children 
of European descent; no special notice is taken of them in the 
Madras Report. 

Bombay 

219. In Bombay the Government Female Schools were increased 
during 1865-66 from 23 to 33, and the number of pupils from 639 to 
1,036. The Returns for private Female Schools are mixed up with 
those for Boys* Schools but there appear to be 32 Institutions with 
upwards of 1,400 pupils. 

220. The following remarks on the subject of Female Education 
are made by the Director in his Report for 1865-66:— 

“I have recorded above (paragraph 26) an increase during the 
year of lS^'emale Schools and 397 pupils. But when we compare 
the total number of female pupils on the rolls in Government 
Schools, namely, 1,036, with the average daily attendance, namely, 


schools 219 

695.3, the unsatisfactory character of most of these Institutions must 
be at once inferred. The first characteristic of our Girls’ Schools 
is extreme irregularity of attendance; the second, is that they are 
in reality Infant Schools, in which it appears to me that the great 
bulk of the children, being very young, sit looking on, while a few 
girls at the top of the School receive a little instruction. In submit- 
ting this general observation, I must, however, refer to Mr Curtis’ 
Report, paragraph 25 (Appendix A 2, page 42), in which a favorable 
view is taken of the prospects of Female Education in Guzerat. Some 
-of the Private Girls’ Schools (under inspection), and especially the 
Royehund Deepchund School at Surat, are exceptions to my general 
remark. Captain Waddington (Appendix A 1, page 23) reports 
favorably of the (Private) Parsee Girls’ Schools attached to Sir Jam- 
setjee Jeejeebhoy’s Benevolent Institution. Female Education, which 
is oi course closely connected with different phases of social and 
religious feeling, is better received among some castes of the people 
than others, and as yet it shows more signs of flourishing among the 
Parsees of Bombay and the Banias of Guzerat than among the more 
literary Brahman communities of the Deccan or Concan. Looking 
at the question broadly, I am afraid it must be asserted that the pub- 
lic education (properly so called) of course is incompatible with the 
system of infant marriages, and with many existing prejudices of 
the people on the most delicate subjects, think that the education 
and civilization of such portion of the people of India, together with 
the example of the European community, will inevitably bring in 
the education of the women of India, but that this result will be 
very gradual, and will be subsequent to many important social 
changes. In the meanwhile, I am humbly of opinion that private 
and Missionary exertion may do much to help on the cause, but 
that Government is precluded from taking any prominent steps to 
accelerate the movement.” 

Oude 

221. There are no Government Female Schools in Oude, but there 
are 11 Private Schools, of which one is for European and Eurasian 
girls. The 10 Schools for Native girls are managed by Missionary 
bodies, five of them being in connection with the Church of England 
and five under the American Mission. Three of these Schools were 
opened during 1865-66. The Director of Public Instruction writes 
respecting them as follows:— 

**The Schools are visited regularly by the ladies of the two 
Missions, who speak very favorably of the progress made by the 
pupils. Instruction is given in reading, writing, and arithmetic”. 



220 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SCHOOLS 


221 


The following remarks are taken from the same Report:— 

“I believe that the Reverend Mr Renther, at Fyzabad, has open- 
ed one or two Girls' Schools in that city. The Head Masters of 
some of the Zillah and Tehsil Schools have also, during the past 
year, made attempts to interest those around them in Female Educa- 
tion; two or three small Schools have been opened, but their success 
is not yet certain.” 

Central Provinces 

222. The 92 Female Schools in the Central Provinces are all 
Government Schools supported, like other Village Schools, from the 
Education Cess funds. The following account of them is given by 
the Director:— 

“These Schools have increased during the year from 65 with 1,244 
pupils to 92 with 2,361. The largest number in any district is at 
Saugor, where there are 26 Schools with 713 pupils; in the districts of 
Chindwarrah and Upper Godavery none have yet been opened. The 
progress made in these Schools must be slow; and, except in places 
where European ladies interest themselves, I do not anticipate great 
results. The movement in favor of educating girls is interesting,, 
and should be encouraged to a certain extent, to show that Female 
Education is one of the things Government aim at; but I believe that 
the most certain, and the most speedy, way of educating the women 
of India is to educate the men; when we have a generation of educat- 
ed fathers, there will be little difficulty about the education of their 
daughters. It is well in the Central Provinces to have a few Girls' 
Schools in every district; but, as they are entirely supported by local 
Educational Funds in the same way as the Boys' Schools, I would 
not sacrifice the efficiency or the number of the latter, to greatly 
extend the means of education for girls, unless, indeed, by the offer 
of fees or subscriptions, the people manifested a real desire for such 
Institutions.” 

223. A Female Normal School was established at Nagpore during 
1865-66. It has 20 women in it, and the management of the Insti- 
tution is reported to have been successfully conducted. 

Mysore 

224. Tlmre are no Government Female Schools in Mysore; and 
of the seven Female Schools under private management, two are 
designed for European and Eurasian girls. The other four are 
for Hindoo girls, and are reported to be “all well attended, and 
making steady progress.”' 


British Burmah 

225. There are seven Female Aided Schools in British Burmah^ 
with 409 pupils. The following account of these Institutions is 
given by the Chief Commissioner in his Report of 1865:— 

There are five Female Schools in the Pegu Division, and two^ 
in Tenasserim. 

The most prominent Institution of this character is the Karen 
Female Institute at Tounglioo, under the superin- 
Ka^ren Female tendence of Mrs. Mason, for the instruction of the 
Tounghoo daughters of Karen mountaineers. This School 

has been in active operation during the year, and 
is supported entirely by the people. It numbers 66 pupils. On the 
15th of January 1866 the annual examination was held in the 
Institute. 'The scene was interesting', says Mrs. Mason, ‘as it was 
the first time that Karen Mountain Chieftains sat as judges, and 
awarded prizes to Karen young women for attainments in scholar- 
ships.' . . 'There were present also strange new visitors in nine Manu- 
Manau Chieftains from beyond the Eastern Water-shed, and two 
Gaikoo Chiefs from near the Northern Boundary. In all there were 
41 Chiefs and Elders present from the Mountains, with 50 students 
and jungle Teachers.' The Vernacular Department of this School 
was taught eight months, the English Department ten. 

‘This indefatigable lady has also revived her School for Burmese 

_ „ , women at Tounghoo. It was in operation during; 

Burmese Girls’ , r . . r , ° 

School, Tounghoo tiie last quarter ot the year under review, and at 

its close contained 29 pupils. 

The next School of note in the Pegu Division is St. John’s Insti- 
9 tution. It is both a Girls' Boarding and Day 

Rangoon ? School, in which those who can pay for board 

and education are required to pay; and it is also & 
Free School and Orphanage in which those who are too poor to 
pay, or who have no parents, friends or relations to support them, 
are fed, clothed and taught gratis. It is admirably conducted by a 
Lady Superioress and four Sisters of Charity, who impart elementary' 
instruction to the pupils in both English and Burmese. In the 
English Department there are 55 pupils; and in the Vernacular or 
free section there are 60, 30 of whom are orphans, and the remain- 
der day-scholars. The way this School is conducted reflects the 
highest credit on all connected with its management. Major Laurie 
observes of these Schools— ‘I found everything to be in a most satis*- 
factory condition, forming remarkable aids to the causes of education 
and philanthrophy/ 



-222 


SELECTIONS FROM: EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


The Female Schools in the Tenasserim Division are located at 
St Joseph’s Moulmein. St. Joseph's Institution, under the con- 

Moulmeiu 5 tr °l tb e Reverend Father Guerin, is conducted 
by a Lady Superioress assisted by seven Sisters of 
Chanty. The average attendance during the year has been 108; of 
these 39 were orphans, and 69 day-scholars. The instruction is ele- 
mentary and embraces needle-work. The orphans are educated free 
of charge, while the other pupils pay a fee varying from three to six 
Rupees per mensem. The Commissioner, who presided at the exami- 
nation held on the 19th December last, reports that 'the older 
girls have made considerable advancement since the time of the 
-examination of the previous year, the younger children were progress- 
ing satisfactorily/ 

“Two Burmese women conduct a Girls’ School at Moulmein, 

t under the superintendence of the Reverend Mr 
Girls’ Vernacular XJ „ 

School, Moulmein Caswell. The average attendance m this School 
has been 50 girls, of the average age of 10 years, 
each pays a fee of one anna a month, and are taught reading, 
.writing, and the simple rules of arithmetic/’ 

Berars 

226. There do not appear to be any Female Schools in the Berars. 
Concluding Remarks respecting the Classification of Pupils in 

Schools 


227. I have already (paragraph 54) shown that, of the whole 
•number of Hindoos and Mahomedans attending Colleges, only SJ 
per cent, are Mahomedans. It will be seen from the following 
figures, relating to the pupils attending Schools in the principal Pro- 
vinces of India, that the percentage of Mahomedans is 18 per cent:— 
Pupils attending Higher Class Schools 

Bengal N. W. Provs Punjab Madras Bombay Total 
Hindoos . . 16,828 2,36c 9,377 5,063 1,337 34,965 

Mahomedans . 1,561 375 3,362 473 28 5,799 


Hindoos 

Mahomedans 


Hindoos 

Mahomedans 


Pupils attending Middle Class Schools 

40,896 13,783 5,784 12,085 21,207 93,755 

4 > 24 1 3,380 2,238 682 1,634 12,175 

Pupils attending Lower Class Schools 

32,374 1,21,713 29,125 14,049 63,653 2,60,914 

5,040 3 2 ,S03 24,816 87 4,947 67,793 


Total 


{ Hindoos 
Mahomedans 


3,89,634 

85,767 


Grand Total 4,75,401 

228. The proportion of Mahomedans is greatest in Lower Class 
Schools, where it reaches 20 per cent., which is probably not far 
from the actual proportion borne by the Mahomedans to the 
Hindoo population of the country generally. 


SECTION VI 

Institutions fcr Special Education 




224 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


INSTITUTIONS FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION 


225 


230. I now proceed to make a very few remarks respecting the 
Special Institutions in each Province. 

Bengal 

231. Of the 24 Government Normal Institutions in Bengal, four 
are English Departments, and 20 Vernacular. 

The four English Departments have proved a failure, as will be 
seen from the following extract from the Director’s Report for 
1865-66:— 

“ English Department-Calcutta, Hooghly, Dacca, and Patna— 
The English Departments opened a year ago in the Normal Schools 
at Calcutta, Hooghly, Dacca, and Patna, as announced in last year’s 
Report, have hitherto failed in the object for which they were 
established. Students with the proper qualifications cannot be 
induced to enter them, because they are not affiliated to the 
University, so that attendance at them is no qualification for 
admission to the First Examination in Arts, whilst the Syndicate 
declines to accord the privileges of School Masters to the Pupil 
Teachers who join them. Unless some concession is made on this 
point, there seems little probability of obtaining any adequate 
results from these Departments, and it will be advisable to abolish 
them.” 

The 20 Vernacular Training Institutions were more successful. 
Twelve of them are intended to train Masters for Vernacular Middle 
Class Schools, seven are specially designed for training Gurus for 
indigenous Schools, under the scheme already described under the 
head of Lower Class Schools, and one (at Dacca) is for female 
Teachers. 

232. The following extract from the Director’s Report for 1865- 
66 will show how large a proportion of these useful Institutions 
have been set on foot during the year under review:— 

“New Vernacular Normal Schools Opened— Three Normal 
Schools were opened at the beginning of the year in East Bengal, 
at Mymensing, Comillah, and Coomarkhali for the training of 
Masters for Middle Class Vernacular Schools, and four similar 
Schools commenced operations in Behar, located respectively at 
Bhaugulpore, Purneah, Gaya, and Chuprah. 

“In North-East Bengal, three new Normal Schools for the train- 
ing of Gurus for Village Patshalas have been opened under a new 
Inspector, Baboo K.assi K.anth Mookerjee, at Rajshai, Dinagepore, 


and Rungpore, each providing for 75 stipendiary pupils, and an- 
other similar School has been started by Baboo Bhoodeb Mookerjee 
at Midnapore in South-West Bengal. 

“In Assam the Normal School at Gowhatty, which had not been 
successful, has been re-organized at a reduced expense, and additional 
Normal Schools have been sanctioned for Tezpore and Seebsaugor, 
in order to make better provision for the supply of Masters for the 
elementary Vernacular Schools of the Province. 

“From these statements, it will be seen that an important advance 
has been made during the year in the means of raising a supplv of 
Teachers qualified for conducting the Middle and Lower Class 
Schools throughout the country.” 

Of the three Private Normal Institutions, one (in Calcutta! is 
for Mistresses. 

233. Of the 14 other Institutions for Special Education, two are 
Schools for training in useful Arts, -one a Government Institution, 
and the other a Private Institution, both situated in Calcutta. Two 
are the Mahomedan Madrissas at Calcutta and Hooghly, respecting 
which remarks will be made under the head of Oriental Institutions 

(Section VII); six are Law Classes attached to the Colleges in 
Calcutta and the Mofussil; one is the Civil Engineering Department 
of the Presidency College; and three are the English, Bengalee and 
Hindoostanee Classes of the Calcutta Medical College. 

234. I find that it would lead almost beyond the reasonable 
limits of a Note like this to enter into any detailed description of 
these Institutions, and I have not, therefore, attempted it. 

North-Western Provinces 

235. Of the eight Government Normal Schools in the North- 
Western Provinces, six are for male Teachers, and two for female 
Teachers. The latter have already been noticed under the head 
of Female Schools, and the former are Institutions designed to train 
Teachers for the Vernacular Schools in the Province, -there being 
one for each of the three large Circles at Agra, Meerut, and 
Benares, one in Almorah for the Hill Circle, and Special Normal 
Classes at the Schools of Ajmere and Etawah. 

236. The three Private Normal Institutions appear to be in- 
tended for the training of other than Native Teachers. 

237. Of the two other Special Institutions, one is the Civil 
Engineering College at Roorkee, and the other the Agra Medical 
:School designed for giving an education to Native Doctors. 



226 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Punjab 

238. The seven Government Normal Schools in the Punjab are 
designed for training Vernacular Teachers for the Town Schools 
and Village Schools. In 1865-66 they turned out 44 Town School 
Teachers and 133 Village School Teachers. Out of 2.012 Teachers- 
employed in Government Vernacular Schools in the Punjab, 1,4 IT 
have already undergone a Normal School training. There are 166 
now under instruction, leaving 429 who have yet to be sent to a 
Training Institution. 

239. The three Private Normal Schools are all for training female' 
Vernacular Teachers. One of them is in connection with the 
S.P.G. Mission at Delhi, and two are under Native Committees at: 
Lahore and Umritsur. 

240. The number of women under instruction during the year 
was 80, of whom 40 were Hindoos and 40 Mahomedans. 

241. The Lahore Medical College has not been entered in the 
Punjab Returns. It is an Institution started, some seven years 
ago, with the object of training Native Doctors and also Sub- 
Assistant Surgeons. The School Department (for Native Doctors) 
has turned out already some 51 men qualified as Native Doctors, 
and six men have been qualified as Sub-Assistant Surgeons in the 
College Department. 

Madras 

242. The seven Government Normal Institutions consist of five 
Schools and two Normal Classes. They are not merely Verna- 
cular Training Schools, but qualify Teachers also for Anglo- 
Vernacular Schools; six of these Institutions sent up successful 
candidates for the University Entrance Examination, the aggregate 
number being 21, of whom 12 came from the Madras Normal 
School. 

243. The following notice of these Institutions and of the 
Private Normal Schools was taken by the Government of Madras on 
reviewing the Education Report of 1865-66:— 

“The Report on the Government Normal School at Madras is* 
again unfavourable. The Director of Public Instruction states 
that the arrangements have been defective, and the management 
faulty; that, in the general examination for Certificates, the Students 
showed to disadvantage when tested in method and teaching" 
power, and proved, in many instances, in these subjects, to be 


INSTI'l U'l IONS FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION 22 7 

anterior to the untrained Candidates. The Governor in Council 
has now under consideration a detailed Report which the Director 
has recently furnished, with the view of enabling the Government 
to determine what steps it will be necessary to take with the view 
•of restoring this important Institution to the condition of efficiency 
which it maintained under the management of its first Principal. 
-Orders will be passed on the subject at an early date. 

‘‘The Normal Schools at Vizagapatam, Trichinopoly, Vellore, 
-and Cannanore are all doing fairly. That at Trichinopoly is in 
a very satisfactory condition. Owing to the difficulty which is 
•experienced in inducing Canarese Candidates for training to 
•resort to the Normal School at Cannanore, which is situated in the 
district of Malabar, it is proposed to form a Normal Class in con- 
nection with the Provincial School which is about to be established 
at Mangalore, in the District of Canara. The Reports on the 
Training Institutions supported by the Church Missionary Society 
at Palamcottah, by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts at Sawyerpuram and at Tanjore, and by the 
Christian Vernacular Education Society at Madura, are all, more 
or less, favourable.” 

241. The seven other Special Institutions in Madras consist of— 

/ College Branch 

The Medical College • 1 Collegiate School 

J College Branch 

The Civil Engineering College ■ • • • ^ Collegiate School 

Law Department of the Presidency College 

School of Industrial Arts, Madras 

School of Ordnance Artificers, Madras 

Bombay 

245. The six Normal Schools in Bombay are all Government 
Institutions. They are intended primarily for supplying qualified 
Teachers for Vernacular Schools. The two principal Institutions 
are at Poona and Ahmedabad. In his Annual Report of 1862-63, 
Mr Howard warmly advocated the experiment of turning the 
Training Institutions at these two places into Vernacular Colleges, 
arguing as his reason that the purely Normal School training pro- 
duced men deficient in general education. The experiment was 
tried but has failed, as appears from the following extract from the 
Report of Sir A. Grant (the present Director of Public Instruction 
for 1865-66:— 

“As a point of general interest, I beg humbly to refer to my 
letter to Government (Appendix G, page 185) on the Poona 
'Vernacular College/ as it used to be called, in which the experiment 
was made (but without success) of combining the teaching of higher 



228 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

subjects through the medium of the Marathi language, with the 
ordinary functions of a Normal School. Government, concurring 
in the views expressed, were pleased to sanction the limiting the 
functions of this Institution (under the name of the Toona Train- 
ing College') to the preparation of School Masters. Subsequently 
I have made analogous proposals with regard to the ‘Ahmedabad 
Vernacular College, in which a similar experiment appeared to 
have failed equally. I am humbly of opinion that it is an anachron- 
ism to attempt Vernacular Colleges for Western learning at the- 
present day. Such Colleges will only be possible when large 
numbers, and perhaps several generations, of scholars have been 
habituated to think and express themselves on scientific subjects 
in the Vernacular languages. The training of Native School 
Masters in Normal Schools and Training Colleges is such an im- 
portant matter that we cannot afford to allow any diversion of the 
energies of those to whom the task is entrusted. The Institutions 
of this kind at Poona and Ahmedabad are working fairly. Those 
recently established at Belgaum and Hyderabad have made a good 
beginning." 

246. The eight other Special Institutions in Bombay consist o£ 
the following:— 

f i. Grant Medical College, Bombay 
I 2. Law School, Bombay 

Government Institutions 4 3. Poona Engineering College 

[ 4. Engineering School, Hyderabad 

\ m 5. Guzerat Provincial College, Ahmedabad 

f 6. David Sassoon Industrial and Reformatory Ins^ 
Private Institutions I titution 

^ 7. Furdoonjee Sorabjee Parak’s School of Arts and 
I Industry 

8. Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy School of Arts 

The Guzerat Provincial College is an Institution connected with; 
the Ahmedabad High School, the special subjects of education being, 
law, logic, moral philosophy, history, mathematics, and Sanscrit. 

Oude 

247. The two Special Institutions in Oude are Government 
Normal Schools located at Lucknow and Fyzabad, and intended to 
train Teachers for the Tehsilee and Village Schools. The Fyzabad 
Institution is a temporary branch of the Lucknow School. The 
levy of the Education Cess is being rapidly extended over Oude r 
and its extension will be followed by an equally rapid establish- 
ment of Village Schools. For these Schools it is necessary to pro- 
vide Masters and hence Students, aspiring to the office of Village 
Teachers, are being collected and trained at the two Schools 
mentioned above. The period of training is one year. At the 
close of the year the two Institutions contained 392 pupils, o£ 


ORIENTAL CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND ORIENTAL INSTITUTIONS 229 

whom 378 were under training as Teachers for Village Schools, and 
the rest (14) for Tehsil and other Schools. 

Central Provinces 

248. The six Special Institutions in the Central Provinces are 
all Government Training Institutions. Of these, one (at Nagpore) 
is a superior Institution designed for training Masters not only for 
Town and Village Schools, but for Zillah Schools. Four of the 
Institutions (at Jubbulpore, Hoshungabad, Raepore, and Khund- 
wah) are intended for training Teachers for Vernacular Town and 
Village Schools; the School at Khundwah being merely a Normal 
Class for the Nimar District, opened in the last month of 1865-66. 

249. The remaining Institution is the Nagpore Female Normal 
School. It was commenced in September 1865, and is reported to 
have made steady progress. Twenty female pupils are studying 

in it. 

Mysore 

250. Of the two Special Institutions in Mysore, one is a 
Government Normal School intended to train Teachers for Anglo- 
Vernacular Schools. There are 27 students under training. 

The other Institution is an Engineering School, which had 32 
pupils at the close of the year. 

British Burmah 

251. There are two Special Institutions in British Burmah, both 
under private management. One of them is the Vernacular 
“Karen Theological Seminary" at Rangoon, designed to fit young 
men for the Christian ministry, and the other the “Normal and 
Industrial School" at Bassein, which contains two Departments, the 
one an Anglo-Vernacular School, and the other a Vernacular Train- 
ing School,— the' industrial element pervading both. 

252. Besides the above, a large number of the Aided Middle 
Class Schools in British Burmah partake, more or less, of the charac- 
ter of Normal Institutions. 

SECTION VII 

Oriental Classical Languages and Oriental Institutions 

253. I introduce this subject not so much with the idea of giving 
any valuable information regarding it, as with the object of bring- 
ing an important matter into prominent notice. It has only been 
at the last moment, while preparing my Note for the Press, that 
the idea occurred of making a separate Section for this subject, and 



2 3 O SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

the information afforded, as well as the remarks offered, are not 
so complete as could be wished. 

254. It has already been noticed, under the head of “Univer- 
sities” that the Vernaculars had recently been excluded from the 
Calcutta List of languages, which may be taken up for the First 
Examination in Arts. The List now is as follows:— 

Greek 

Latin 

Hebrew 

Sanscrit 

Arabic 

And one of these must be taken up by everv Candidate at the First 
Arts Examination. 

255. In the Bombay University a similar alteration was made, 
the List adopted being the same as that given above for the Calcutta 
Examination. 

The Madras List still contains the Vernaculars as optional 
subjects, both in the First Arts and B.A. Examinations; and it is 
not till the M.A. Examination that a Candidate is bound down 
to one of the Classical Languages. 

256. The effect of the alteration made in Calcutta and Bombay 
has been to make it necessary for every College Student to study 
a Classical Language, and, of course, the Oriental Classical Langua- 
ges— Sanscrit and Arabic— are generally preferred; of these two, 
Sanscrit seems to be decidedly the favorite, and the Government 
Colleges have now, for the most part, been provided with separate 
Sanscrit Teachers or Professors. 

257. An interesting point to be noticed in this Section is the 
history of the various Institutions which were originally designed 
for the special cultivation of Oriental studies. 

258. In the Despatch of 1854 the Home Government remarked 
as follows (paragraph 8):— 

Para 8.— “The systems of science and philosophy, which form 
the learning of the East, abound with grave errors, and Eastern 
literature is at best very deficient as regards all modern discovery 
and improvements. Asiatic learning, therefore, however widely 


ORIENTAL CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND ORIENTAL INSTITUTIONS 23 1 

^diffused, would but little advance our object. We do not wish 
to diminish the opportunities which are now afforded in Special 
Institutions for the study of Sanscrit, Arabic, and Persian litera- 
ture, or for the cultivation of those languages which may be called 
the classical languages of India. An acquaintance with the works 
contained in them is valuable for historical and antiquarian pur- 
poses, and a knowledge of the languages themselves is required in 
the study of Hindoo and Mahomedan Law, and is also of great 
importance for the critical cultivation and improvement of the 
Vernacular languages of India.” 

259. In the case of almost all Oriental Institutions attempts have 
been made to combine a good general education with the special 
or Oriental studies. In some instances success seems to have 
followed the attempt; in others the oriental element seems to have 
been entirely or practically extinguished. 

Bengal 

260. The Bengal Oriental Institutions are the Sanscrit College in 
Calcutta, the College of Mahomed Moshim at Hooghly, and the 
Mahomedan Madrissa in Calcutta. The old Hindoo College no 
longer exists, as it has been merged in the Presidency College. 

261. In the matter of reform, the Sanscrit College presented 

"Sanscrit College t ^ ie easiest field of operations, for it was 

supported entirely by Government with- 
out any specific assignment of funds, and consequently without any 
obligation, actual or implied, for the maintenance of a particular 
organization. The College was founded in 1824, and at first 
Sanscrit was studied exclusively, with restrictions as to the caste 
of the pupils allowed to enter it. When the old Hindoo College 
was broken up, its sister Institution, the Sanscrit College, was allow- 
ed to stand. The Government of Bengal, in its letter to the 
Council of Education of the 21st October 1853, intimated, as a 
sort of solace to the Native Managers of the former Institution, 
that the Sanscrit College shall be maintained by the Government 
exactly as it is.” In March 1859, however, the Director of Public 
Instruction (Mr Young) pointed out to the Bengal Government 
the following defects in the condition of the Institution, viz.:— 

“Isf -It has not been brought within the influence of the 
University, and, under its present constitution, it is not likely to be 
able to send up any Candidates to the University for degrees 



232 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

*' ‘2nd .— It occupies an isolated position as regards other Insti- 
tutions; there is no interchange of advantages, no emulation of 
Teachers or pupils between it and other Schools or Colleges. 

**§ r d m — Its Examinations, awards of Scholarships, See., are all 
managed within itself, and so managed as to excite little interest, 
and command little confidence, among the outside public. 

“4th.— It is still that ‘compound of a College and a Dames 
School’ which the other Colleges were a few years ago, but are no* 
longer. 

“5th .— It devotes to the teaching of obsolete science and 
philosophy much time which would be better given to subjects of 
more practical utility.” 

262. The re-organization which followed the above representa- 
tion left the Sanscrit College on precisely the same footing as any 
ordinary Government College, with its attached Collegiate School,, 
with the following exceptions, viz.:— 

(1) .-Sanscrit is taught in all the classes both of the School and 
College. Sanscrit, in fact, occupies in the School Department the 
same position as Greek does in a Public School in England, the 
Standard in Sanscrit being much higher than the ordinary Pass 
Standard in the University, just as the Standard in Greek in the 
6th form at Eton is much higher than is required for a Pass 
Degree at Oxford or Cambridge. Before passing their University 
Entrance Examination, the School boys read in Sanscrit far beyond 
the B.A. requirements; and they continue their higher Sanscrit 
studies between the Entrance and First Arts Examination, so that 
they are in a position to pass the M.A. Sanscrit Examination one 
year after passing the B.A. 

(2) .— There are special encouragements to the study of Sanscrit 
in the way of Sanscrit Scholarships. The fee rate in both School 
and College classes is not high (Rupees three per mensem), and 
in the School Department the sons of bona fide Pundits, to the 
number of 100, are admitted on payment of a reduced fee of one 
Rupee. 

263. A full description of the changes introduced in the Sanscrit 
College will be found in the Report of the Institution contained 
in the Appendix of the Bengal Education Report for 1863-64, and 
in a letter from the Principal to the Government of Bengal, No. 44, 
dated the 8th April 1864. The Institution is reported to have 


ORIENTAL CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND ORIENTAL INSTITUTIONS 233" 

been brought “into complete harmony with the University Course. 
In 1865-66 there were 266 Students in the School Department, and 
20 in the College Department. 

264. The Hooghly College is the next on the list, and as its 

TT , . ^ „ , history and that of the Calcutta Madrissa 

Calcutta Madrissa are m most respects similar I shall treat 

of them together. The Hooghly College 
was founded in 1836, and is mainly supported from funds be- 
queathed by Mahomed Moshim, a wealthy Mahomedan gentle- 
man, who, dying without heirs in the year 1806, left his large pro- 
perty, yielding an annual income of Rupees 45,000, to Mahomedan 
Trustees ‘for the service of God/ Owing to the misappropriation 
of the funds. Government assumed the office of Trusteeship. The* 
right of assumption was opposed by the original Trustees, but 
upheld both by the Courts in India and by the Privy Council in 
England. The period of litigation extended over many years, 
during which the annual income accumulated, forming a surplus 
fund of Rupees 8,61,100. This fund was devoted to founding and 
endowing the Hooghly College. It was further increased by a 
portion of the original Zemindaree and by the lapse of various pen- 
sions with which the estate had been burdened. 

265. The Calcutta Madrissa, as stated in a Minute by the 
Lieutenant Governor of Bengal, dated the 15th September 1858, was 
founded by Governor General Hastings in 1781, in order to give 
to Mahomedan Students “a considerable degree of erudition in the 
Persian and Arabic languages, and in the complicated system of 
Laws founded on the tenets of their religion,” so as to enable them 
“to discharge with credit the functions and duties of the Criminal 
Courts of Judicature, and many of the most important branches 
of the Police, which it had (in 1781) been deemed expedient to 
continue in the hands of Mahomedan Officers.” In a recent letter 
addressed by the Principal of the Calcutta Madrissa to the Director 
of Public Instruction (No. 592, dated 22nd October 1864), it has 
been claimed on behalf of the Institution that the Government is 
merely in the position of a Trustee for the endowment, and that 
it is just as much bound to administer those funds for the special 
objects originally contemplated, as in the case of the sister Insti- 
tution at Hooghly. Major Lees’s arguments on this point are 
given in the Note* at foot. 

*“40. — The Madrissa was founded in 1780 by the then Governor General 
Warren Hastings. Though old for a Government Educational Institution, it is 
not yet so old that one would expect to find its origin lost in antiquitv. Yet such 
would here really appear to be the case. The Education Department seem to look 
upon it as purely a Government Institution. The Mahomedans, on the other hand > . 



*34 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


266. Up to 1820 the Calcutta Madrissa was under the uncoil- 
trolled management of Mahomedan Professors, and as a consequence 
the studies had become nominal, and its 


♦Lushington’s report 
of 1821 


ample annual resources had been “dissipated* 
among the superior and subordinate 


drones of the Establishment.” The Institution was then (1820) 


placed under English Superintendence, but the system of tuition 
remained much the same, being described so late as 1850 by Dr 

_ Tk * _ ♦ 1 1 ' 


'Sprenger, the Principal, in the following terms: — 


'The system is, in fact, precisely the same as the one which was 
in vogue in Europe during the darkest ages, and it produces the 

have always maintained that it belongs to them, being a bequest made to their com- 
mumty by Warren Hastings from his private property, and they have often spoken 
*of the Madrissa Mahal, or Board lands of College, of the which no one now appears 
to know the whereabouts. Within the last few days, however, I have read the record 
of the Institution as compiled by Mr. Fisher in the Appendix to the Parliamentary 
.Report in 1832, and it would appear that both these suppositions ar^ equally erro- 
neous. The Institution, it is true, was originally founded by Warren Hastings and 
maintained by him at his own cost for a short time; but finding it beyond his means 
to do all that he desired, he subsequently recommended that he should be paid back 
tall he had expended, and that the Institution should be endowed by a grant of certain 
villages, and ‘that the lands appropriated for the maintenance of the Madrissa 
delivered over to the charge of the said superior or guardian, and the jumma of 
them separated from the Public Revenues 2 This recommendation was confirmed 
by the Board, or then Council of India. Certain lands and villages were assigned 
for the support of the Institution in the 24 Pergunnahs, and a Stinnud made out 
for them in the name of the Preceptor or Principal. These lands were called the 
■ Madrissa Mahal . A claim, however, was afterwards set up to them by the 
Rajah oi Nuddea, which was considered good ; and it would appear that, for some 
time, the Preceptor held them under the Rajah. The revenues, however fell off 
^nd in 1819 a question arose as to the liability of Government— the Committee of 
the Madrissa claiming on behalf of the Institution the full amount of the rental of 
the lands when granted, or Rupees (29,000) twenty-nine thousand per annum 
- To that amount (or even Rupees 30,000/ said the Committee, £ Mr Shore consi- 
dered the Government chargeable for the expenses of the Madrissa whnW as 
he expresses himself, ‘the farmer (of the benefice lands) made good his payment 
-or not. The orders of the kjovernor General on this claim were as follows — that 
■/he expenses of the Institution having fallen below the funds appropriated for 
its support, consequently, on a strict balancing of account between the Institution 
and Government, a considerable sum would be found due to the Institution. His 
Lordship does not, however, think it necessary to go into a minute examination of 
these details; but is pleased to resolve that the revenue of the Madrissa shall, 
for the future, be taken at Sicca Rupees 30,000 per annum (-Company’s Rupees 
;3L 8 75)* 

41. It would seem from the foregoing that, if the Mahomedans are wrong 
jn one respect, they are right in the main point, viz.* the endowment of the Ins- 
titution; and no doubt, had the lands remained attached to the College dll this date, 
its revenue now would be double Rupees (30,000) thirty thousand per annum, as 
has been the case with many of the Royally endowed Schools of England. The 
Mahomedan view of the case was confirmed by the orders of the Court of Direc- 
tors of 1841, and confirmed again by the Despatch of the Secretary of State of 28th 
February, 1861, in which those orders were republished. Of this endowment, 
then, the Mahomedans cannot with justice be deprived, and the Institution; 
therefore, costs the Government little or nothing, it has been in the enjoyment of this 
endowment now for nearly a century ; the Mahomedans are proud of the Institution; 
they send their children to from many distant parts of Bengal; and has confer- 
red on them very great benefits.” 


ORIENTAL CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND ORIENTAL INSTITUTIONS 


2 35 : 

same results. The sophistries of dialectics learned in a sacred langu- 
age puff up the Professors with conceit, render them hostile to every 
thing practical or founded on experience, and extinguish in thenr 
the sense of art and beauty, and blunt the sentiment of equity and 
morality/’ 

267. The history of the Hooghly Madrissa up to 1850 had been- 
of much the same character; and hence it was that, in the educa- 
tional reforms which took place between that year and 1854, both 
of these Mahomedan Institutions were re-modelled. In both of 
them a junior or Anglo-Persian Department was created, the senior 
or Arabic Department being made quite distinct and separate. In 
the latter Department a more modern and rational system of instruc- 
tion in the Arabic language and in the principles of Mahomedarv 
Law was substituted for the antiquated and faulty system of the 
Indian Moulvies, and the teaching of false physical science was* 
altogether prohibited. 

268. In both cases the Anglo-Persian or General Departments 
have flourished, while the Special or Arabic Departments have* 
languished. 

269. In the Hooghly Institution the Anglo-Persian Department 
was merged into a Collegiate Institution, with School and College 
Departments like other Mofussil Colleges. The Institution was* 
affiliated in 1857. The Anglo-Persian Department of the Calcutta 
Institution has only recently been affiliated to the University, and 
that only as educating up to the First Arts Standard. It is notice- 
able, however, that the Hooghly College and Collegiate School 
appear to have been completely monopolized by Hindoos to the 
almost entire exclusion of Mahomedans/ The distribution of pupil* 
for 1865-66 was as follows:— 

Pupils in 1865-66 

t — ■ — ■ — — — — . . ^ 

Hindoos Mahomedans Others Total 

Hooghly College . 133 6 2 I4I 

Hooghly Collegiate School , 236 43 g 2 gg 

Considering that these Departments were supported in the year 
under notice, to the extent of Rupees 45,407, from the “proceeds 
of endowment,” it may be a question whether the funds bequeathed 
by a Mahomedan, however usefully employed are being expended 
m a manner consistent with the special object for which they are 



ORIENTAL CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND ORIENTAL INSTITUTIONS 237 


2^5 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

held in trust. It is true that, while the fee rates are Rupees 2-8 and 
Rupees 3 in the School, and Rupees 4 and Rupees 5 in the College, 
Mahomedans are admitted both in the School and in the College 
at the reduced rate of one Rupee; but the results seem to show 
that, even with this privilege, the arrangements are not such as to 
maintain the original character of the Institution as one designed 
specially for the education of Mahomedans. In the Anglo-Persian 
Department of the Calcutta Madrissa all the Students (238) are 
Mahomedans, none but such being eligible for admission. The fee 
rate is one Rupee. 

270. I have already said that the Special or Arabic Departments 
have languished. The following account of them is extracted from 
the Bengal Education Report of 1863-64: — 

-There are two Government Madrissas or Arabic Colleges-the 
Calcutta Madrissa, to which is attached an Anglo-Persian School, 
and the Hooghly Madrissa, which, as already stated, is a Department 
of the College of Mahomed Moshim. The course of instruction in 
both is exclusively Arabic, and Mahomedans alone are admitted. 
The Students are required to possess some knowledge of the elements 
of Arabic before admission, but no other test of education is requir- 
ed; and few of them have learnt more than is ordinarily acquired 
from the private teaching of Mahomedan Moulvies. The course of 
instruction extends over five years, and comprises Grammar, Litera- 
ture, Rhetoric, Logic, and Law. Mahomedan Law, and, as a neces- 
sary consequence, Mahomedan Theology, constitutes in reality the 
staple study of the classes; and the two Institutions may be regarded 
as purely professional Seminaries engaged in the training of 
Moulvies, Moollahs, Cazis, and the like, for the supply of the 
social and religious needs which the creed of Islam imposes on its 
votaries. In the Calcutta Madrissa there are 12 Senior Scholarships, - 
four of Rupees 20 a month, and eight of Rupees 15, available for 
the 1st and 2nd Classes; and 16 Junior Scholarships, of Rupees 8 
a month, for the 3rd and 4th Classes. For the corresponding Classes 
in the Hooghly Madrissa, there are 14 Senior Scholarships— two of 
Rupees 50, four of Rupees 20, and eight of Rupees 15; and 16 
Junior Scholarships of Rupees 8. These Institutions are not affiliat- 
ed to the University, —their course of study having no affinity with 
that prescribed by the University Regulations; but, as a special case, 
the Rules for the award of the (English) Junior Scholarships have 
recently been so far relaxed as to allow the Junior scholars from the 
Anglo-Persian Department of the Calcutta Madrissa to hold their 
Scholarships in the Arabic Department, provision being made for 


the simultaneous prosecution of their Arabic and English studies, 
with the view of enabling them to reach the standard of the First 
Arts Examination of the University. With the present Arabic 
Course, however, the arrangement must fail of its object, as sufficient 
time cannot be given to English studies." 

271. The Reports for 1864-65 and 1865-66 represent the condition 
of these Institutions as unaltered. "They show," writes the Director 
of Public Instruction in his last mentioned Report, "but feeble signs 
of vitality, and under present arrangements little is to be expected 
of them." 

The Returns for the last three years are as follows:— 



Calcutta Madrissa 

Hooghly Madrissa 


No. of 
Students 

Expen- 

diture 

No. of 
Students 

Expen- 

diture 



Rs. 


Rs. 

1863-64 

. . 108 

17*937 

23 

5.448 

1864-65 

89 

17*317 

21 

5.369 

1865-66 

72 

16,389 

19 

3,009 

The monthly fee is only eight annas. 



272. In his 
recommended 

Minute of 1858 the Lieutenant 
the abolition of the Calcutta 

Governor of Bengal 
Madrissa; but the 


Government of India determined otherwise, as will be seen from 
the following extract from the orders of 2nd July I860:— 

“Para. 6.— I am desired to state that the Governor General in 
Council, having carefully considered the case, does not think that 
the arguments advanced by the late Lieutenant Governor for the 
abolition of the Calcutta Madrissa are tenable on grounds of sound 
policy, neither is he at all able to concur in His Honor’s estimate 
of the value of the Institution. 

w * * # * * # 

"12.— Upon the whole, I am directed to state that the Govern- 
ment of India feels confident that the right and most advantageous 
course will be to continue to act in the spirit of the reforms of 1854; 
to do this carefully and not hastily; and to give to the Principal, 
with this view, all the authority which he ought to possess, and 
which he will be able to exercise with the best effect, under the 



238 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

advice and control of the present Lieutenant Governor, who himself 
had a large share in settling the measures which were adopted for 
the reformation of this Institution in 1854.” 

273. The Secretary of State, in reviewing the above orders, 
remarked as follows:— 

“Para. 5.— I agree with your Government that it is not necessary 
to afford any artificial encouragement to the study of the Arabic 
language by giving it an undue preference over English or Persian; 
and I must beg that the remarks in the Despatch of the late Court 
of Directors of the 20th January 1841 may be borne in mind, and 
that the Scholarships in the Madrissa be only given as the reward 
of merit, and that their continuance to particular students be 
dependent on good conduct and continued industry, to be tested 
by periodical examinations. 

“ 6 — As the arrangements now sanctioned must be considered to 
be, in some degree, experimental, a special Report as to their opera- 
tion and result must be submitted after a period not exceeding two 
years from the date of your order of July last.” 

No special Report has yet been submitted. 

274. I find, however, that in June 1864 the Bengal Government 
instituted an enquiry on the following points, viz.:— 

(1) —Whether, by the adoption of some such plan as that intro- 
duced in the Sanscrit College, the present system of instruction in 
Arabic in the Calcutta Madrissa might not be amended and com- 
bined with instruction in English. 

(2) .— Whether such a measure would not bring the Institution into 
harmony with the University system, and remove the objections at 
present felt by the Syndicate to its affiliation. 

(3) —Whether it will not at the same time be carrying into effect 
those reforms which the Government of India and the Secretary of 
State have uniformly insisted on. 

275. Respecting these enquiries, the Principal of the Calcutta 
Madrissa wrote a long Report, dated 22nd October 1864, objecting 
altogether to the proposed remodelment,— maintaining that, under 
existing arrangements, considerable progress had been made towards 
realizing the objects of Government, and giving the following 
opinion, viz.:— 

“If the principles laid down in the Despatches of the late Hon’ble 
the Court of Directors of 1854, and the Right Hon’ble the Secretary 


ORIENTAL CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND ORIENTAL INSTITUTIONS 239 

of State of 1859, are to be upheld, the course, in regard to the 
Oriental Classical languages, which is clearly indicated in those 
.... « , _ . Despatches,* is the institution of a Special 

of 1854 , paragraphs 30 , Faculty in the University for them, and 
31 and 32 . placing the Special Oriental Colleges on the 

footing of the Medical and Civil Engineering, or any other special 
Colleges that are, or may hereafter be, founded,— a course which, 
while it would not prevent the introduction into the Colleges and 
‘schools for the general education of the people of such moderate 
amount of instruction, in the grammar and construction of the 
Arabic and Sanscrit languages, as is absolutely necessary for the 
acquirement of a classical or more critical knowledge of the 
Vernaculars, would, on the other hand, ensure that all Students, 
graduating in either Arabic or Sanscrit, should possess a knowledge 
of English equal to that possessed by all Graduates in Medicine and 
Civil Engineering,— a knowledge, we may assume, sufficient for all 
practical purposes.” 

276. The Director of Public Instruction, however, did not agree 
with the Principal of the Calcutta Madrissa, and forwarded his 
Report to the Government of Bengal, with the following recom- 
mendation, viz.:— 

“Para. 10.— I recommend, therefore, that the course of studies in 
the School Department of the Madrissa be at once framed on the 
same plan as that of the Sanscrit College,— Arabic taking the place 
of Sanscrit, with the addition of Persian as an optional subject, that 
;a College Department be added) to this Department, in order to 
educate the Students up to the Pass Degrees in Arts, while they 
enjoy facilities for keeping up their Arabic studies with the 
obtaining Arabic Honors if they so desire; and, finally, that the 
present Arabic Seminary be gradually allowed to die out.” 

277. Proposals of a similar kind were, Mr Atkinson informs me, 
made by him in 1860 for re-organizing the Hooghly Madrissa. 

278. No orders have yet, however, been passed in either case. 

North-Western Provinces 

279. In the North-Western Provinces, the Agra and Benares 
•Colleges were originally purely Oriental Colleges. 

280. The Agra College no longer stands in that list, as will be 
^een from the folowing extract from the Education Report of 


T.2S D- of A — 1 6 



24O SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

3859-60, containing the substance of a recommendation made by 
the Director of Public Instruction and approved by the Government, 
North-Western Provinces:— 

“The Government should proceed on the principle of providing 
the people with what they cannot get elsewhere, or at least of so* 
good a quality. In this category instruction in the English language, 
and the study of English literature and European Science may be 
included. But Arabic and Persian studies may be pursued, as well 
outside as within the College walls. It may be said, and with truth, 
that some knowledge of Arabic and of Persian Grammar is essential 
to form a good Urdu scholar. Arabic and Persian Grammar should 
form part of the Urdu course, so also the most popular Persian 
works, e.g the Gulistan and Bostan. But I advocate the abolition 
of a separate Arabic and Persian Department. Let every Student 
who attends our Colleges and High Schools learn English. This 
should be a sine qua non. Mr Fallon very justly remarks that the 
Oriental Student is not brought under the influence of the European 
Master; his moral education at the Government School under the 
Moulovee is not a whit better than it would be under a common 
Miyanji . The admixture of English and Oriental Students is in- 
jurious to the former. I believe that the abolition of the purely 
Oriental Department, while it might for a time decrease the 
number of Students, would bring many boys into the English 
classes." 

281. The following brief history of the Agra College is given 
in the Calcutta University Calendar for 1866-67:- 

“Agra College is partly supported by Government, and is under 
the control of the Director of Public Instruction, North-Western 
Provinces. It was established by the direction of the General Com- 
mittee of Public Instruction in 1823-24, and placed under the 
superintendence of a Local Committee, consisting of the Government 
officials of the place, with a paid Secretary, who also acted as over- 
seer of the Institution. 

“It was opened to all classes of the population, and ‘was designed 
to diffuse more widely than Native Schools the possession of useful 
knowledge, to give a command of the language of ordinary life, 
and of official business-to teach, principally, Hindee and Persian, 
with the native mode of keeping accounts (Leelavattee), and to have 
instruction in Sanscrit and Arabic. It was not designed to impart 
an elementary education: the pupils were expected to have made 
considerable progress before their admission’. 


ORIENTAL CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND ORIENTAL INSTITUTIONS 24I 

“Separate teachers of Sanscrit, Hindee, Persian, and Arabic were 
appointed. All were taught gratuitously, and more than two-thirds 
of the whole received stipendiary allowances. 

“Subsequently, in successive years, the introduction of new 
subjects, and the addition of new teachers gradually changed the 
character of the Institution, from that of a purely Oriental School to 
that of an Anglo-Vernacular College, with upper and lower depart- 
ments of study, having a Principal, and containing (1862) no pupil 
who does not study English with Urdu or Hindee. 


Endowments, etc. 

“This College is endowed by a fund in the districts of Agra and 
Aiiygliur, amounting to about a lakh and a half of Rupees, from 
villages formerly held by Gungadhur Pundit (who held his jagir, 
under Educational Services, from a late Rajah of Gwalior), the 
interest of which fund and the annual collection from the villages 
exceeded 20,000 Rupees. To this have been added, from time to 
time, by Government, additional allowances for Teachers, Scholar- 
ships, etc., both sources of revenue amounting annually to about 
35,000 Rupees. There are also Scholarships endowed by various 
private benefactors, amounting to one hundred Rupees a month." 

282. The Benares College is thus briefly described in the same 
Calendar: — 

‘The Benares Sanscrit College was founded by Government in 
1791, for the cultivation of the language, literature, and (as 
inseparably connected with these) the religion of the Hindus. In 
1830 an English Institution was established, distinct from the Sans- 
crit College at first, , but incorporated with it in 1853." 

The continued existence of the special Sanscrit element in the 
Benares College would seem to be viewed by the Director of 
Public Instruction as practical failure, as may be gathered from 
the following extracts from his Reports: — 

(Report of 1862-63) 

“Para. 24.— On the Sanscrit Department. Mr. Griffith remarks— 
‘There has been, I am willing to think, considerable improvement 
in the Sanscrit College during the year under review. Several 



242 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

reforms have been introduced and found to work well, but the 
College is still looked upon with affection by the orthodox Hindu as 
the nurse of his sacred language, literature and philosophy, for the 
preservation of which it was established under the auspices of a 
liberal and enlightened Governor. The pupils have been more 
regular in their attendance, and the Pundits have taught classes at 
once insteadi of single students. The results of the examination have 
been more satisfactory than usual/ The first two classes in this depart- 
ment have likewise made a marked advance in the knowledge of 
English. 

“25.— There are 124 Students in the Sanscrit Department, 52 of 
whom received stipendiary allowances of from Rupees 2 to 16 per 
mensem. This part of the College may, indeed, well be looked 
upon with affection by the orthodox Hindu. The State not only 
pays him to study his own sacred literature, but finds him the best 
guides and teachers that can be had, and supplies him with the 
comforts of a roomy building, where he can pore over his Shastirs 
and bewilder himself with the philosophy of his ancestors. The 
philological study of Sanscrit, and its affinities with other languages, 
as throwing light on the history of antiquity, which is the chief 
incentive to its study in the eyes of the European scholar, is not 
attempted by these votaries of Hindu learning, who regard the 
language as holy, and its literature as holy, and imagine themselves 
to be sanctified by its study. This religious indulgence costs the 
State about Rupees 22,800 a year. Surely the wealthy inhabitants 
of Benares might maintain their own Patshala. which, if well conduc- 
ted, would be eligible to receive a grant-in-aid from the State purse, 
just like any other Missionary or religious Institution. The philo- 
logical study of Sanscrit is doubtless deserving of direct encourage- 
ment. This would be best effected by an offer on the part of 
Government of free quarters and tuition in Sanscrit to all scholars 
from European nations, who wished for an opportunity of studying 
the language at the probable scene of its currency as a living tongue. 

‘26.— Last year ‘the chair of Vedenta,’ a kind of theological 
professorship, was, on the death of the Pundit who held it, abolished. 
Other salutary alterations, such as the addition of English teachers 
to the staff, were carried out, and a European scholar will be placed 
in charge of the Department under the orders of the Principal. Such 
changes are regarded unfavorably by the Pundits of Benares as 
innovations, the tendency of which is to diminish the paramount 
importance of the sacred language. Whether the study or the 
preservation of the sacred language be of importance to Her Majesty's 


ORIENTAL CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND ORIENTAL INSTITUTIONS 243 

Government or not, educationally speaking, the Sanscrit Department 
of the Benares College is, from its very constitution, the least satis- 
factory part of the system of public instruction administered in these 
Provinces/* 

(Report of 1863-64) 

“Para. 16.-The Principal reports-‘In the year under review there 
were 100 Students in the Sanscrit College. Two general Examina- 
tions were held in July and December. In the 1st Poetry Class, five 
Students were considered worthy of prizes; in the 1st Grammar 
Class, seven. Ten students in the 2nd Grammar Class, one in the 
1st Nyaya Class, two in the 2nd Nyaya Class, two in the 1st Mathe- 
matical Class, and one in the 2nd; eight in the 1st Sunkhya Class, 
and five in the 2nd, were considered worthy both of Scholarships 
and prizes. The progress made during the year in the Sanscrit 
College is not unsatisfactory/ From this statement, which is the 
sum total of the Principal’s Report on the Sanscrit College, it will 
be seen that 29 per cent, of the Sanscrit Students are Scholarship- 
holders. The number of Scholarship-holders in the English Depart- 
ment of the College is 7i per cent., but the holdings are more 
valuable. 

“17.— The results of the study of Sanscrit at the Benares College 
hardly yet come up to the expectation of its founders, which was 
that ‘the genius of the more erudite alumni of our Oriental Colleges 
would be in time so far developed as to induce a comparison bet- 
ween the systems and the interpretations of ancient India and 
modern Europe/ So far as this goes, the horizon of the future is 
still peopled with shadows in the clouds. The G.O. on the Educa- 
tional Report of 1848-49 mentioned ‘the endeavor to work upon the 
minds of the Sanscrit Students through the medium of their own 
literature’; in 1849-50, it remarked ‘the expectation of important 
results from the system pursued;’ in 1850-51, ‘the preparation of 
various works con nected^ with the Sanscrit language and philosophy;* 
in 1851-52, ‘the unabated efforts to impart knowledge and enlighten- 
ment to the learned classes of the Hindoos/ But at this date I am 
unable to discover that the ‘erudite alumni’ have rvorked any good 
in their day and generation. Even if Sanscrit be regarded as the 
parent stock from which the Vernaculars of India gather vigor of 
expression, it does not appear that the study of Sanscrit now has 
any appreciable effect on the Vernaculars of the North-Western Pro- 
vinces, or that it has been a spur to literary enterprise. ‘During the 
1st Quarter of 1863 only three new books were published at Benares, 



244 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

One of these was an Almanac; another Extracts from the Qoran, for 
beginneis; and the other a book of poetry, composed a long time 
ago by the grandmother of the Joint Inspector. No new books were 
published in the 2nd Quarter, and only two during the 3rd and 4th/ 

“It is a pleasure to report progress, and the realization of well- 
considered pi arts, but it is none the less my duty to point out failure 
and disappointment; and surely it is hopeless to look for valuable 
results bom a system of teaching in which (to use the words of an 
able essayist on this subject in 1853) ‘the Teachers' functions are 
transacted upon the principle that the theories which he expounds 
claim, both from himself and his disciples, the most exact submis- 
sion and implicit credence: that upon them all the offices of reason 
and of judgment must be abandoned, and that beyond them every 
motive to investigation ceases. The extremest evils, both of lethargy 
and superciliousness, become inevitable/ " 


Madras 

283. In Madras the only Oriental Institution is the Madrissa-i- 
Azam. The following extract from the Education Report of 1858-59 
refers to a re-organization carried out in that year:— 

‘Arrangements were made during the past year for re-organizing 
the Madrissa-i-Azam, an Institution which was established by the 
late Nawab of the Carnatic for the instruction of the Mahomedan 
population of Triplicane, and which has been adopted as a Govern- 
ment Institution. It was found, on inspection, to be in a very 
inefficient condition; the attendance, though large, was extremely 
irregular, seldom exceeding one-half of the number of pupils nomi- 
nally on the rolls. The amount of useful instruction imparted was 
extremely limited. The business of the Institution, like that of its 
name sake at Calcutta, was teaching the Arabic and Persian lan- 
guages, and the doctrines of the Mahomedan religion. All this has 
been altered. An efficient Master has been placed at the head of 
the School; and the Teachers generally have been replaced by more 
competent men, only two of the former staff having been letained. 
The course of instruction has been arranged on the model of that 
prescribed for the other Government Schools; Hindoostani being 
made Mu; medium of instruction in the lower classes, and English 
in the higher, and English being taught in all. The Institution was 
opened on its new footing on the 1st May last; and, notwithstanding 
the enforcement of a more strict system of discipline, and 


ORIENTAL CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND ORIENTAL INSTITUTIONS 

alterations in the course of instruction, which are naturally distaste- 
ful to the Mahomedans, the number of pupils has already risen to 
.240, who attend with very tolerable regularity." 


•>84 In pointing out the difficulties attending the working of 
■this’lnstitution, the Director of Public Instruction made the follow- 
ing remarks in his Report of 1863-64:- 


"l he difficulties attendant upon Mussulman education are much 
greater than those pertaining to the instruction of Hindoos; one of 
the principal is the advanced age at which Mahomedan lads com- 
mence their studies, another is the number of languages of winch 
it is either necessary or desirable for them to obtain a knowledge. 
When a foreign language has to be acquired, i's study should be 
commenced in early youth. In the case of the Mussulmans however 
this is not done, and the consequence is the obstacles in the way of 
success are greatly multiplied. Also, while a Hindoo has only Eng- 
lish and a single Vernacular to master, a Mahomedan youth attempts 
to combine the study of English, Tamil, or Telugu, Hindoostanee 
and Persian. Having regard to the circumstances mentioned, the 
progress of the Madrissa may be termed decidedly satisfactory; 
although, compared with the best among the Zillah Schools, it 


285 . 

tution 


The same difficulties exist still; but c.i the whole the Insti- 
seems, if any thing, to be gaining ground, if we may judge 


from the following figures: 


Number of Students of 
the Institution who 
Pupils passed the Matri- 
culation Examination 


^63-64 
i 864-65 
1 S 65-66 


238 

229 

297 


The following remarks regarding the Institution are taken 
from the Education Report of 1865-66:— 

“The Madrissa-i-Azam, which is an Institution for Mussulman 
lads alone, ranks with Zillah Schools, and is commonly included 10 
their number. The results of the Inspects examination were not 
altogether favorable; and the numerical weakness of the senior 
classes, which involved as a consequence the expenditure of the 



2 4 6 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

labor of the senior and best paid Teachers upon a comparatively 
small number of boys was a matter for regret. At the same time, 
in trying to raise the Standard, a weak class has often to be allowed 
to exist temporarily; what is requisite is that, if the Standard aimed 
at be found too high for the circumstances of the case, a lower one- 
should be adopted. I trust, however, that the progress of Mussul- 
man education will be such as to prevent any lowering of the 
Standard aimed at in the Madrissa. From this Institution six pupils 
went up to the Matriculation Examination, of whom three passed.'' 


Bombay 

287. In Bombay the Poona College was originally a Brahmin 
College for the cultivation of the study of Sanscrit. I may repeat 
here the account of it already given under the general head of 
Colleges:— 

“On the occupation of the Deccan by the British Government 
in 1818, it was found that a certain portion of the revenues of the 
Maratha State had been yearly set apart for pensions and presents 
to Brahmins (Dakshina). To prevent hardship and disappointment, 
and to fulfil the implied obligations of the new Rulers, the British 
Government continued these payments; but, as the pensions and 
allowances fell in, they resolved, while maintaining the same total 
expenditure, under the name of the Dakshina Fund, to devote a 
portion of it to a more permanently useful end, in the encourage- 
ment of such kind of learning as the Brahmins were willing to culti- 
vate. With this view the Poona College was founded in 1821, as a 
Sanscrit College, exclusively for Brahmins. 

“In 1837 some branches of Hindoo learning were dropped; the 
study of the Vernacular and of English was introduced, and the 
College was opened to all classes; and, after having been amalgamat- 
ed with the English School in 1851, it arose in its present form ir 
1857, by a separation of the College division from the School divi- 
sion. From another portion of the Dakshina Fund Dakshina Fellow- 
ships have been founded, of which four, viz., one Senior Fellowship 
of Rupees 100 per mensem, and three Junior Fellowships each of 
Rupees 50 per mensem, are attached to the College.” 

288. The following remarks respecting the Sanscrit branch of the 
Poona College are taken from Mr. Howard’s pamphlet of 1865- 


ORIENTAL CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND ORIENTAL INSTITUTIONS 247 

They relate to the comparatively recent re-organizations carried 
out:— 

“The ‘Sanscrit Department’ was marked for a root and branch 
reform. 

* # * * # # 

“I have mentioned the Sanscrit Department of Poona College. 
This consisted of a crowd of half naked Brahmins, mostly beggars, 
taught by Pundits on the indigenous system. Tne pupils were 
either stipendiary scholars or free. They learned nothing but 
Sanscrit, and that not well. Most of them became priests after 
leaving College. Their Teachers, the ‘Shastrees’, were ignorant o£ 
all human knowledge save the ‘Shastra’ professed by them. They 
were also arrogant and obstructive. They had as little notion of 
order or discipline as they had of literature or science. No learned 
hook, or philological tract or critical reprint ever proceeded from 
Poona College. When a descriptive catalogue of the Sanscrit manus- 
cripts in the library was asked for, the Shastrees simply confessed 
that they did not know how to make one. After some hesitation it 
was resolved to abolish a department which seemed a standing pro- 
test against all the other reforms introduced into Poona College. 
The remaining pupils were merged in the ‘English’ Department and 
the Shastrees were bid to teach Sanscrit to all comers in the College 
and School. They refused to instruct in the sacred language any 
but Brahmins, and were put on half pay. A native of liberal ideas 
and European knowledge was set to direct the Sanscrit studies, which 
henceforward were to be pursued not in the spirit of Brahminical 
theology, but as a branch of general learning. Finally, in the 
following year, a German Orientalist was brought from Europe as 
permanent Professor of Sanscrit. 

“Dr Martin Haug, known chiefly by his researches in Zoroast- 
rian antiquities, came to India in November 1859, and at once joined 
the College at Poona. He has the honor of organizing, almost of 
creating, a genuine study of Sanscrit in Western India. His original 
investigations into Vedic and Zend antiquity, carried on side by 
side with his teaching, gave him importance among even the Pundits 
and the Dasturs. The English bred Natives gladly accepted the 
methods of scientific philology. Among Dr Haug’s pupils are men 
who combine the accumulated knowledge of the Pundits with the 
critical acumen of the European Philologist. One of these scholars, 
a Maratha Brahmin, in 1863 took University Honors in ‘Languages* 
of which one was Sanscrit, the second being English. 



s i *: lkctj ions i ro \ r eim ; gat i o n a i . r e ( o r i >s 


.^48 

“In February 1863 ano her learned German, Dr. George Buhler, 
was appointed Sanscrit Professor in F.l pin ns tone College. Previously 
the Duxina Fellows and a Shastree had taken the Sanscrit Classes 
in this class. 

“Sanscrit is now taught in the Vernaculai Colleges and manv 
Schools, English and Vernacular. I believe that the Hindoos are 
much gratified by finding their ancient language again in honor. A 
reflex result Ins been to diffuse a taste for Sanscrit among the 
people of Western India. I have before me a rather remarkable 
proof of this result. In the last monthly catalogue of oriental 
literature on sale at a London publisher's, I find a list of forty-six 
Sanscrit Works all printed in India. Of these twenty five come from 
Calcut a, Benares and other places, and all the rest from either 
Bombay or Poona.’* 

289. The following account of the spread of the study of Sanscrit 
in Bombay is taken from the Director’s Report for 1865-66;- 

“Great impulse has been given of late to the study of Sanscril 
in this Presidency— firstly, by the excellent Professors of the language 
in Elphinstone and Poona Colleges; secondly , by the University rule 
requiring this or some other classical language to be brought up for 
the Arts Examinations; thirdly , by the foundation of the Bhugwan- 
dass Purshotumdass Sanscrit Scholarship for Bachelors of Arts; 
fourthly , by the publication of a First Sanscrit Book by Mr. Ram- 
krishna Gopal Bhandarkar, M.A.; fifthly, by the liberality of 
Mi Vinayakrao Sunkersett, who has recently founded two annual 
Sanscrit Scholarships, styled, in honor of his late father's memory, 
the Juggonath Sunkersett Scholarships, which are to be contended 
for in connection with the University Matriculation Examination. 
Soon every High School in this department will be a School fpr 
Sanscrit Scholarship. And this will be a great advantage, for 
Sanscrit studied according to the European method, and in conjunc- 

with English, cannot fail to strengthen the minds of Native 
students. 

“In connection with this subject, I beg to call attention to a letter 
from Professors Buhler and Kielhom (subjoined in Appendix H, 
page 196), proposing a series of Sanscrit Classics to be brought out 
by themselves and by Native Sanscritists under their superin ten 
dence. I his excellent proposal is now being carried out, and ii 
will, I trust, result in furnishing us with good and cheap texts of 
Sanscrit Classics to be used in our High Schools and Colleges, and 
possibly to be adopted by educational institutions elsewhere.” 


ORIENTAL CLASSICAL LANGUAGES ANO ORIENTAL INSTITUTIONS 2^9 

Punjab 

290. Before passing from this subject, I may refer to the 
movement which recently took place in the Punjab, on the part of 
the Native nobility and gentry of Lahore, towards the introduction 
of a scheme for encouraging and directing the progress of Oriental 
Literature and Science. The best reference to the movement in 
-question will be an extract from the reply of the Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor (Sir Donald McLeod) to the address of the Native nobility. 
The reply was given in February 1866, and the following extract 
will show something of its natuie: - 

“It is with no ordinary satisfaction that I have received from 
the hands of Dr Leitner your address regarding the scheme which 
you have devised, and have partially set on foot, for encouraging 
and directing in this Province the progress of Oriental Literature 
and Science, and the spread of knowledge through the Vernaculars 
—I have felt greatly gratified to find that the few words addressed by 
me to the Director of Public Instruction have been taken up, and 
the views which I urged in them expanded by you, with an earnest- 
ness and cordiality which I had no right to expect for them. Your 
learned and truly sympathizing friend and adviser, who has come 
some hundreds of miles to deliver your address, and communicate 
your feelings and desires. lias had the benefits, not only of drawing 
largely from the founts of European knowledge, but of mixing much 
and freely with Oriental races in other lands, whereby he has been 
enabled to discriminate all that is calculated to be unsuitable or 
distasteful to you, from what may be turned to good account, and 
likely to prove, if judiciously worked out, of the highest value. I 
feel very grateful to him for having thus apprehended, and pointed 
out to you the way, and to you for having thus far so generously 
and so heartily followed it. 

“Some among you may doubtless be aware, though all of you 
cannot be so, that in 1835 A.D., under the auspices of Lord Wil- 
liam Bentinck, the Governor General of India, the rules and 
piinciples to be followed by Government and its Officers, in the 
work of education, were placed on a new basis. Amongst those 
who were the main advisers and promoters of this measure, are to 
be found the names of Macaulay, Trevelyan. Duff, and others well- 
known as amongst the most enlightened and earnest friends of the 
Natives of Hindoostan. Dissatisfaction was justly felt and avowed 
by them at the meagre results which had previously been attained 
by efforts made to convey instruction to the people through the 



2 5° SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Ia ng uages of the country; and it was determined that thenceforth 
the English language should be chiefly relied on as the means of 
imparting to our subjects in this land the knowledge of the West. 

“Up to that time no serious effort had been made to employ 
those languages as a mediium for imparting the knowledge which 
European nations most value, so that it is no matter for surprise 
that such dissatisfaction should have been felt. But there were at 
t e time not a few who were of opinion that the scheme of educa- 
tion then determined upon was too exclusive, as well is practically 
ungenerous, from omitting and decrying all that you value the 
most. And although great progress has undoubtedly been made 
since then, many distinguished and enlightened scholars have been 
raised from amongst your countrymen, and the desire for education 
has greatly increased on every hand, there are now a still larger 
number amongst us, and I must avow myself to be one of this 
number, who consider that the results which have been attained show 
that opinion to have been correct, inasmuch as notwithstanding 
some brilliant exceptions, the great bulk of our scholars never attain 
more than a very superficial knowledge, either of English or of the 
subjects they study in that language, while the mental training 
imparted is, as a general rule, of a purely imitative character ill- 
calculated to raise the nation to habits of vigorous or independent 
thought. r 

“It appears indeed evident that, to impart knowledge in a foreign 
tongue must of necessity greatly increase the difficulties of educa- 
tion. In England, where the Latin and Greek languages are con- 
sidered an essential part of a polite education, all general instruction 
is conveyed, not in those languages, but in the Vernacular of the 
country; and it seems difficult to assign a sufficient reason why a 
different principle should be acted upon here. It was doubtless 
hoped, by the eminent men who inaugurated the revised arrange- 
ments, that as youths were sent forth from our Collegiate Insti- 
tutions, thoroughly imbued with a taste for the Literature, Science 
an Art of other lands andi gifted with superior attainments in these* 
they would devote themselves to facilitating the path for their 
e low-countrymen; and that a Vernacular Literature of a superior 
ordp would thus spring up. But the necessity for creating such 
a Literature does not appear to have been practically kept in view 
and it is an undoubted fact that, up to the present time, as regard^ 
Oordoo and Hmdee the Vernacular languages of Upper India, 
little or no progress has been made towards the attainment of this 
end'. So that your countrymen have as yet no means afforded them 


ORIENTAL CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND ORIENTAL INSTITUTIONS 25^ 

of acquiring in their own languages, some fair portion at least of 
that knowledge of which such abundant stores exist in the languages 
of the West. 

“Nor do I feel at all hopeful that anything like a vigorous, Ori- 
ginal, or copious Vernacular Literature will be produced within 
our generation, unless very special efforts be made for securing this 
end. While the system now in force appears to me but ill-adapted 
for such a purpose, the amount of time which is necessary to devote 
to the various subjects studied in our Schools, where these are taught 
in the English language, leaves but little time for perfecting our 
pupils in their knowledge of that language itself. Many parents 
have complained to me of this as regards their sons; and it cannot 
be denied, at least as far as this Province is concerned, that a really 
good English scholar is but rarely produced, even from amongst 
those who have matriculated at the University. Vigorous mental 
training appears to be but little aimed at; while the youths who are 
attracted to our Schools or Colleges, are for the most part those 
who desire only to qualify themselves for public employ, or to 
acquire a colloquial knowledge of English, seldom or never includ- 
ing youths of those classes who are used to devote themselves wholly 
to the cause of learning. 

“And this brings me to the defect, which I myself more especially 
deplore, in the system of instruction at present almost exclusively 
followed, viz., that it has tended, though not intentionally, to 
alienate from us, in a great measure, the really learned men of your 
race. Little or nothing has been done to conciliate these, while the 
Literature and Science which they most highly value have been 
virtually ignored. The consequence has been that the men of most 
cultivated minds amongst our race and yours have remained but 
too often widely apart, each being unable either to understand or 
to appreciate the other. And thus we have virtually lost the aid 
;andi co-operation of those classes who, I feel assured, afforded by far 
the best instruments for creating the Literature we desire. This 
is, in my opinion, very much to be lamented; and where a different 
policy has been pursued by individuals following the bent of their 
own instincts, and striving to attain a better knowledge of those 
by whom they are surrounded^, I have myself witnessed the most 
remarkable and gratifying results. 

##*###* 

“I by no means intend, however, by what I have said above that 
the study of your own classic authors should be your end and sole aim 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


252 

in the educational measures you may devise for your fellow-coun- 
trymen; hut I desire to direct your attention to their works, because 
they have been almost wholly overlooked in existing Educational 
schemes, and because I am convinced! that, if rightly employed, 
they will prove a most important addition to the means of mental 
culture at present employed. I know how deeply you value and 
revere these, and respond to any appreciation of them by others. 
I know that they contain much that is of great value, and I know 
too how admirably adapted many of them are for training the minds 
of youths to vigorous habits of thought. 

M I think it premature to discuss at the present time, and in this 
place, some of the measures urged in your address, such as conferring 
on your Institutions authority to grant diplomas, degrees, etc., and 
giving the preference for Government employ to those applicants 
who may be thus distinguished. But as your arrangements become 
more matured, we may hope that such points will be adjusted in a 
manner satisfactory to vou, and that every reasonable concession will 
be gladly made by those with whom the power rests. There are, 
however, a few points to which it is necessary that I advert before 
concluding this reply. 

“First — You request that your principal Educational Institution,, 
or whatever designation may be ultimately determined for it, may 
be honored by the patronage of Her Majesty the Queen of England. 
And on this point, all that I can promise is that so soon as your 
proceedings shall have become further advanced, and one or more 
Institutions shall have been established on approved principles, I 
will submit your reauest for the favorable consideration of the 
Supreme Government, with a view to its transmission to the Right 
Honorable the Secretary of State for India, and submission by him, 
should he deem this fitting, for the consideration of Her Most 
Gracious Majesty. The hearty and effective manner in which His 
Excellency the Viceroy has spontaneously evinced his approval of your 
project, affords sufficient guarantee that you will have his cordial 
support, and none of you can doubt with what deep interest Her 
Majesty regards all that may conduce to the benefit of her Indian 
siibjecs. 

“Secondly . —You request me to secure, as far as possible, the 
pecuniary aid of Government in the form of an equivalent to the 
entire amount of donations collected from private parties, and a 
grant-in-aidi equal ^ the amount of annual subscriptions. The 
Returns which accompany your address show that, at the time of its. 


SCHOLARSHIPS 


253 


preparation, donations amounting to Rupees 8,138 ^ Jp^Lised 
Options aggregating Rupees 7,181 per annum, had been ptomtsed. 

Thes* are large amounts; and as the above include • y 
Option, „! HU Excellency the Viceroy, and Hi. "ighnen ^ 
of Kaopurthulla, with the contributions of the commu 
Lahore' and UmtiBur, while other localities have 
their desire to co-operate, larger sums may be looked for a you 
Proceedings becomemore generally known. Whether it will be 
possible for Government to supplement all the income thus derived 
from private sources I cannot undertake to say, but I have .nte 
in the^ Budget for the coming year, on this account, such a sum as 1 
has appeared to me reasonable to propose; and 1 venture to ^ent eUai 
a confident hope that, for the encouragement of educ^ efi m 
so entirely in accordance with the views set forth in tne ^catmnal 
Despatch of 1854, on which all grants-in-aid are based the Govern- 
ment will gladly concede such amount as the state of tire finances 
may permit, without impairing the direct operations of Government 
through its own Educational Insntuuons. 

-lastly - You urge that the fixed endowment of your Institutions 
mav be allowed to take the form of a Jaghire, yielding a yearly income 
equal to the interest of the aggregate donations of the public v 
Government equivalent. I am not aware why a Jagmre should be 
nreferred as l endowment to an investment in the Promissory 
Notes of Government, or other suitable Secmities. ie P 
Government has frequently expressed a strong disinclination o 
make over to a jaghirdar, who has not heretofore held then Lmds 
of which the proprietorship belongs to other parties, and although 
the same objections might not perhaps exist, to conferring a ne>v 
T a oh ire on an educational body, which could have no concern with 
its°management, and would simply enjoy the yearly revenues, it is 
not apparent to me what special advantage could result from sue 1 
an arrangement, while it might in some respects prove inconvenient 
to the grantees themselves. If, however, any definite and well con- 
sidered proposal to this effect be hereafter submitted, I shad be 
prepared to give it my careful attention. 

SECTION VIII 

Scholarships 

291. The system which the Home Government recommended for 
introduction in 1854 is briefly sketched as follows in the Despatch 
of that year:— 

“The system oi luce and Stipendiary Scholarships, to which we 
have already more than once referred as a connecting link between 



SCHOLARSHIPS 


255 


2 54 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

the. different grades of Educational Institutions, will require some 
revision and extension in carrying out our enlarged Educational 
plans. . We wish to see the object proposed by Lord Auckland in 
1839, of connecting the Zillah Schools with the Central Colleges, 
by attaching to the latter Scholarships to which the best Scholars of 
the former might be eligible,’ more fully carried out; and also, as 
the measures we now propose assume an organized form, that the 
same system may be adopted with regard to Schools of a lower 
description, and that the best Pupils of the inferior School shall be 
provided for by means of Scholarships in Schools of a higher order, 
so that superior talent in every class may receive that encouragement 
and development which it deserves. The amount of the Stipendiary 
Scholarships should be fixed at such a sum as may be considered 
sufficient for the maintenance of the holders of them at the Col- 
leges or Schools to which they are attached, and which may often 
be at a distance from the homes of the Students. We think it desir- 
able that this system of Scholarship should be carried out, not only 
in connection with those places of Education which are under the 
immediate superintendence of the State, but in all Educational 
Institutions which will now be brought into our general system.” 

292. I now proceed to notice the system of Scholarships in force 
in each Presidency and Province. 


Bengal 

^.93. The Bengal Scholarships are open to competition not only 
to Government but to Private Institutions, as will be seen from the 
following Extract from the Bengal Report of 1863-64:- 


“I 11 Bengal the Government Scholarships of every description 
have, for some years, been thrown open on equal terms to all Edu- 
cational Institutions, Government and Private, without exception. 
The lemoval of all restrictions in the competition for the public 
rewards of successful study has proved no less beneficial in practice 
than it is theoretically correct and just in principle, for open com- 
petition effectually stimulates emulation among the Schools and 
Goheges of all classes and affords an indisputable test of their com- 
parauve efficiency, while it cuts away the grounds for dissatisfaction 
\ K c PnVate Instltu£ ions must naturally and reasonably feel when 
tfiey find themselves debarred from the substantial rewards bestowed 
on approved proficiency in Institutions under Government control. 
Amongst the various measures adopted for spreading Education and 
-improving the character and standard of instruction in Schools of 


all classes, the Scholarships system must be regarded as second to 
none in practical efficacy, and a further extension of it would, I 
believe, be attended with advantages fully adequate to the conse- 
quent outlay.” 

294. The several grades of Scholarships in Bengal are as follows:— 

I. Vernacular Scholarships — Of these 225, or about 10 in each 
District, are annually open to competition among the Pupils of Ver- 
nacular Schools who may wish to continue their studies in Higher 
Class Schools. The Scholarships are worth Rupees four per mensem, 
and are tenable for four years in Higher Class Schools. A similar 
number (225) of Scholarships are annually available for such of the 
Pupils of Vernacular Schools as may wish to qualify themselves as 
teachers. These Scholarships are tenable for one year in Normal 
Schools, or in Zillah Schools, where arrangements can be made for 
their proper training. 

II. Minor English Scholarships - The Scholarships mentioned 
above being restricted to pupils of Vernacular Schools, it was deemed 
advisable to offer some similar encouragement to Pupils of Middle 
Class Anglo-Vernacular Schools who might wish to continue their 
studies in Higher Class Schools. To meet this want 200 Scholarships 
of Rupees five per mensem each were instituted in 1864-65. Of these 
100 are available annually, each Scholarship being tenable for two 
years. They are held in English Schools of the Higher Class, the 
standard of examination being so fixed that successful candidates 
should be sufficiently advanced to be able to pass the University 
Entrance Examination at the expiration of their Scholarship term. 

III. Junior Scholarships These are for Under Graduates study- 
ing for the First Arts Examination. The Rules, as revised in 
February 1865, are given below:— 

“One hundred and sixty Junior Scholarships are open annually 
to be competed for in the University Entrance Examination by 
candidates educated in any School in the Lower Provinces of Bengal, 

“2. These Scholarships are of three grades-ten of the first grade 
with Stipends of Rupees (18) eighteen per mensem— fifty of the second 
grade with Stipends of Rupees (14) fourteen per mensem— and a 
hundred of the third grade with Stipends of Rupees (10) ten per 
mensem. 

125 D of A— 17 



256 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SCHOLARSHIPS 


257 


“3. With the sanction of the Director of Public Instruction, a 
Junior Scholarship may be held at any one of the ‘affiliated' Colleges 
which may be selected by the holder. 

4 ‘4. Each Scholarship is tenable for two years, provided that due 
progress, under a Collegiate course of instruction, is regularly made 
by the holder— a certificate of the fact being submitted, at the end 
of the first year, by the Principal of his College. 

“5. The holder of a Junior Scholarship in a non-Government 
Institution is liable at any time to be examined by twc/ persons 
appointed by the Director of Public Instruction, and approved by the 
Principal of the College to which he belongs, and, on proof of un- 
satisfactory progress, may be deprived of his Scholarsnip. 

“6. No candidate is eligible who did not study for the last twelve 
months at least in the School to which he belonged at the time of 
presenting himself at the Entrance Examination. 

“7. The ten Scholarships of the first grade will be awarded to the 
ten candidates who obtain the greatest number of marks in the 
Entrance Examination. 


“8. The fifty Scholarships of the second grade are reserved for 


The Hooghly Circle includes — 

Howrah, Hooghly, 24-Pergunnahs, Baraset, 
Midnapore, and the Province of Orissa 

TheKishnaghur Circle includes — 
Nuddea, Burdwan, Jessore, Pubna, Beer- 
bhoom, Bancoorah, and Puruliya 

The Berhampore Circle includes — 
Moordisdabad, Rajshahi, Maid ah, Dinaipur, 
Darjeeling, and the Province of Behar 
The Dacca Circle includes — 

Dacca, Fureedpore, Bograh, Burrisal, Chit- 
tagong, Tipperah, Sylhet, Cachar, Khasia, 
Mymensing, Rungpur, and Assam 

The Calcutta Circle includes — 

The Town of Calcutta only 

their names appear in the first Division. 


Schools situated within 
the five Collegiate Circles 
of Calcutta, Hooghly, 
Kishnaghur, Berhampore, 
and Dacca— ten Scholar- 
ships for each Circle- 
arid will be awarded to 
the ten highest candi- 
dotes from each who do 
not gain Scholarships of 
the first grade, provided 


9. Fifty Scholarships of the third grade are similarly reserved 
for the five Collegiate Circles-ten for each Circle-and will be 
mprded to the ten highest candidates from each who do not gain 
^fcholarships of the first or second grade, provided their names appear 
either in the first Division or in the upper half of the second 
Division. 


“10. The Scholarships not taken up under the two preceding 
Rules by the Circles for which they are reserved will be awarded 
to candidates from the general list in order of merit, piovided they 
reach the prescribed standard. 

“11. The remaining fifty Scholarships of the third grade will 
be awarded, at the discretion of the Director of Public Instruction, 
to candidates who pass the examination, and appear deserving of 
reward and encouragement, although they may fail to reach the 
standard prescribed in the foregoing Rules. 

“12. The holders of Scholarships in all Government Colleges 
are required to pay the usual monthly fees which are levied from 
other students, provided always that no Scholarship-holder shall be 
required to pay a higher fee than Rupees (5) five per mensem. 

IV. Senior Scholarships .— These are for Under-Graduates who have 
passed the First Arts Examination, and continue their studies for 
the B.A. Degree.” * 

I give below the present Senior Scholarship Rules:— 

“Twenty-four Senior Scholarships are open annually, to be com- 
peted for in the First Examination in Arts by candidates educated 
in Colleges affiliated to the University of Calcutta. 

“2. These Scholarships are of two grades-nine of the 1st grade 
with Stipends of Rupees (32) thirty- two per mensem, and 15 of the 
2nd grade with Stipends of Rupees (27) twenty-seven per mensem. 

“3. With the sanction of the Director of Public Instruction, a 
Senior Scholarship may be held at any one of the ‘affiliated' Colleges 
which may be selected by the holder. 

“4. Each Scholarship is tenable for two years, provided that due 
progress, under a Collegiate course of instruction, is regularly made 
by the holder-a certificate of the fact being submitted at the end 
of the first year by the Principal of his College. 

“5. The holder of a Senior Scholarship in a non-Government 
Institution is liable at any time to be examined by two persons 
appointed by the Director of Public Instruction, and approved by the 
Principal of the College to which he belongs, and, on proof of un- 
satisfactory progress, may be deprived of his Scholarship. 

“6. Second-year students alone are eligible, i.e. y those students 
who passed the Entrance Examination two years before presenting 
themselves for the First Examination in Arts. 



258 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


“7. The nine Scholarships of the 1st Grade are open generally 
to all 'affiliated* Institutions without restriction, and will be awarded 
to the nine Candidates who obtain the greatest number of marks 
in the First Examination in Arts. 


“8 


The fifteen Scholarships of the 2nd grade are reserved for 


The Hooghly Circle includes — 


the 'affiliated* Institutions 
situated within the five 


Howrah, Hooghly, 24 — Pergunnahs, Baraset, 
Mid na pore, and the Province of Orissa 

The Kishnaghur Circle includes — 
Nuddea, Burdwan, Jessore, Pubna, Beer 
bhoora, Bancoora, and Puruli(ya 

The Berhampore Circle includes — 
Mocrshedabad, Rajshahi, Maldah, Dinajpur 
Darjeeling, and the Province of Behar 
The Dacca Circle includes — 


Collegiate Circles of Cal- 
cutta, Hooghly, Kishna- 
ghur, Berhampore and 
Dacca-three Scholarship? 
for each circle— and will 
be awarded to the three 
highest Candidates from 
each Circle who do not 


Dacca, Furreedpore, Bogra, Burris: 
tagoang, Tipperah, Sylhet, Cachar, 
Mymensing, Rungpur, and Assam 

The Calcutta Circle includes — 
The Town of Calcutta only 

as determined by the marks of tl 


1, Chit- gain Scholarships of the 
Khasia, 1st grade, provided their 
names appear in the 
upper two-thirds of the 
list of passed Candidates, 
e Examiners. No Candidate whose 


place is lower than this will be entitled to claim a Scholarship. 


"9. Scholarships, not taken up under the preceding Rule by the 
Circles for which they are reserved, will be awarded to candidates 
from the general list in order of merit, provided they reach the 
prescribed standard. 


“10. The holders of Scholarships in all Government Colleges are 
required to pay the usual monthly fees which are levied from other 
students.” 


295. The Rules for Senior Scholarships will have to be modified 
in January 1868, when a revised scale of Senior Scholarships recently 
sanctioned will come into force. The total number of Scholarships 
is to be increased 1 from 24 to 40, and to be of the following values:— 

10 at Rs. 32 
12 at „ 25 

18 at „ 20 

296. Besides the above there are the “Graduate Scholarships” or 
Foundation Scholarships of the Presidency College. These appear to 
be awarded annually. No description of them is given by the 
Director in his Reports; but in 1865-66 seven were awarded to 


SCHOLARSHIPS 


259 


Bachelors of Arts tenable for one year on condition of thel^prosecut 
ing their studies for the M.A. Degree. The average value of them 
was about Rupees 38 per mensem. 

N 

There are also special Scholarships for Sanscrit and Arabic and 
for the Medical College. The following statement of Expenditure 
on Scholarships in Bengal is given in the Report for 1865-66:— 

Rs. 

. 16,632 

41,880 

3,510 from Local Funds 
5,856 
4>032 
956 

. 28,670 

14.564 

Total 1,16,100 
North-Western Provinces 

297. In the North-Western Provinces, there are two classes of 
Scholarships, as follows:— 

(1) Junior Scholarships — Rupees 5,600 per annum has been 
sanctioned for these Scholarships. They are worth Rupees three 
each per mensem, and are given to Pupils of Tehseelee and Anglo- 
Vernacular Schools selected by the Inspectors on condition of their 
proceeding to one of the Boarding House Colleges in the North- 
Western Provinces to pursue their studies. They appear to be 
tenable in some cases for three years, and other cases for one year. 

(2) Scholarships for the three Upper Classes of the Schools 
Their value is from Rupees four to Rupees eight each per mensem 
They are awarded on the result of an examination by a Board of 
Examiners. They appear to be tenable only for one year. 

(3) Senior Scholarships — These axe for students pursuing their 
studies in College after passing the Entrance Examination, First 
Arts Examination, or B.A. Examination. There are no specific 
Rules fixing their number or the period for which they are tenable. 
They vary in amount from Rupees 10 to Rupees 25. In 1886, the 
allotments for such Scholarships numbered 37. 


Senior Scholarships 

Junior „ 

Graduate „ 

Arabic „ 

Sanscrit „ 

Minor English „ 

Vernacular „ 

Medical College „ 



26 o 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SCHOLARSHIPS 


298. The total expenditure on account of Scholarships in the 
North-Western Provinces for 1865-66 was Rupees 17,962. There is 
a great want of specific information respecting the Scholarship 
system of the North-Western Provinces, which probably arises from 
the absence of any specific Rules or Regulations respecting the 
number and value of the Scholarships of each class available annuallyy 
the period for which they are to be tenable, and the conditions under 
which they are to be awarded. 

Punjab 

299. In the Punjab there are two kinds of Scholarships, as 
follows:— 

(1) Scholarships given to pupils of Zillah Schools as rewards and 
encouragements to continued study.— Of late years the Director of 
Public Instruction has confined these Scholarships as much as 
possible to pupils who, having completed their course in an inferior 
School, proceed to a Higher School to continue their studies. The 
total nuyiber of such Scholarships in 1865-66 was 215, of an average 
amount of about Rupees 2-12 each per mensem. 

(2) Scholarships given to Matriculated students continuing their 
studies in Colleges.— When the two Colleges at Delhi and Lahore 
were established, an allowance of Rupees 100 each was sanctioned 
for Scholarships. The Punjab Director asked that this amount 
might be doubled, his idea being that every student who attended 
College should have a Scholarship; and that, if this were not given, 
all, or nearly all, the students not getting scholarships would 
disappear. As a temporary arrangement it has been decided to 
allow one Scholarship for every three students attending the College, 
the value of such Scholarships corresponding to the average value 
of the Junior and Senior Scholarships in Bengal. 

Madras 

500. Nothing is said about Scholarships in the Madras Report 
for 1865-66. The following extract from the Report of the previous 
year may be given:— 

“Para. 278.— The bulk of the expenditure on Scholarships con- 
Scholarships tinues to be in connection with professional 

training, either in Normal Schools or in the 
Lower Departments of the Medical and Civil Engineering Colleges. 
To meet, however, the increase in the number of matriculating 


261 

students, 15, instead of as last year 10, Scholarships of Rupees 10 
per mensem were offered for competition at the Matriculation 
Examination in February 1865, and provision was made by an 
increase to their stipends for the incitement of Scholarship-holders 
to secure a place in the Higher Class at the First Examination in 
Arts. The Rules laid down regarding the Scholarships are sub- 
joined:— 

“1— Every candidate must be a pupil in some Institution. 

"2— At the time of Examination, the age of a candidate must not 
exceed 19 years. 

“3.—' The candidates must obtain places in the 1st Class at the 
Examination; and they must further secure at least one-third 
of the total marks assigned to the English language. 

“4.—’ The candidates must engage to prosecute their studies up to the 
B.A. standard, and to offer themselves for examination with the 
view of obtaining the degree of Bachelor of Arts within three 
years after their nomination to the Scholarships. 

“5._As two years must elapse between the date of passing the First 
Examination in Arts and that of attending the B.A. Exami- 
nation, a student nominated to a Matriculation Scholarship will 
forfeit it in case of his failing to pass the First Examination in 
Arts within one year from the award of his stipend. 

“6.— The Scholarships will be tenable for three years, supposing the 
holders to pass the First Examination in Arts at the prescribed 
time, and to conduct themselves in a satisfactory manner. 

"7— The successful candidates must, if not already in one, enter 
some College or School in which satisfactory provision is made 
for educating students up to the B.A. standard. 

“8.— In case of a Scholarship-holder obtaining a place in the 1st Class 
at the First Examination in Arts, an addition of Rupees five 
per mensem will be made to his stipend during the concluding 
two years of his preparation for the B.A. Examination/’ 

301. From the Statistical Return appended to the Madras 
Report of 1865-66, it appears that 149 Scholarships tenable in 
Normal Schools were gained during the year, besides 24 free 
Studentships in the same Institutions. Only eight Scholarships 
appear in the list as tenable in Institutions for general education; 
of these six belonged to the Provincial School at Combaconum, 
and two to the Provincial School at Bellary. 



262 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Bombay 

302. There is a deficiency of recent information respecting 
Scholarships in Bombay. The subject is not mentioned by the 
Director in his Report, and the prescribed Statistical Table res- 
pecting Scholarship-holders has been omitted from the Appendices. 

303. It was in 1863-64 that a scheme of Scholarships or Exhibi- 
tions to be held at High Schools by boys coming from other 
inferior Schools to prosecute their studies was first fairly brought 
into operation. In that year the Exhibitions of this class num- 
bered 142, varying in value from Rupees three to Rupees 10 per 
mensem each. The system appears to have worked well; it has 
greatly increased the influence of High Schools by filling their 
benches with boys from all parts of the country. 

304. There are also College Scholarships in the Poona and 
Elphinstone Colleges. The following extract from Mr Howard’s 
Memorandum of June 1865 gives an account of the way in which 
the College Scholarship system had of late years been re-organized:— 

“The system of Scholarships and Free Studentships at each Col- 
lege was re-organized. The funds were applied chiefly to the 
purpose of encouraging the senior men to persevere through a full 
College course. For instance, in Elphinstone College the Junior 
Scholarships (first and second year) were reduced from 36 to 20; 
the Senior Scholarships were raised from nine to 20. The 38 
Scholarships of the Poona College, originally tenable for 10 years 
each, and half of them held by School children, were by degrees 
confined to the College classes, and sixteen were reserved for 
young men who had already gone through two years of College 
study. Free Studentships, which had been lavished too freely, 
were retrenched. The effect of these measures was to clear each 
College of many idlers, and to form a compact group of promising 
senior students. 

“At the same time annual examinations were set on foot for 
junior and senior Scholarships according to printed standards. The 
candidates for the former were for the most part also candidates 
for College Entrance or Matriculation. The candidates for the 
latter had completed two years at College. The Senior Scholar- 
ship Examinations were to be conducted by persons not Professors 
in the Colleges.*' 


SCHOLARSHIPS 263 

305. A brief notice may here be taken of the Duxina Fellow- 
ships,” of which the following account is given in Mr. Howard’s 
Memorandum 

“Connected with the reform of the Colleges was the foundation 
of a set of Native Fellowships and Tutorships. Since the co^ 
quest of the Dekkan the Bombay Government had, for political 
reasons, continued the practice of the Maratha Court of granting 
annuities called “Duxina” to Brahmins. The allowance applic- 
able to this purpose was separately credited in the accounts of the 
British Government. For some years, however, no new annuity 
had been granted, and there was in hand an accumulated balance * 
of the “Duxina Fund,” which was yearly increased by lapses on 
the death or (sometimes) the misconduct of annuitants. 

“In 1858 the Government gave their sanction to a scheme of 
providing by means of the unexpended balance of Duxina, five 
Senior and 10 Junior Fellowships, to be attached to one or other of 
the Colleges on conditions mentioned in the Director’s Annual 
Report for 1857-58. Two benefits were expected from this arrange- 
ment First the young men elected Fellows-presumably the best 
men of the University-would thus, like the Fellows of Colleges at 
Home, be detained for a few years among the influences of a 
learned life; and then they would supply to the Colleges the 
Native tutorial element , the value of which the ablest European 
Professors have often insisted on. There are now five Duxina 
Fellows and Tutors in Elphinstone College and four in Poona Col- 
lege. It has been stated, and it may be believed, that the founda- 
tion has quite answered all reasonable expectations.” 

Oude 

306. In Oude there are only a few School Scholarships paid to 
pupils in Zillah and Tehsil Schools from subscriptions, the aggre- 
gate amount for 1865-66 being Rupees 1,079. 

307. Six Under-Graduates in the Canning College received 
Scholarships of Rupees 10 each per mensem from the College 
Funds. A sum ofRupees 2,520 was sanctioned by the Government 
of India for Scholarships in Oudte for the year 1866-67. 

Central Provinces 

308. Only Rupees 696 were spent in Scholarships in the Central 
Provinces in '1865-66. They were allotted among the Zillah 



264 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


Schools; their value varying from one Rupee to eight Rupees each 
per mensem. 

The question of making further provision for Scholarships in 
the Central Provinces has since been under consideration. 

Mysore 

309. There are no Scholarships in Mysore. 


SECTION IX 


Employment of Students in the Public Service 


310. This subject is one which has obtained a considerable 
amount of attention in some parts of 
*See paragraphs 72-77, India, and was expressly referred* to by 
Despatch of 1854 the Home Government in the Educational 

of a ? 8 < 9 ^^ DeS Despatches of 1854 and 1859. In the 
former Despatch allusion was made to a 
Resolution of the Government of India, dated the 10 th October 
1844, the object of which was to afford to educational measures 
“every reasonable encouragement by holding out to those who have 
taken advantage of the opportunity of instruction afforded to them 
a fair prospect of employment in the Public Service, and thereby 
not only to reward individual merit, but to enable the State to pro- 
fit as largely and as early as possible by the result of the measures 
adopted of late years for the instruction of the people/' The 
Resolution had, it would seem, primary, if not exclusive, refer- 
ence to ministerial appointments. Returns were directed to be 
furnished by Educational Officers of “Students qualified for the 
Public Service," and the Heads of Offices were enjoined to “omit 
no opportunity of providing for and advancing the Candidates 
thus presented to their notice, and in filling up every situation of 
whatever grade in their gift to show them an invariable preference 
over others not possessed of superior qualifications.” 


311. It was observed in the Despatch of 1854 that the requisi- 
tion for lists of meritorious students had failed, but that the object 
in view would be attainable on the establishment of Universities 
“as the acquisition of a degree, and still more the attainment 
of University distinctions will bring highly educated young men 
under the notice of Government.” In directing, therefore, that 


employment of students in public service 


265 

the Resolutions in question should be revised so as practically to 
carry out the object in view, the following Statement was made 
of what that object was 

“What we desire is that, where the other qualifications of the 
candidates for appointments under Government are equal, a ^r- 
son who has received a good education, irrespective of the place 
or manner in which it may have been acquired, should be prefer- 
red to one who has not; and that, even in lower situations, a 
man who can read and write be preferred to one who cannot, if the 
is equally eligible in other respects. 

“76.— We also approve of the institution of examinations, where 
practicable, to be simply a l nd entirely tests of the fitness of Candi- 
dates for the special duties of the various Departments in which 
they are seeking employment, as has been the case in the Bombay 
Presidency. We confidently commit the encouragement of educat- 
ed, in preference to uneducated, men to the different Officers who 
are responsible for their selection; and we cannot interfere by 
any further regulations to fetter their free choice in a matter of 
which they bear the sole responsibility.” 

312. In 1856 the Government of India passed a Resolution the 
primary object of which was to lay down general instructions res- 
pecting the ascertainment by examination of the qualifications of 
such Uncovenanted Officers in the several branches of executive 
administration as are entrusted with independent authority, and 
empowered to exercise the functions of Covenanted Assistants in 
either the Magisterial or Revenue Departments of the Public Ser- 
vice,” but which also expressed a desire in respect of employment 
in the lower grades “that all Officers having in their hands the 
selection of persons for such employment may be guided by the 
general principle of examining Candidates with a view to test their 
general as well as special qualifications, and of giving the pre- 
ference to those who are educated and well-informed over those 
who are not when both are equally well-qualified for the special 
duty required.” 

313. In the Despatch of 1859 the Secretary of State communi- 
cated the following remarks 

It has long been the object of the several Governments to 
raise the qualifications of the Public Servants even in the lowest 
appointments; and, by recent orders no person can, without a 
special report from the appointing Officer, be admitted into the 



267 


266 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

service of Government on a salary exceeding Rupees six per men- 
sem, who is destitute of elementary education; and elaborate 
Rules have been framed, by which a gradually ascending scale of 
scholastic qualification is required in those entering the higher 
ranks of the Service. It may be anticipated that many years will 
elapse before a sufficient number of educated young men are raised 
up in India to supply the various subordinate offices in the Admin- 
istration in the manner contemplated by the new Rules.” 

314. I now proceed to the main object of this Section of the 
Note, viz., to sketch the measures which have been taken in each 
Presidency or Province for giving effect to the above principle, and 
the result which has attended them. 


Bengal 

315. In Bengal the complaint of the Education Department has, 
for many years, been that the orders of Government on this subject 
had become a dead letter. But it will be seen, from the following 
extract from the Bengal Report of 1865-66 that something has 
recently been done towards enforcing the principle enunciated in 
1855-56:- 


“With reference to representations that have been frequently 
made by this Department regarding the employment of uneducated 
persons in the Public Offices in the Mofussil, the Lieutenant Gover- 
nor has issued fresh instructions confirming with some amend- 
j. „ f-o * meats the Resolution* of 30th January 1856, 
for 1855 - 56 . which laid down the principles upon which 

the admission of Candidates for ministerial employments in Mofus- 
sil Offices is to be regulated. 


“The main object of the Resolution was the encouragement of 
education by giving preference to educated Candidates in the dis- 
posal of all public appointments. But the orders of Government 
on this subject having in most districts been forgotten or disregard- 
ed, measures have now been taken to enforce the observance of 
them; for which purpose some Rules of procedure have been passed 
during the year, and circulated to all Heads of Offices. The most 
important feature of these Rules is the check imposed by them on 
the apprentice system which prevails in all Mofussil Offices. By 
the orders of 1856 it was prescribed that no apprentice should be 
admitted into any Office without the express sanction of the Head 
of the Office. It has been further prescribed by the Rules now 
circulated that not more than five apprentices shall be retained in 
any Office, and that apprentices failing to obtain a paid appoint- 
ment within five years shall not be retained in any capacity.” 


EMPLOYMENT OF STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SERVICE 

North-Western Provinces 

316. In the North-Western Provinces also the Education Depart- 
ment has, till recently, loudly complained of the disregard on the 
part of Civil Officers of the Rules of 1856. In August 1864 the 
Government of the North-Western Provinces ordered the submis- 
sion annually by all Heads of Offices of a Statement showings 
among other things, the place of education of all persons appoi** 
ed to Government situations. From these Statements, the follow- 
ing results were made out by the Director 



1864 

1865 


Number 

Number 

Number 

Number 

Departments 

of appoint- 
ments made 

of persons 
educated 

of appoint- 
ments made 

of perons 
educated 


at Govern- 


at Govern- 



ment Schools 


ment 



taken 


Schools 

taken 

Judical . . . j 

14 

2 

12 

1 

’Revenue . . - j 

45 

15 

38 

13 

Public Works 

15 

! 15 

4 

4 

Police 

13 

1 6 

3 

1 

Jail .... 

26 

1 7 

*9 

6 

Education 

29 

1 26 

1 

26 

18 

Total 

142 

71 

102 

1 48 


From this, the Director observes, “it appears that in all Depart- 
ments, “except Public Works and Education, the preference is 
given to privately educated Students.” 


Punjab 

317. In his Report for 1863-64 the Director of Public Instruc- 
tion, while admitting that the relatives of the Native Amlah, who 
had served as apprentices, are almost invariably nominated to fill 
vacancies, did not see his way to recommend more than that all 
such Candidates should be required to show some knowledge in 
history, geography and arithmetic. The Punjab Government, 
however, went further and passed during 1865-66 Rules for the 
examination of Candidates for Tehsildarships, Treasury and other 
Clerkships, Pleaderships, etc.,— due weight being given to success in 
the University Examinations. It is stated, in the Report above 
alluded to, that the subject of an elementary examination of 
Candidates for subordinate Government employ is still under the 
consideration of a Committee. 



268 


SELECTIONS FROTVC EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


Madras 

318. In Madras a scheme of Examination for all appointments 
above the grade of Peon was promulgated in 1858, a copy of the 
Rules and of the correspondence on the subject will be found in 
Appendix F of the Education Report for 1858 59. 

The enormous numbers who came up for examination, some of 
them being quite unfitted for it, gave rise to several modifications. 
A fee of Rupees 3—8 was levied from each Candidate; but it was 
found necessary afterwards to raise it to Rupees five for the general 
test, and to Rupees seven for the special test. The operation of 
the gentral test has further been restricted to situations above 
Rupees 25 per mensem. 

These examinations are termed the “Uncovenanted Civil Ser- 
vice Examinations/' and are under the charge of a Special Com- 
missioner. 


Bombay 

319. In September 1866 the Bombay Government issued a Noti- 
fication which contains the present Rules for regulating the admis- 
sion of Candidates into the lower grades of the Public Service. 
'These Rules are given below:— 

“The following Rules for regulating the admission of Candidates 
into the lower grades of the Public Service are published in super- 
session of those issued in the Government Gazette of the 20th May 
1852, and subsequently. These Rules apply to all appointments 
in the Revenue, Judicial, Political, and other branches of the Ser- 
vice above those of a menial character, and the salary of which 
is Rupees 50 and under. The Rules do not apply to the Execu- 
tive Police, or to persons nominated from the Executive Police to 
other offices in the same Department. Special Rules already 
exist for admission to, and promotion in, the higher grades. 

“1. Hereafter no one will be eligible for employment, except:— 

1st— Matriculated Students of the University, who are admis- 
sible without further examination or certificate. 

2nd .—' The holders of Certificates of Qualification from the 
Educational Department. 


EMPLOYMENT OF STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SERVICE 269 

3rd .— The holders of certificates issued by a Committee held 
in past years under the old Rules. 

“II. The Certificates of Qualification to be given by the Edu- 
cational Department will be of two classes: A 1st Class will certify 

that the Candidate is qualified according to the Standard specified 
in Appendix A, and will be a passport for admission into uglier 
English or Vernacular offices. 

“A 2nd Class Certificate will qualify a Candidate for admission 
into a Vernacular office only, and will certify that he is qualified 
according to the Standard specified in Appendix B. 

“Certificates will be awarded in Government Schools at the time 
of the annual inspection. 1st Class Certificates must be signed by 
Educational Inspectors; 2nd Class Certificates by Deputy or Assist- 
ant Deputy Inspectors. Each 1st Class Certificate must bear the 
holder’s signature in English characters, and each 2nd Class Certi- 
ficate must bear the holder's signature in Vernacular characters. 

“III. Candidates from Schools not under Government inspection 
must, on or before the 1st October in each year, make application 
to the Educational Inspector of the Division, or to the nearest 
Deputy Educational Inspector, according as they wish, for 1st Class 
or 2nd Class Certificates. Arrangements will then be made for 
their examination. 

“IV. The Director of Public Instruction will publish quarterly, 
in the Government Gazette, a List of the Candidates passed under 
the respective Standards. From this List the nominating Officer will 
make his selection; and if it be found that the number of Candi- 
dates passed according to the Standards now prescribed is so small 
as not to allow a field for selection, Government, on report being 
made, will revise the Standards of Examination. 

“V. Every one admitted into the Public Service in the manner 
above described will enter, subject to the condition of passing an 
examination in the special subjects of which a knowledge is requir- 
ed in the Department. 

“VI. The Rules for regulating the Departmental Examinations 
will be sanctioned by Government, from time to time, as may be 
deemed expedient. 

“VII. No one is admissible into the Service under the age of 18; 
and no one, except a matriculated Student of the University, will 



270 SELECTIONS PROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

be eligible for promotion to a place of more than Rupees 30 inr 
the English, or Rupees 20 in the Vernacular Departments, until 
the expiration of three years’ service, unless the place to which he 
is nominated be the lowest paid in the Office.” 

Oude 

320. There is no information as to the existence of any Rule& 
or system for regulating the admission of Candidates for public 
employ in Oude. 

Central Provinces 

321. In 1863 the Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces 
issued orders requiring all Candidates for subordinate public em- 
ploy in which a certain degree of Scholarship was essential, as well 
as all persons holding such situations, to be subjected to certain 
tests by examination before being employed, confirmed in employ* 
or promoted, as the case might be. 

Two classes of certificates were arranged,— the one for passing 
an elementary Examination in reading, writing, and arithmetic; 
and the other for higher acquirements, including the knowledge of 
a second language, and acquaintance with geography, Indian his- 
tory, and arithmetic up to decimal fractions. 

Since the promulgation of the above Rules, no less than 1,1 00 
men have passed. 

Mysore 

322. The following paragraph from the Director’s Report of 
1865-66 shows how matters stand in that Province:— 

“Nearly all the Public Servants have been educated either in 
the Government or Mysore Schools; and, though a formal system 
of Examination has not been established as in Madras, Heads of 
Offices have been requested to give the preference to educated Candi- 
dates. Volunteers in Offices who have not finished their education 
are no longer permitted, and the abolition of the practice has been 
attended with beneficial results to the schools.” 


SECTION X 


W 


English Language in Indian Education 

323. The position of the English Language in relation to the 
various grades of Schools in India is a matter of some importance* 
In the Despatch of 1854 the Home Government intimated an opi- 
nion that, for the conveyance of general education to the great mass 
of the people, the Vernacular must necessarily be used as the medium, 
while, for the conveyance of a high order of education in the science 
and literature of Europe, it was equally necessary that the English 
Language should be the medium . Reference was also made to the 
evil tendency, which had shown itself more especially in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the Presidency Towns, to substitute a study of 
the English Language in place of the acquisition of general know- 
ledge through the Vernacular. 

Bengal 

324. The Committee for the improvement of Schools iri Bengal 
seem to express an opinion in their Report of 1856 that even in the 
Government Zillah Schools some encouragement was given to this 
tendency. Many of the Zillah Schools, professing to afford a high 
order of education, and adopting English as the medium of con- 
veying it, were, nevertheless, believed to be “really inferior Schools,” 
and for these the Committee recommended a lower classification 
and the adoption of the Vernacular as the medium of instruction. 
But the direction in which the tendency was most observable in the 
Committee’s opinion was that of the Grant-in-aid Schools, a large 
class of which were the result of the growing desire for English 
education, and were fitted only to meet the wants of those who 
desired to obtain at a cheap rate, and without the inconvenience of 
absence from home, “as much knowledge of English, and no more, 
as is sufficient for becoming inferior Clerks, Copyists, Salesmen, 
Hawkers, etc.” 

325. The Committee were “unanimously of opinion that the 
tendency of such Schools is to aggravate a very serious evil, viz., 
substitution of a very imperfect and inaccurate knowledge of English 
with a still smaller knowledge of other things for that higher edu- 
cation which, while giving full and accurate information of a prac- 
tical kind, would at the same time strengthen the faculties of the 
mind.” 

125 Dir of Arch — 18 



272 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

326. It was stated some years ago by the Director of Public Ins- 
truction, Bengal, that “to secure for their children a knowledge of 
our tongue is the one object for which, as a rule, the people are 
willing to pay, and for this they will frequently incur an expense 
which would even altogether be disproportioned to their means;” 
and this is doubtless still the case. It is clearly, therefore, necessary 
to watch lest this desire for the acquisition of English should lead 
to the result feared by the Committee. 

. 327. The Director of Public Instruction entered at length into 
the subject in his Report for 1863-64. He there stated that he did 
not entertain any apprehension of the study of English being car- 
ried on at the expense of a sound practical education conveyed 
through the medium of the Vernacular. On the contrary, he thought 
that the introduction of English as a language to be studied had 
exactly the opposite effect, tending to raise the standard of a School 
by introducing the laborious study of the grammar of a non-Vema- 
cular language, and thereby supplying to Indian Schools what the 
study of the Latin Grammar supplies to English Schools, viz., a study 
which trains and disciplines the mind. 

328. But Mr Atkinson admitted that, “in many Anglo-Verna- 
cular Schools, English is far too much employed as the medium of 
instruction, and) this to such an extent as seriously to retard the 
progress of the Students in their acquisition of general knowledge; 
while, as regards quality, the English taught in them is too often 
not only rudimentary, but curiously faulty in idiom and accent.” 
Mr Atkinson thus admitted the main point to which the Commit- 
tee’s observations were directed. But while making this admission, 
he seems, if I understand his remarks rightly, to contend that die 
evils of a too large use of the English Language as a medium of in- 
struction are less than the advantages. The great money value 
attached by the Natives of Bengal to an acquisition of the English 
Language led, he observed, to an easy obtainment of funds, which 
would otherwise be wanting, thus indirectly improving the staff 
and status of the Schools; and, on the whole, he was of opinion 
that the use made of the English Language, “though not free from 
mistakes and disadvantages,” was beneficial, and deserved “encour- 
agement rather than repression.” 

North-Western Provinces 

329 In the North-Western Provinces there were until recently 
but few Schools in which English was taught as a language.-much 
less used as the medium of instruction. 


ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN INDIAN EDUCATION 


27J 


530. The Education Reports of the North-Western Provinces for 
Che last few years contain notices of the rapidly extending desire 
among the people for the acquisition of a knowledge of the English 
language, but as yet apparently it is chiefly taught as a language 
and not made to supersede the Vernacular as a medium of instruc- 
tion. In 1863-64 the Director estimated the number of pupils stu- 
dying English as “ three or four times what it was in 1856/’ and 
stated that Anglo-Vernacular Schools or Classes had been started 
at almost every chief town. In the Report for 1865-66 he records a 
still further development of the desire for the study of English, 
stating that he reckons the number of Students of english in Gov- 
ernment Schools to be about 6,500, and in Aided Schools about 9,229, 
being about half as much again as the estimate of the previous year. 

Punjab 

331. In the Punjab also the study of the English language has 
been of comparatively recent growth, and every year’s Returns show 
Ihow rapidly it is increasing. The following figures give some idea 
-of the increase:— 

Number of Pupils studying 
English at Government 
and Private Schools 


3861-62 4»439 

1862-63 5,834 

3863-64 . . . . . . . . . 8,359 

1864- 65 11,269 

1865- 66 13,181 


332. The increase is almost entirely in Schools of the Higher 
Class. There is nothing in the Punjab Reports to show how far 
Instruction is conveyed through the medium of English , but it is 
probable that the bulk of those ent^d in the Statement above are 
studying English merely as a language. It was distinctly stated by 
the Director, in 1863-64, that the neglect of Vernacular studies, for 
the purpose of learning English, had been “specially prohibited,” 
and that the attention of District and Educational Officers had been 
‘^repeatedly directed to the prevention of this evil.” 

Madras 

333. In Madras the question of the relative position of English 
and the Vernacular in the School system was some years ago made 



274 SELECTIONS flOM BDUCft TIONAL RECORDS 

the subject of full discussion. The discussion is fully reported m 
Appendix A of the Report for 1860-61. The following account of 
it was given in the body of the Report for that year:— 

“The other question had reference to the relations of the English 
and Vernacular languages in our system of instruction. Sir Charles 
Trevelyan was of opinion that of late years an undue preference 
had been given to Vernacular instruction to the prejudice of Eng- 
lish instruction, and that the rule under which in the Lower Classes- 
of the Provincial and Zillah Schools, and throughout the Talook 
Schools ‘geography and such like science is taught from Vernacular 
books, and the explanations are ordered to be given in the Verna- 
cular langauge/ ought to be annulled. Mr Powell, the Acting Direc- 
tor, expressed similar views, and he pronounced an unfavourable' 
opinion on the Talook Schools. He recommended that the number 
of these Schools should be reduced, their designation altered, and 
that those retained should be raised to the standard of Anglo-Verna- 
cular Zillah Schools. Mr Arbuthnot, to whom the entire question 
was referred on his return from England, deprecated any radical 
changes in the existing system. ' He repeated the arguments pre- 
viously urged by him in support of his opinion that the Vernacular 
languages should be largely made use of in Schools of all grades; 
and that in the Talook Schools, and in the Lower Classes of the 
Provincial and Zillah Schools the whole of the substantive instruc- 
tion given should be imparted through their medium. 

* # * ’ # ' # # # 

“He did not overlook the fact that the English language, which 1 
in most Indian Schools takes the place which is occupied by the 
Greek and Latin languages in the Schools and Colleges of Europe, 
being a spoken language, and as the language of the Government 
being largely used in the transaction of business, has practical claims- 
in this country, which can not be asserted in Europe in favor of 
the ancient languages of Greece and Rome; and on this ground, he 
would teach it as a language in all Schools ‘for which it is possible 
to obtain Masters at all competent to teach it;* but he would not 
place it as a barrier against the acquisition of much that is likely 
to prove useful to those who, either from inapitude for mastering 
a difficult foreign language, or from want of time, are unable to* 
obtain that mastery over it which is essential to the acquirement of 
accurate knowledge through its medium, by constituting it the lan- 
guage of instruction in all subjects except the Vernacular language/* 


ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN INDIAN EDUCATION 


275 


354. The following remarks on the subject are taken from the 
Madras Report of 1863-64:— 


“Pam. 315.— The positions formerly occupied by the English lan- 
guage and the Vernacular of the Presidency remain unaltered in the 


The English Languages 
in Indian Education 


Government system of education. In Talook 
Schools and in the Lower Glasses of Zillah 


Schools, English is taught merely as a langu- 
age, substantive knowledge being conveyed through the medium of 
the Vernaculars. It is to be observed that there is an increasing 
demand for English; so that, even in Village Schools, efforts are 
frequently made to introduce the study of that language. This ap- 
petite for English, though in most respects affording ground for 
congratulation, has, in several instances, led to an attempt to con- 
vey substantive instruction through that language, before the pupils 
possessed a sucfficient grasp of it; the result, as may be gathered 
from notices in previous portions of this Report, has always been a 
failure more or less complete. It is evident indeed, without falling 
back upon experience, that the course is most unsound, and cannot 
but be highly injurious to the pupils/* 


Bombay 

335. In. Bombay perhaps, more than anywhere else in India, 
the Government has upheld the principle of giving a thorough prac- 
tical education through the medium of the Vernacular. The Re- 
port of 1859-60 contained the following remark:— 

“The educational system of the Presidency is remarkable for the 
great development of Vernacular compared with Anglo-Vernacular 
and English teaching. English Education has, in fact, been starved 
in the interest of Vernacular Education.’* 

336. In the more recent operations of the Bombay Education De- 
partment, Higher Class Anglo-Vernacular and English Education 
has received its full share of attention, as will be seen from the re- 
marks and statistics submitted in previous Sections of this Note with 
reference to Colleges and Higher as well as Middle Class Schools. 


337. In his Report of 1863-64 the Director made the following 
remarks on the subject:— 

“The increased desire for a knowledge of English manifests itself 
in the constant applications from the people for School Masters 
able to teach English. With this subject special subscriptions are 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


BOOK DEPARTMENTS 


277 


276 


raised by the people; and though no doubt their only object in- 
seeking a knowledge of English for their sons and relatives is to fit 
them for Government and other employ, yet it can hardly be ex- 
pected, in the present state of education, that they should have any 
higher or ulterior object." 


Oude 


538. In Oude about 26 per cent, of the whole number of pupils- 
are entered in the Returns as studying "English.” In a Report sub- 
mitted in 1865, the following principles were indicated as those b;y 
which the study of English was regulated in Anglo-Vernacular 
Schools:— , -ffi 

(I) "That no pupil should begin English till he has made a 
certain degree of progress in learning to read and write 
the Vernacular. 


made to limit instruction in English to the sons of those who are 
able to allow their children to remain at School for the time requisite 
to obtain a grammatical and practical knowledge of the English 
language." 


The following Table shows the increase in the number of pupils 
studying English in the Central Provinces:— 


1863 " — <>4 

1864 — 65 

1865- 66 


Number 

1,207 

1,235 

I ,5 26. 


Mysore 

346. The Director reports on this subject that although a know- 
ledge of English is sought by the upper classes of Native Society 
as a means of qualifying them for Government employment, but, 
at a distance from the large towns, there are comparatively few who 
desire to learn English. 


(2) "That whilst learning English as a language each pupil 
should be grounded in the elements of European know- 
ledge through the medium of Oordoo or Hindee. 

(SV “That only in the Upper Classes should English prepon- 
derate over the Vernacular, and become the medium for 
imparting instruction in science." 

Central Provinces 

839. As respects English Education in the Schools of the Central 
Provinces, the Director made the following remarks in his Report 
of 1863-64:- 

“It is generally admitted that whilst the English language should 
not be the sole or chief medium of instruction given to the Natives 
of India, yet that Western knowledge must be the chief matter of 
instruction. In those Provinces wherever a desire for instruction 
in English has existed, such instruction has been afforded. Verna- 
cular Education, on the other hand, has not been neglected, and 
means have been taken by the introduction into our Vernacular 
Schools of books of general and special knowledge to render that 
education as complete as possible. 

“The Students of English are required to pay a higher fee than 
merely Vernacular Scholars. By this means an attempt has been 


* SECTION XI 

BOOK DEPARTMENTS 

341. The publication, distribution and sale of Educational Books 
form a not unimportant portion of the Educational system. 

Bengal 

342. The following extract from the Bengal Report for 1863-64 
gives an account of the system adopted in that Province:— 

“ School Book and Vernacular Literature Society— There is no 
direct Government Agency in Bengal for the preparation and distri- 
bution of educational books, but the object is effected through the 
instrumentality of the School Book and Vernacular Literature 
Society, an Educational Institution conducted by a Committee of 
gentlemen associated for the purpose of providing and disseminating 
through the country a supply of suitable School books and School 
apparatus, together with wholesome Vernacular publications for 
general reading, as a means of advancing the education of the people. 
The Society receives a grant-in-aid of Rupees 650 a month from 
Government, Rupees 500 being assigned to the School Book Depart- 
ment, and Rupees n$0 to the Department of Vernacular Literature. 
To facilitate the distribution of books and apparatus, numerous 
country agencies are established throughout the Lower Provinces. 
These are chiefly entrusted to Masters in Government Schools and 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


BOOK DEPARTMENTS 


*?8 

the Deputy School Inspectors, who receive a commission of 10 per 
cent, upon all sales. The report of the Society for 1863 shows that 
it employed in that year 63 country agents, and that the proceeds 
of the sales effected by them, after deducting commission and other 
expenses, amounted to Rupees 16,718.” 

343. The following extract from the Report of 1865-66 brings 
the account of these operations up to date:— 

“School Boohs — The last Report of the School Book Society for 
the year ending 31st December 1865 shows a steady increase in the 
demand for books and apparatus. The amounts realized by sale in 
the last three years have been Rupees 42,493 in 1863, Rs. 54,577 in 
1864, and Rupees 64,317 in 1865. The numbers of books issued in 
these years were respectively 139,370 copies, 169,418 copies, and 
184,043 copies. The following abstract shows the languages of the 
books issued in 1864-65.— 


Books 


Copies 


English .... 

Sanscrit .... 

Bengalee .... 

Hindee .... 

Ooriya .... 

Santhali .... 

Cossyah .... 

Arabic .... 

Persian .... 

Oordoo .... 

Anglo-Asiatic 

Total 


1864 

1865 

70,641 

68,525 

M 09 

2,068 

76,582 

83,588 

5,616 

3,890 

5,922 

12,824 

IO 

3 

1,322 

5ii 

21 

29 

136 

7i 

35930 

2,683 

3,829 

95851 


169,418 1845043” 


North-Western Provinces 


344. In the North-Western Provinces, there is a Government 
Curator and Book Depot at Head Quarters. There were also, until 
recently, a regular Book-selling Agency and Book Depots maintained 
throughout the country; but these have been abolished, and the 
sale of books in the interior has been entrusted to the Officers of 
the Department, who are allowed a commission on all sales effected. 


279 


T'he following account of the system is given in the Report for 
1 861-62:— ^ 


“These sales are more directly in the hands of the Deputy Ins- 
pectors, who indent on the Allahabad Depot for such books as may 
be required in their respective districts. A large discount is allow- 
ed by Government for cash purchases, and a commission on sales 
to a certain amount is granted to the Deputy Inspector, it being 
the object of Government to effect quick and ready sales at the 
lowest possible price. Some of the School books issued are marvels 
oi neatness and cheapness, and the successive editions of the more 
necessary treatises are exhausted with great rapidity.” 

345. In 1863-64 the sales of educational books in the North-West- 
ern Provinces, from the Central Depot, amounted to Rupees 50,415. 
In the next year 1864-65 they amounted to Rupees 28,181, and in 
1865-66 to Rupees 27,782. The number of copies of works sold in 
1864-65 was 185,470, and in 1865-66 it was 187,230. The books are 
printed and published on the recommendation of the Education 
Authorities. 


Punjab 

346. The following extract from the Punjab Report for 1863-64 
shows the nature of the arrangement made in that Province for the 
distribution and sale of Educational Works:— 

“The Government Central Book Depot at Lahore has been 
hitherto conducted as a commercial business, for the working of 
which advances up to Rupees 40,000 altogether were authorized, 
but only Rupees 28,500 were actually taken from the Treasury. To 
cover packing, transit, and other charges, first 30 and afterwards 
50 per cent, was added to the cost price to form the selling price. 
The Curator, with a small Establishment at Lahore, is paid from 
Imperial Revenue, and the retail work is carried on by the District 
School Mohurirs, Head Masters of Government Schools, and Libra- 
rians of Government Colleges, with an occasional private agent who 
will give sufficient security. A commission of 10 per cent, is allowed 
on all retail sales. The value of cash and stock in hand at the 
close of April 1864 amounts to Rupees 50,372, calculated at cost 
price. The profits of the Depot, therefore, since its formation in 
1857, have been Rupees 21,872. 

“78. From the beginning of the current year, viz., 1st May 1864, I 
have been directed to adopt another plan. The advances already 
made are to be written off to begin with, and all cash in hand on 



28 q 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

the above date is to be paid into the treasury. Then monthly bills-- 
for stock purchased are to be sent for audit to the Civil Pay Master, 
and the sale proceeds paid monthly into the treasury — disbursements 
and receipts to the above extent being for the future duly pro- 
vided for in the Educational Budget. Provision has also been made 
in the Budget, and sanctioned by the Supreme Government, for 
meeting all packing, transit, and commission charges out of Imperial 
Revenue, in order that all books may henceforward be sold for 
educational purposes at cost price without any enhancement what- 
ever. This will be a great boon to all kinds of Educational Institu- 
tions, and especially to Government and Aided Colleges and Schools- 
of the Zillah grade, where comparatively expensive English book* 
must be purchased by the scholars.” 

347. The following Statement shows the issues of books in the 
Punjab for the last three years:— 



Number of Copies 


Value 



Distributed 
gratuitously 
to Government 
Village 
Sold Schools 

Prizes 

Distributed 
gratuitously 
to Government 
Village 
Sold Schools 

Prizes 




Rs. Rs. 

Rs. 

1863- 64 

1864- 65 

1865- 66 

55,499 2,730 

. 101,168 3,677 

98,854 1,238 

7,032 

5,H4 

8,892 

16,690 2,634 

24,956 i,570 

! 26,225 795 

3,520 

3,H5 

3,775 


Madras 

348. The following extract from the Madras Report of 1863-64' 
shows the nature of the arrangements made in the Presidency for 
the sale and distribution of educational books:— 


“The purchase and circulation of books in connection with the 
Department of Public Instruction are managed in the following 
manner:— A Central Book Depot exists at Madras under an Officer 
styled the Curator of Government Books; and 20 District Book 
Depots are established at the principal stations in the Mofussil in 
the charge of Officers termed District Curators. The Curator of 
Government Books receives a salary of Rupees 200 per mensem, 
and is allowed an Establishment costing Rupees 179 per mensem. 
The District Curators, who are almost all either Masters in Govern- 
ment Schools, Missionaries or Members of Trading Firms, are remu- 
nerated by a commission of 10 per cent, on the sales effected by 
them. 


• • * . *■ 


• ** 


* . 


BOOK DEPARTMENTS 


“The Central Depot is supplied in three ways:-(l) by purchases- 
in England, through Messers Smith, Elder and Company, who de- 
liver the books free of insurance, freight and other charges at Madras 
at a discount of 17| per cent, below the English prices; (2) by pur- 
chases made m India by the Curator of Government Books; and 
(3) by the receipt of works printed either at the Public Instruction 
Press, or at some private Press engaged for the purpose. In every 
case the supply is previously sanctioned by the Director of Public 
Instruction. Books are forwarded to the District Depots on indents- 
transmitted to the Director of Public Instruction through the Ins- 
pectors of the Division. ° 

. * n certa ™ districts, Coimbatore, for example, where an attempt 
is being made to improve the indigenous Schools, Colporteurs are- 
employed to travel about and effect sales of elementary works at 
the several Schools.” 

349. The following Statement shows the number and value of 
educational books sold during the last three years:— 


Number Value 

Sold Rs. 

76,438 33,661 

76,521 29,372 

76,533 31,206 


Bombay 

350. In the Bombay Presidency the Book Department consists of 
a Central Depot at Bombay with principal branches at Ahmedabad 
and Belgaum, and a large number of minor branches (581 in 1863- 
64). The branches are generally held in Government Schools, the 
School Masters acting as Branch Depot-keepers, and getting a sale 
commission. ° 

, 35 L The Bombay Book Department is more than self-support- 

ing. The number and value of books sold or issued for sale from 
the Central Depot for the last two years is given below:— 

Number Value 
Rs. 


1863*64 . 

1864- 65 

1865- 66 


1864- 65 

1865- 66 


F 267,643 

3 , 51,857 


89,479 

M5,7i4 



282 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Oude 

352. The Book Department in Oude was reorganized in 1865 
■on the following basis;— 

(1) — A Central Depot attached to the Director’s Office. 

(2) A Branch Depot in each district under the charge of the 

Head Master of the Zillah School, who receives a commis- 
sion of 10 per cent, on sales. 

(3) — Books, maps, etc., for School use are forwarded from the 

Central Depot only. 

(4) Books are sold to pupils and Managers of Private Schools 

at cost price, all extra expense for packing, freight, etc. 
being charged to Government. 

353. The following figures show the number and value of the 
books issued in the last two years:— 

Supplied Gratis Sold 

For School Prizes 
use 


*864-65 


{ Number 
Value 


732 817 16,294 

Rs. 1,153 Bs. 165 Rs. 2,521 


*865-66 


{ Number 
Value 


„ 3*3 25 ^ 3*077 32,52c 1 

Rs ( 1,423 Rs. 537 Rs. 4,988 


Central Provinces 

354. The following account of the Book Department in the Cen- 
tral Provinces is taken from a Report submitted in 1864:— 

‘There are three Depots in these Provinces. They are establish- 
ed at Nagpore, Raepore, and Jubbulpore. Their operations are 
Commercial as well as Educational. Books are purchased for the 
Depots on which a discount for cash payment at Rupees 20 or 15 
per cent, is allowed. These books are again retailed, and a dis- 
count of only 10 per cent, is granted for cash payment. Thus a 
*mall percentage is allowed to accumulate as profit; and from this 
fund, money that has been advanced for the purchase of books is 
re-paid to the State”. 


BOOK DEPARTMENTS 


355. The number and value of educational books sold in the- 
Central Provinces during the last three years is shown below:- 

Number Value 


1863- 64 

1864- 65 

1865- 66 


Mysore 

356. The following account of the Book Department in Mysore- 
was given in the Report for 1863-64:- Y 

This Department was formerly constituted, as in the Punjab 

°cJJ UaSl f CO T erdaI basis ’ itS workin g capital being advanced by 
nment. But it is now conducted by an annual grant for the 
purpose, the sale proceeds being paid into the local treasuries, anda 

IoThS y A a ? OUnt « CaSh transactions and stock on hand submitted. 
F ,. . Udlt °!; Most of the Vernacular books, and many of the 
^ ghsh ones have been printed at the Mysore Government Press, 
ar inal cases sold at a price to cover the cost of production. 

As a further means of increasing their circulation, it has lately 

caTe" of C f m t0 f ° rm de P ositories in every talook under the 
care of the Amildars, and to allow a discount to all who purchase 

talook” 1 any qUantUy for sale in the towns and villages of each. 

357. Consequent on the measure reported above, the sales increas- 
ed so much that it was found necessary in 1864-65 to appoint a 
Curator. The supply of Vernacular Books is mainly required for 
t e indigenous Schools of the country, numbering about 1,600. 

. tf 3 ! 11 ’, dunng 1865 " 66, the sales were reported to have nearly 
doubled; but no account of sales is given in the Director's Report^ 

British Burmah 

butlffnm^ 6 “ ,T re ^ uIar Book Department in British Burmah. 

Book, ' f ^ ave ,, been made t0 P rovide a su PPly of Vernacular 
Books for the indigenous Schools of the country. Some of these 

books have had to be compiled for the purpose, for which a grant 
was sanctioned by the Government. 



284 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SECTION XII 


Grant-in-aid Rules 

359. There are two distinct sets of Rules for Grants-in-aid, viz.,:— 

(1) — Ordinary Grant-in-aid Rules, i.e the Rules under which in 
each Presidency and Province Grants-in-aid are ordinarily given to 
Private Schools. Of these, there is a diffefent set of Rules for each 
Presidency or Province. 

(2) — Special Grant-in-aid Rules for Schools designed for the ins- 
truction of European and Eurasian children. These are generally 
3cnown as the Rules contained in “Lord Canning's Minute of Octo- 
ber 1860;“ they were approved and confirmed by the Secretary of 
^State in Despatch No. 3, dated the 16th January 1861. 


The former, viz., the ordinary Grant-in-aid Rules tor each Presi- 
dency and Province, will be found in Appendix A. 

The latter will be found in Appendix B. 


360. It will be observed that the Rules for the provinces noted on 
Uengal the margin provide for the grant of fixed allowances 

North-Western to aided Institutions, under conditions which are 

Oude substantially the same* and subject to the same 

British Burmah general limitation of the amount of aid to an 
equivalent of the local income or half the total expenditure. But 
die Bengal Code provides further that, as a general rule. Schools 
educating up to the University Entrance Standard shall get only 
a half equivalent of the local income; and that Schools of an in* 
ferior grade, but costing more than Rupees 30 per mensem, shall get 
3 . two-third equivalent,— the only Schools to which the full equiva- 


lent will ordinarily be given being those costing less than Rupees 
,30 per mensem. The adoption of this scale in Bengal is regarded 
as justified, in respect of the Schools to which it applies, by the 
greater advance which education has made in Bengal than in other 
Provinces, and by the greater willingness of the people of Bengal to 
pay for education than is found as yet to exist generally in other 


parts of the country. 


361. In the Central Provinces the Rules described above, in res- 
,< 3 entra l pect of the North-Western Provinces, Punjab, 

Provinces etc., are substantially adopted, so far as they 

relate to Schools for General Education. Special Rules (Part B) 
are added for Normal Institutions on the principle of paying, not 
ra fixed allowance to the Institution, but a stipend of Rupees four 


GRANT-IN-AID RULES 


per mensem to each StucLeiit signing a declaration of bona-fide 
intention to follow the profession of a School Master and agreeing 
to refund the amount so received if he does not do so; lump pay- 
ments of Rupees 100, Rupees 50, or Rupees 25 being also promised 
to every Student qualified respectively as an Anglo-Vernacular 
Zillah School Teacher, a Town School Teacher, or a Village School 
Teacher. Special Rules (Part C) are also given for regulating 
grants-in-aid to indigenous Village Schools, on the principle of pay- 
ment by results, the Teacher receiving one, two, three, or four annas 
per mensem for pupils passing the prescribed Examinations, (and 
•double those rates for female pupils), subject, of course, to conditions 
in respect of the age of pupils, period for which the allowances may 
*be drawn* etc. 

362. The main feature of the Madras Rules is the “Teacher 

Madras Certificate system;” but it is only a main feature, 

as will be seen from the following brief analysis 

-qf the scheme:— 

l —Pupil Grants 

It is open to Managers of Schools, who desire to obtain grants 
on the results of periodical Examinations of the pupils, to submit 
their Schools to Examination according to the standards in Sche- 
dule A , and to obtain grants according to the rates in Schedule 
M, as follows:— 

European and Eurasian Schools 


Hill Schools in 

Schools the Plains 

Rs. Rs. 

f 1st Standard . 4 per mensem 2 per mensem 

To each pupil passed under < 2nd „ .8 „ 5 

L 3d „ . 12 „ 10 „ 


Native Schools 

, Rs* 

f 1st Standard . 2 per mensem 

To each pupil passed under \ 2nd „ .5 5> 

L 3d „ . 10 „ 

The above provisions are intended primarily for elementary 
'Schools, to which the amount of grant obtainable practically 
limits their application. 



286 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


//.— Teacher Grants 
Certificate Holders 

Male Teachers Female Teachers 

Entitling to such grant' 
not exceeding the 
amount contributed by 
the Manager of the 

1st Grade— B.A, Standard * School as the Director - ist Grade — (Standard as per 

of Public Instruction, Schedule T>.) 

with the sanction of 
Government, may deter- 
mine. 

Rs. 

ittd Grade— rst Arts - 75") Entitling to the grants 
Standard J noted, provided the 

3rd Grade — Matriculation amount of grant shall 
Standard . . 50 > not exceed the amount 

4th Grade — '(Standard as contributed by the 

per Schedule c) . 25 Managers. 

5th Grade- (ditto x . ic J 

Not Holding Certificates 

A Grant not exceeding one-half of the sum contributed by the 
Managers of the Schools will be given in aid of the salary of eacfer 
School Master or School Mistress in regard to whom the Managers 
may satisfy the Director of Public Instruction that the said Teacher 
is fairly qualified to perform the duties entrusted to him or her* 
provided that in such cases the amount of the grant to be given* 
shall bear a due proportion to the amounts sanctioned (as above)^ 
for Teachers holding Certificates. 

III. —Miscellaneous Grants 

Payment of normal and certain other Scholarships. 

Provision of books of reference, maps, etc.; and in some cases; 
of School books. 

Establishment and maintenance of School Libraries and Public 
Libraries. 

Erection, purchase, enlargement, or repair of School buildings. 

Provision of School furniture. 

The above grants are all made under special detailed conditions,, 
but are all subject to the general principle that the amounts shall 
not exceed the sum contributed by the Manager. 

363. The Madras Education Act practically provides another 
system of grants-in-aid for the elementary “Rate Schools" established 
thereunder, for the Government gives an equivalent to all sums 
made available for the establishment of Schools under that Act. 


Rs. 

25 irid Grade — (ditto.) 
10 3rd „ —(ditto.) 


287 


grants-in-aid rules 

364. The Bombay Rules are, as will be observed, provisional, 
the period for which they are to be in force being limited to two 
years from February 1866, being then “subject to revision as 
experience may show to be needed." 

365. The principle of the Bombay Rules is that of “payment 
by results ” i.e., payment at specified rates for pupils passing accord- 
ing to the general Standards. The annual grants obtainable for 

each pupil passing under all the heads of the general Standards 
are as follows:— 


2nd 

Standard 

3rd 

Standard 

4th 

Standard 

5th 

Standard 

6th 

Standard 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

15 

25 

50 

90 

150 

9 

12 

21 

30 

100 

2 

3 

4 




Pupils of — S * 

European and Eurasian Schools ro 
Anglo-Vernacular Schools . 6 

Vernacular Schools . t 


366. The Special Rules for European and Eurasian Schools 
contained in Lord Canning’s Minute of October 1860 provide 
generally for the following grants:- 

(ij.-That to the sum collected from private subscriptions as 
a Building and Foundation Fund, an equal sum be 
added by the Government. 

(2) .— That from the opening of each School it should receive 

a grant-in-aid to the fullest extent allowed by the 
(ordinary) Rules. 

(3) .-That if the School be built where ground is at the 

disposal of Government, the ground be given. 

(4) .-That the Head Master of the School, if a Clergyman, 

e placed on the footing of a Government Chaplain in 
regard to pension. 

in ^ A t fCW remarks on S eneraI points connected with the grant- 
m-aid system may not be out of place. 8 

to hf 8 ' ^ J , anUary 1864 1116 Governm ent allowed Schooling fees 

of the° U C d aS Pan ° f thC 10031 inCOme by Whkh the amount 
the Government grant-in-aid is regulated. This was a very 

important concession. In respect of assignments from Municipal 
125 Dh of Arch — 19 “ 



28 $ SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Revenue or Educational Cesses, the following orders were passed 
in 1865..- 

“The fundamental principle of the educational grant-in-aid 
system being to encourage and stimulate voluntary efforts on the part 
of the people towards the promotion of education, there appears to 
be no reason why popular contributions, in the form of assign- 
ments from Municipal Revenue or Educational Cesses, should not 
be regarded as eligible to such encouragement under the Grant- 
in-aid Rules so long as the contributions in question are really of 
a voluntary character. But, on the other hand, it would seem to 
involve a departure from the principle and intention of the grant- 
in-aid system if grants are made as supplements to funds not volun- 
tarily subscribed, or made available by the people, but compulsorily 
levied. The fact that a certain portion of the Land Revenue, for 
instance, is set apart for local objects does not afford any ground 
for regarding it in the light of a contribution which may be supple- 
mented by a grant under the Educational Grant-in-aid Rules. 

■“It has been decided that the proceeds of cesses realized under 
Resolution No. 2295, dated the Madras Education Act (VI of 1863 ) 
$th April 1863 may be supplemented by grants-in-aid 

from the general revenues, because the assessment under that Act is 
an essentially voluntary one.” 

369. Many of the Municipal assignments in Bombay come under 
this ruling, as well as the voluntary assessment for educational 
purposes made by the landowners in some permanently settled 
districts in the North-Western Provinces. 

370. A considerable amount of correspondence has taken place 
within the last few years respecting the practical working of the 
Grant-in-aid Rules in the several Presidencies and Provinces. 

371. Although objections Jhave been strongly urged in some 
quarters against the Bengal Rules, in the case of Missionary Socie- 
ties undertaking educational operations, the general conclusion 
arrived at by the Government of India, and concurred in by the 
Secretary of State, is that the Bengal Rules are “well-adapted to the 
grants of the country, and do not call at present for any alteration.” 
It may be noted, however, that one objection urged against the 


GRANT-IN-AID RULES 289 

Bengal Code gave rise to a modification of practice, as shown in 
the following extracts from correspondence:— 

Extract from letter from the Government of India to the Govern - 
ment of Bengal , No. 2977, dated 18 th October 1866 

“Para. 2.-In paragraphs 17 and 18 of his letter, Mr. Stuart is 
understood to complain of the objection taken by the Bengal 
Education Department to a re-distribution of the sources from which 
the private income of an Aided School is derived,— his wish being 
apparently that the Managers of a School to which a Government 
grant has been originally assigned, in consideration of a guaranteed 
private income derived in specified proportions from ‘schooling fees’ 
and subscriptions, should be allowed, in the event of the income 
from fees increasing, to withdraw a proportionate amount of the 
subscriptions, provided that the total amount of income guaranteed 
from private sources be maintained. 

“3.— It is not quite clear, from Mr. Atkinson's remarks (Para- 
graphs 51 to 55 of his Note,) how far the above view is conceded. 
Mr. Atkinson says that — ‘When a School receives a grant under the 
revised Rules, the guarantee required is that a certain sum at least 
shall be expended on it from subscriptions and fees together/ adding 
that ‘no fixed payment is guaranteed from subscriptions alone, and 
if the fees are sufficient to make up the specified sum, no subscrip- 
tions need be paid.' But the 52nd paragraph of Mr Atkinson’s 
Memorandum would seem to imply that the application of this 
principle is restricted to ‘new Schools' as distinguished from those 
already in operation,' and that the ‘withdrawal of subscriptions' from 
the latter class of Schools is not allowed. If this is a correct state* 
ment of Mr Atkinson’s meaning, it will apparently follow that, 
wherever ‘subscriptions' have been once paid as part of the private 
income of a School, no subsequent withdrawal of such subscriptions 
can be allowed, however much the fee receipts may increase; al- 
though no objection would, in the first instance, have been raised 
had the private income been composed wholly of fee receipts. If 
this is the rule which is at present in operation in Bengal, the 
Governor General in Council would ask the Lieutenant Governor's 
further consideration of the subject, for it may be doubted whether 
such a restriction is not calculated to interfere with what may be a 
very proper re-distribution of private resources. It is seldom that 
a newly established School, especially if it be a Vernacular School, 
in a part of the country where education has not come to be ap- 
preciated by the people, can produce, in the early part of its exis- 
tence, much income from fees; and there must, of course, therefore 



290 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


GRANT-IN-AID RULES 


at first be a correspondingly large share of subscriptions to make 
up the required amount of private income; but, as the School gains 
footing among the people, the fee income will ordinarily increase, 
and in that case it does not seem to the Governor General in Council 
to be an unreasonable expectation that the increase of fee receipts 
should be allowed to take the place of the subscriptions previously 
given; and such an expectation is certainly not less reasonable if 
the subscriptions form a part of a limited income, the whole of 
which is sought to be expended on the advancement of education, 
and if the object in withdrawing assistance from one School which 
has attained a state in which it is, to a large extent, self-supporting, 
is to afford it to some new School which could not be established, 
or carried through the first period of its existence without such 
aid.” 

Extract from letter from the Government of Bengal to the 
Government of India , No. 1353. dated 6th March 1866 

“Para. 2—1 am to say that, practically, retrospective effect has 
been given to the Rule (allowing of a re-distribution of the sources 
of income of a Grant-in-aid School), and that now the Lieutenant 
Governor has no objection to direct authoritatively that this course 
shall be followed.” 

Extract from letter from the Government of India to the 
Government of Bengal 

“Para. 2.— The Governor General in Council, I am to say, fully 
approves of the intention expressed in your letter dated the 6th 
March, respecting the Rule relating to the re-distribution of the 
sources of income of Schools receiving grants-in-aid, and he trusts 
that the fullest effect will be given to it.” 

372. Objections have also been urged against the Madras Rules, 
but they relate rather to the former than to the present Rules. The 
following extract from a Despatch from the Secretary of State, dated 
9th March 1866, will show the particular points respecting which 
doubts are still felt:— 

“I observe that, in the revised Rules which have been sanctioned 
for the Madras Presidency, the ‘certificate system/ or that by which 
grants are made to certificated Teachers, proportioned in amount to 


291 

the examination which they may pass, is still retained as the ‘leading 
feature’ of the scheme; and as regards Schools generally, therefore, 
the Rules are still open to the objection which was formerly stated 
to them, viz., ‘that they tend to raise to an unnecessarily high scale 
the salaries of the Masters; and, and requiring a large proportion of 
such increased salaries to be paid by the promoters of the school, 
impose on them a charge beyond the necessities of the case/ The 
hardship would be varied, but not diminished, should the Managers 
of the School be unwilling or unable to raise the salary of a Master 
who has successfully passed his examination to an amount equal to 
that of the grant to which his success in the examination would 
entitle him; for, in that case, the Government grant would not be 
paid in full, but be limited to the amount of salary paid by the 
Managers, who would be unable to claim the balance of the grant 
as a contribution towards the general expenses of the school. 

“Among the changes introduced by the new Rules, it is now 
provided— lsf, that a grant on a reduced scale may be given in aid 
of the salary of any Masters or Mistresses of whose qualifications to 
perform their duties in a fairly efficient manner the Director of 
Public Instruction may be satisfied, though they may be unable to 
pass the Certificate Examination; and 2 ndly, that in the case of 
elementary schools, the Managers may have the option of obtaining 
grants according to the results of periodical examinations of the 
pupils. These provisions will materially mitigate the stringency of 
the Rules as they formerly stood; and, though I am not altogether 
satisfied that the Rules even now are not unduly directed to the 
raising of the standard of education in existing schools, while they 
fail to afford sufficient encouragement to the establishment of new 
ones, I shall not urge any further alteration of the Rules in this 
respect till the amendments which have been sanctioned shall have 
had a fair trial.” 

373. The following remarks regarding the working of the Grant- 
in-aid Rules were made by the Madras Government in reviewing 
the Report of 1865-66:— 

“The working of the Grant-in-aid Rules issued in January 1865 
may be regarded as tolerably satisfactory. The number of Aided 
Schools rose during the year under review from 502, with an attend- 
ance of 22,351 pupils, to 876, with an attendance of 27,351 pupils, 
and the amount disbursed in grants-in-aid of the current expenses 
of the Schools (chiefly in aid of the salaries of the Teachers) from 
Rupees 89,802 to Rupees 1,16,876-4-8. These figures, however, 



292 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


include the indigenous Village Schools in the districts of Vizaga- 
patam, Nellore, North Arcot, Coimbatore, and Madura, numbering 
498, with an attendance of 8,493 pupils, which received grants, 
amounting to Rupees 3,777-12, on the ‘payment for results' system, 
which, though similar in principle, is not identical in detail with 
the system provided for in Rule IV of the Grant-in-aid Rules. 
Since the close of the year sanction has been granted for the ex- 
tension of this system to every district in the Presidency, and the 
Director of Public Instruction has been requested so to re-cast the 
Schedules appended to the Grant-in-aid Rules as to make them 
applicable to indigenous Schools. 

“It would appear from the Reports from some of the leading 
Managers of Schools, of which the purport is given in the 70th 
and following paragraphs of thel Director's letter, that the late 
revision of the Grant-in-aid Rules has resulted in effecting a consi- 
dierable improvement in many of the existing Schools, but that it 
has not contributed as much* as might have been expected to the 
establishment of additional Schools. This result is, doubtless, to 
be traced to the comparative inefficiency or inadequacy of the 
agency previously employed, and which induced the Managers of 
Schools to apply such aid as they could obtain from the State to 
strengthening the establishments of Schools already in operation, 
in preference to organizing new Schools. But there is nothing 
in the Rules, as they now stand, which can be said to impose undue 
checks on the extension of education, or to render the grant-in-aid 
system less applicable to elementary Schools than to Schools of a 
more advanced grade. The latter is a point on which considerable 
misconception appears to exist. The only Inspectors who, in the 
Reports now before Government, have expressed any opinions on 
the success, or otherwise, of the grant-in-aid system as now 
administered are Mr Bowers and Mr Marden. The former, 
contrasting its working with that of the Madras Education Act, 
remarks that, ‘as now administered, in connection with Educational 
Certificates', the gran-in-aid system has ‘the advantage of greater 
simplicity, and is proving the more effectual instrument of popular 
education, chiefly through the medium of Middle Class Schools, 
Mr. Bowers states that ‘Teachers who have obtained Certificates 
are fast re-placing those who have not/ and he observes that, 
‘although in individual instances it will sometimes be found that 
an uncertificated Teacher is much superior to certificated Teachers 
of the same grade, in the majority of cases the benefit of the rule 
which exacts some Certificate of Qualifications will be apparent. 
Mr. Marden, while admitting that the present Rules have 


GRANT-IN-AID RULES 293 

'some what stimulated education, does not look ‘for any rapid exten- 
sion of education under the present arrangements/ and advocates the 
abolition of that part of the present system which makes the grants 
dependent on the Certificates held by the Teachers, and the sub- 
stitution for it of a system of payment for results under Rules better 
adapted to the requirements of elementary Native Schools than 
those now in force. The Government see nothing in the Reports 
before them that would justify so radical an alteration of the existing 
Rules. In the discussions which took place regarding the grant-in- 
aid system in 1864, and in which several of the leading Educational 
Authorities in this Presidency took a part there was a considerable 
preponderance of opinion in favor of the maintenance of a 
Certificate system, and against the feasibility of carrying out 
effectively and on an extensive scale the system of payment for 
results. The Government, on full consideration, determined not to 
abandon the Certificate system, but at the same time embodied in 
the Rules a provision which it was hoped would afford to such 
Managers of Schools, as might prefer the ‘payment for results' system, 
the means of obtaining aid in that form. It has lately been brought 
to the notice of Government that the Standards of Examination in 
arithmetic prescribed for Native Schools seeking aid under the 
latter system are too high, and that the scale of grants offered is 
too low. The first objection has been met by a reduction of the 
Standard, and the Director of Public Instruction has been directed 
further to revise the Schedules in such manner as he may deem best 
calculated to promote the successful working of the system. It 
remains to be seen which of the two systems of grants-in-aid will 
be found the more effective, viz., 1st, that of making monthly pay- 
ments in aid of the salaries of Teachers who have afforded evidence 
of their qualifications; or, 2nd , that of making grants on the results 
of periodical Examinations of the pupils; but, in the meantime, it 
is the desire and intention of the Governor in Council that each of 
these two systems shall have a full and fair trial; and he trusts that, 
under their operation, considerable progress will be made in the 
extension, as well as in the improvement, of education in this 
Presidency in the course of the next few years. Much, of course, 
must depend on the exertions of the leading Educational Societies, 
and of private persons interested in the cause, but much may be 
effected by the judicious efforts of the Inspectors of Schools, whose 
duties should embrace, not only the inspection of those Schools 
which are placed under Government inspection, but the promotion 
generally of all such measures as have for their object the improve- 
ment and extension of education in the districts under their charge.” 



GRANT-IN-AID RULES 


295 


^94 selections from Educational records 

374. As respects Bombay, the following extract from Mr. 
Howards Memorandum of June 1865 gives some idea of the history 
of the grant-in-aid system in that Presidency:— 

“In this Presidency of Bombay there has been less done by 
private persons in the way of education, particularly superior 
education, than in some other parts of India. The people prefer 
State Schools where they can get them. A Code of Rules under 
which money might be granted to Private Schools was published in 
January 1856, but the conditions were found to be too severe; and 
I prepared a less exacting draft, which was submitted to the Local 
Government in April 1857. The draft was forwarded to the 
Supreme Government, who in June 1858 recommended in pre- 
lerence the Rules in force in Bengal. These were accordingly 
notified in the Government Gazette of the 8th of July 1858. Not 
a single application for a grant under this Code was registered. 
Doubtless it was notorious that, until lately, the Government had 
no funds wherewith to meet any such application. When, however, 
it seemed likely that fresh funds would be granted to education 
(1862), I took up the subject again and proposed to adopt the 
principle of 'payment by results/ lately introduced by the Educa- 
tional Committee of the Privy Council in England. The Local 
Government assenting, a set of Provisional Revised Rules were issued 
in November 1863. Grants have been made under these Rules: 
but, in deference to a complaint of some Missionary bodies that the 
scale of payments was too low, they did not object to the principle 
of payment by results,— the Government directed a revision of the 
Code, which took place last year. 1 A new Draft Code has been pre- 
pared, but is not yet sanctioned. There has been some misunder- 
standing on this subject, which the simple facts above given should 
remove/' 

375. The following extract from the Bombay Education Report 
for 1865-66 shows the hope entertained by the Director of the 
working of the new Rules:— 

“The year under report shows no change in the number of 
Private Institutions that have actually received aid from Govern- 
ment. But it will remain as a fact in the history of this Depart- 
ment that, in the year 1865-66, as many as 31 Private Institutions, 
for the most part supported by different Missionary bodies, have for 
the first time applied to Government for aid, which will be 
accorded to them during the current year under our Provisional 
Revised Rules for grants-in-aid under the system of payment for 
results. This system, in supersession of former arrangements, was 


introduced by Government at the recommendation of my predecessor 
on the 26th of November 1863. The principle of payment for 
results, on its announcement, was cordially accepted' by the Mis- 
sionary bodies, who considered that it would imply less intrusion 
into the details of their School management on the part of inspecting 
Officers, than any other system of conditions for grants-in-aid that 
could be devised. But they objected to the particular terms 
offered by Mr Howard, which they considered so illiberal as to 
make it not worth while to offer their Schools for inspection under 
the Rules in question. Mr Howard's Standards of Examination 
and Schedules of Payment had been experimentally drawn up, with 
the express view to their being revised after experience of their 
working. While acting for Mr Howard in July 1964, I held a 
conference with the leading Missionaries and Managers of Private 
Schools, after which I submitted a new set of Rules; and these, 
with some slight modifications, received the sanction of Govern- 
ment in February 1866. The present revised Rules (which are 
given in Appendix E, Page 167) are based on a computation of 
what would be necessary to allow any School which was in an 
efficient condition to receive from the State about one-third of its 
expenses on account of secular instruction. A reference to Appendix 
F, in which is given a table of the application for grants-in-aid 
actually received, will afford some anticipation of the working of 
the system. This table shows the amount which would be payable 
if every pupil passed in every head of the Standard under which he 
was presented. As, however, the Examinations will be strict, it 
can scarcely be expected that more than half of this maximum 
amount will actually be obtained by the Institutions in question. 
The total cost of secular instruction in these Institutions is returned 
as Rupees 1,06,296-5-7, and I estimate that they will obtain about 
Rupees 21,792 for the performances of their pupils, that is, little 
more than one-fifth of their total cost on account of secular ins- 
truction. It will always be in the power of School Managers to 
increase the amount of their grants by increasing the efficiency of 
their Schools, but it will require the attainment of great perfection 
to enable a School to get from Government more than one-third of 
its cost. Such is the principle on which the new system is based. 
It is a system which, as I have said, is popular with the Mission- 
aries, as implying the minimum of interference, and it is also 
satisfactory to this Department, as implying the maximum of 
accuracy in the Reports of inspecting Officers. I am as yet only 
able to report on it by anticipation.” 

376. It will be observed that the only Provinces in which the 
system of “payment by results” (copied from the recent English 
125 Dir, of Arch. 



2 9*5 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

system) has yet been introduced are Bombay, where it forms the 
basis of the Grant-in-aid Rules; Madras, where it forms as it were an 
appendage of the Rules, and is intendled primarily for application 
to elementary Schools; and the Central Provinces, where also it is 
introduced as an appendage to the general system, and is intended 
solely for application to indigenous Schools. The results can 
hardly as yet be judged of in respect of Madras and Bombay, as 
is evident from the information already given. As regards the 
Central Provinces, I may repeat here an extract already given in 
Section V, (Lower Class Schools):— 

“These Schools may be divided into three classes:— 

“Itf— Those receiving a regular monthly grant from Govern- 
ment. 

“2nd.— Those receiving grants under the payment by result 
Rules. 

“3rd.— Those receiving casual gifts, in money or books, for the 
Masters or pupils. 

*####** 

“Of the 2nd Class, during the past year 25 Schools have present- 
ed pupils for examination, and a total of Rupees 408-1 has been 
paid,— the largest amount paid to one School was Rupees 47-4. Of 
273 pupils examined, about 20 per cent, failed. The only districts 
in which Teachers have come forward to claim rewards are Saugor, 
Nimar, Nursingpore, and Nagpore. I do not feel satisfied that pro- 
per attention has been paid to this very important branch of our 
educational system, and District Inspectors have not yet thoroughly 
explained the Rules to the Teachers. A number of School Masters 
in the Jubbulpore District, who received grants last year, refused to 
receive them this year; and one of the most intelligent of the class 
informed the Inspector the reason was that the parents of the children 
objected strongly to his taking any aid from Government, they seemed 
to dread it as the insertion of the thin-end of some mysterious wedge. 
When the Rules for regulating these payments by results were draft- 
ed, I thought them sufficiently liberal; but a revision will be neces- 
sary, as they are not so liberal as the Rules in other parts of India, 
which have for many years enjoyed greater educational advantages 
than the Central Provinces. I shall submit shortly a revised Code 
of Rules/' 

377. I will conclude my remarks in this Section with a very brief 
reference to the working of the Special Rules for grants to Schools 
for European and Eurasian children. 


GRANT-IN-AID RULES 297 

378. These Rules have given encouragement to a class of Insti- 
tutions which certainly merited it. There is scarcely a Presidency 
or Province in which one or more such Institutions have not risen 
up under the Rules in question. But the greatest development 
has been in the Punjab, where the number of such Schools (chiefly 
at the Hill Stations) is very considerable. 

There was a misunderstanding at first in some quarters, which 
was set right by the following orders of 26th March 1866:— 

“The Government aid granted to such Institutions is regulated 
by the two following Rules:— 

“ (1)— ‘That to the sum collected from private subscriptions as 
a Building and Foundation Fund , an equal sum be added by the 
Government.' 

“ (2)— ‘That from the opening of each School it should receive 
a grant-in-aid to the fullest extent allowed by the Rules,' viz., (as 
provided for in the Grant-in-aid Rules), a grant not exceeding half 
the expenditure on the School for the period for which the grant 
is given, and also not exceeding the amount made available from 
private sources,— ‘private sources’ being held (under the Resolution 
of January 1864) to include schooling fees.' 

“From the above it is clear that it is only in respect of money 
set apart as a Building or Foundation Fund that the Government 
gives an equivalent without reference to the actual expenditure; and 
that the money entitled to such an equivalent must be, bona fide, 
‘collected from private Subscriptions.' 

“The question raised by the Financial Department is, whether 
‘it was intended to allow an equivalent for tuition fees merely, or 
for the sums realized by the School for boarding expenses also/ 
‘These latter', the Financial Department observes, ‘do not ordinarily 
come within the category of fees.' 

“It is evident, from the explanation already given, that this 
question can refer only to the grant given by Government, in aid 
of the current expenses; and applies alike to the case of all aided 
Boarding Schools, whether established under the special provisions 
of Lord Canning’s Minute or the ordinary Grant-in-aid Rules' for 
the only respect in which Lord Canning's Minute accords special 
grant-in-aid privileges is the offer of a grant as the equivalent of 
money funded for building or endowment purposes, and such money 
must be, bona fide, ‘collected from private subscriptions/ 



298 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

"The question would more appropriately be worded as follows:— 

*' In the case of Boarding Schools receiving a grant-in-aid from 
Government , is it allowable (with reference to the limitation of the 
Government grant to half the total expenditure) to include in the 
Statement of total expenditure sums expended on boarding as dis- 
tinguished from tuition ? 

“On this point the Governor General in Council observes that 
it was never intended that the Government should pay anything 
towards boarding expenses, such as for the food and clothing of 
children; and if, in some instances, a mistake may have been made 
on this point, it has arisen probably from the absence of any ex- 
press order for distinguishing between the two classes of expen- 
diture. 

“The required distinction can probably. His Excellency in 
Council thinks, be made without much difficulty by the observance 
of some general rule, to the effect that, in aided Boarding Schools, 
the salaries and other charges appertaining to the teaching 
Establishment, expenses connected with the purchase of prizes, 
books, maps, and other educational apparatus, and also the house 
rent (w T here a house has not been built or purchased with Govern- 
ment aid) may be regarded as tuition expenses; all other charges 
being regarded as expenses for objects other than tuition. It is 
true that the house rent in such cases is really, to a large extent, 
a charge on account not of tuition, but of lodging: but, on the 
other hand, the above rule might, perhaps, exclude some mis- 
cellaneous items appertaining to tuition. 

“It will probably, in the opinion of the Governor General in 
Council, be better to adopt some such general rule, than to attempt, 
in each case, to scrutinize, in close detail, the exact proportion 
between boarding and tuition charges. But this is a matter which 
His Excellency in Council is willing to leave to Local Goiernments 
to arrange; with the understanding that provision must, in some 
way or another, be made for distinguishing between the two classes 
of expenditure, when that expenditure is calculated for the purpose 
of determining the amount of the aid to be given by the Govern- 
ment. 1 ” 

A. M. MONTEATH 


March. 1867 


EDUCATION IN BRITISH INDIA 

1870-71 



EDUCATION IN BRITISH INDIA 

1870-71* 

Introduction and Statistics of Area and Population 


Jt may tend perhaps to insure a clearer conception of the state 
Introduction of education in the several provinces if I begin 
with the statistics of their area and population. 


Province 



Area 

Sq. Miles 

Population 

Bengal 

. 

. . 

239,591 

40,352,960 

Madras .... 


• 

141,746 

26,539,052 

Bombay and Sind 



142,042 

12,889,106 

North-Western Provinces 



83,785 

30,086,898 

Punjab .... 



102,001 

17,596,752 

Central Provinces 



84,162 

7,985,411 

Oudh .... 



24,060 

11,220,747 

British Burma 



98,881 

2,463,484 

The Berars .... 



16,960 

2,220,074 

Coorg .... 



2,400 

112,952 



Total 

. 935,628 

1 5 !, 467,436 


2. These figures have been taken from the latest data but they 
will probably be considerably modified by the general census now 
in progress. It is believed, for instance, that the real area and popu- 
lation of Bengal are in excess of what has hitherto been accepted. 
And it must be remembered that these figures comprise a very vast 
variety of countries and races, differing most widely from each other 
in nature, character, progress and stages of civilization, and that until 
these differences are fairly understood, only an imperfect conception 
can be formed of the full purport of the educational statistics that 
follow. In any case the magnitude of the scale on which education 
is attempted in India will be obvious to all. 

♦Part II of Mr Howell’s compilation. Education in British India , prior to 1854, 
and in 1870-71. It was printed at the Government Press, Calcutta, 1872. 


301 



Statewisni showing the Income of the Edu cat icnal Departments in 1870-7 


302 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


SECTION I 
Ways and Means 

Such being the work to be done in each province, the next point 
to consider is the ways and! means available to do it. 

The annexed table will show this* 



In this and in the subsequent tables I cannot guarantee the absolute accuracy ot the figures ; 
I can only say they have cost much time and trouble and are accurately compiled from the 
reports. Until the present statistical forms arc revised, perfect accuracy is not attainable. 


(a) Includes endowed Scholarships. 


WAYS AND MEANS 


303 


I offer this table with some diffidence, for although no point 
should be shown more clearly in each report than the income of 
the department during the year, the Bombay report is the only one 
from which the information can be gathered at once and without 
difficulty. 

I think every report should commence with a regular debtor and 
creditor account, in abstract, of income, including balances in hand, 
from all sources, and of expenditure. 

Each of these items of income requires notice. 

(1) Imperial Grant— We have seen that prior to 1854 the local 
authorities received an annual assignment for education in the 
expenditure of which they were practically unfettered. Thus in 
1824 the Committee of Public Instruction in Bengal was vested with 
a discretion over the annual grant, and was only required to sub- 
mit to Government regular accounts of its expenditure. This did 
not apply, however, to new charges for fixed establishments or to 
contingent charges above Rs. 1,000 for which special sanction was 
necessary. Again, in Madras in 1828, the local Government received 
permission to expend Rs. 50,000 annually on its taluk and col- 
lectorate schools. The same principle prevailed in other provinces 
but all this was changed by the budget system of strict centralization 
introduced by Mr. Wilson in 1860-61. From that date all expendi- 
ture required budget sanction and all new expenditure required 
special sanction to be admitted into the budget at all. That the 
budget was for sanctioned expenditure only was from that time the 
maxim of the Financial Department. This system prevailed for 
ten years and its working has thus been described by one* who 
had watched it long and narrowly and was himself a chief agent in 
reforming it:— 

“The existing financial relations between the Government of 
India and the local Governments are most demoralizing to the latter. 
They have found by experience that the Government of India can 
hardly resist clamor, if it is loud enough and persistent enough. The 
distribution of the public income degenerates into something like 
a scramble, in which the most violent has the advantage with very 
little attention to reason. As local economy leads to no local 
advantage, the stimulus to avoid waste is reduced to a minimum. 
So, as no local growth of the income leads to the increase of the 
local means of improvement, the interest in developing the public 

* Colonel Strachey, R. E., See Legislative Council Debate of 10th March 1871 
125 Dir of Arch — 20 



3°4 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

revenues is also brought down to the lowest level. The Govern- 
ment of India has altogether lost what power it once had of super- 
vising details, by reason of the enormous magnitude of the powers 

now to be performed by it, and the financial mechanism is seriously 
out of gear. 7 

“The end to be aimed at by the Government of India should 
e to divest itself of all detailed concern with those items of expendi- 
ture w . ich pertain to branches of the administration, the details of 
which it cannot in fact control.” 

The substantial truth of this description of the evils of the old 
system was confirmed by the resolution* of the Government of India 
that superseded it:— 

“The Governor General in Council is satisfied that it is desirable 
to enlarge the powers and responsibility of the Governments of 

J“ lde f nC ' eS and , P , rovinces in res P e ct to the public expenditure in 
some of the civil departments. 

and hmT ^ SyStCm theSe Gove ™ments have little liberty 

and but few motives for economy in their expenditure; it lies with 

whichTliaTt 1 t0 C ° ntr01 Ae gr ° Wth ° f cha ^ *> nieet 

which it has to raise the revenue. The local Governments are 

deeply interested in the welfare of the people confided to their care 

and not knowing the requirements of other parts of the country or 

- — - 

regard from differem m!iib of riT”' ^ L ° Cal Governmenls 
ture, and, th<= division nt ., CW measures involving expendi- 

conflicts rap ° nS ' bi,it V i'KMned, there occur 

avoid these conflicts, it k“'‘ "V'" P “ bIlC servi “' In order to 
obligation to find the f ex P e ient as far as possible, the 

tnems should “ ZnT T" 7 ™ P rove- 

to devise such measures." UU ° nty wbose immediate duty it is 


3334 * dated 14th December, 1870 


Ways ANb means 


§05 

Accordingly in December 1870 the Government of India agreed 
to make over to the local Governments several departments of the 
administration, including education, with a fixed imperial assign- 
ment to support them. This transfer of power and responsibility 
was accompanied by certain financial restrictions common to all 
departments made over, and also by certain special restrictions 
peculiar to the subject, it being expressly stipulated that the exist- 
ing educational code, as laid down in the despatches* from the 
Secretary of State, and the existing grant-in-aid rules and other 
matters of general principle, were not affected by the resolution. 

This special proviso for the maintenance of the educational code 
should not be lost sight of. 

In pursuance of this policy each local Government has received 
its imperial assignment for education in the current year, the exact 
amount being determined in each case by the grant for the preced- 
ing year, subject to a small rateable deduction spread over all the 
departments transferred. The Government of India in making 
these assignments expressed its confident belief that the measure 
would not only relieve the imperial finances of annually increasing 
and indefinite demands, but would afford opportunities for the 
development of self-government, for strengthening municipal insti- 
tutions and for the association of Natives and Europeans to a 
greater extent than heretofore in the administration of affairs. 

It is strange that the only notice of so important a change of 
system, both financial and administrative, is that contained in the 
annexed extract from the Bombay report: 

“At the end of 1870 an order in Council, now well known as 
the Resolution of December 14th, was issued from the Financial 

Department of the Government of 
The Financial Resolution of India, whereby a fixed grant for 
December 14th, 1870 education (among other services) 

was handed over to be administered, 
with some limitations, at the discretion' of the Bombay Govern- 
ment. The fixed grant was considerably below the sum of public 
money voted to education by the Government of India for 1870-71, 
and it was left to the local Government to effect an equilibrium 
between educational wants and means by retrenchment, re-appropria- 
tion, or an assignment from new provincial taxes. All three 

♦Such as No. 49, dated 19th July 1854 

Such as No, 4, dated 7th April, 1859 

Such as No. 1, dated 23rd January 1864 

Such as No. 5, dated 12th May, 1870 



30 6 SFLECflONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

methods have been applied, and the result is a public grant for 
education in 1871-72 less by about Rs. 9,000 than the public grant 
made by the Government of India for 1 870-7 L But the grant, 
though less than the full grant of 1870-71, is more than the fixed 
grant as reduced by the Government of India before transfer, and 
the Government of Bombay has therefore assigned most of the 
difference from the new provincial revenues. Important improve- 
ments have also been introduced by re-distribution, and the financial 
result of the new arrangements leaves no cause for dissatisfaction. 

“A full description of the improvements effected belongs to the 
Report of 1871-72, but in brief they are these: The salaries of the 
Deputy Inspectors have been improved and divided into four grades, 
and some addition has been made to their number. Four important 
middle class schools have been raised to the rank of high schools, 
2 nd grade, and the ‘feeders’ of the high schools have been strengthen- 
ed- {See Report of 1869-70, pages 74—76). The difficulties which 
might have attended the financial effect of the order having been 
removed by the action of the local Government, I am glad to 
acknowledge the solidity of the administrative advantages foreseen 
by the Government of India. Only a small minority of educational 
salaries being oevr Rs. 250 per mensem, the distribuution of the bulk 
of the grant has passed absolutely under the control of the Gov- 
ernment of Bombay, and the facilities for using it economically 
and efficiently are hereby greatly increased.”— {Paras. 40-41, Report 
1870-71.) 

Thus for the present at all events we may look upon the imperial 
grant to each province as a fixed quantity. 

But although this grant is thus in one sense provincial income 
it should certainly be separately shown from local funds, as it 
obviously differs from all others that do not come into the Imperial 
Exchequer at all. 

(2) Cesses — The next 'item of income is the produce of the 
several local cesses or compulsory land-rates, which vary in different 
provinces in their excess over the regular land revenue demand and 
also vary in the appropriation of their proceeds to education. For 
an account of these rates, of the comparative failure of the volun- 
tary rate in Madras, of the remarkable success of the compulsory rate 
in Bombay, and of the urgent need of a similar basis for elementary 
education for the masses in Madras and Bengal, I must refer to my 
Note of 1866-67. Briefly, and to complete the narrative there given. 


WAYS AND MfeANS 


307 


it may be mentioned that this account was* represented to the 
Governments of Madras and Bengal in 1868 and an urgent ^pea 
was made in behalf of some scheme of education for the masses 
similar to that which had been started so successfully m Bombay. 
To Bengal the Governor General in Council declared that mass 
education had been almost totally neglected, that to provide it was 
one of the highest duties that the Government owed to the country 
and that he would not consent even to discuss the question m fu ure. 
These instructions were fully approved + by the Home ovemm 
In Madras the local Government had long had in contemplation 
a measure of even larger scope than any previously 
elsewhere, and the views of the Government of India on y 
the action already originated; and the Madras Acts HI and IV of 
1871 are the result. But the Bengal Government declared a 
prolonged its opposition to those views. On the 30th April 1869 
jt protested most sCrongly and on various grounds against the 
expediency of any such measure for education at all and expressed 
an earnest hope that the views of the Government of India might 
be re-considered. While, however, declaring the impracticability 
of raising a cess for education, the local Government offered to 
raise a cess for the construction and maintenance of local roads. 
The Government of India accepted the offer of a cess for roads but 
adhering to its views on the main question, referred the whole 
correspondence to the Home Government, by which, notwithstand- 
ing a considerable amount of dissent in Council, it was finally $ 
decided ( 1 ) that the levy of a land-rate for local purposes upon per- 
manent or temporary tenures in Bengal was not barred by law and 
(2) that on many considerations the proposed measure, i.e., for 
extending mass education and for the construction of roads and 

other works of public utility was, 
if carefully carried out, both ex- 
p,Km.fr5eS be N™1«? pedient and politic. The remit 
dated 29 th July 1870 of all this correspondence was the 

enactment of the Bengal Road 
Cess Act (B. C. No. X of 1871) and the Bill now before the local 
Legislative Council to amend and consolidate the law relating to 
municipalities. 

As this Bill is now under discussion, only the briefest outline 
will be given of its scope and this only so far as it affects education. 

*To Bengal, No. 237, dated 25th April, 1868 
To Madras, No. 292, dated 29th May, 1868 
tDespatch No. 22, dated 28th October, 1868 
■^Despatch dated 12th May, 1870 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


WAYS AND MEANS 


309 


308 

It consolidates former municipal enactments and by making Muni- 
cipal Commissioners elective affords a stimulus to local self-govern- 
ment. It provides for three classes of municipalities of which the 
third class will comprise rural townships consisting of not less than 
60 houses and will be administered by the head men (in punchayet) 
of the village or village unions. Municipal Commissioners will 
have the power to adopt one or more of the ordinary forms of 
Indian municipal taxation but in rural townships only one form 
will be admissible. Municipal funds may be devoted to the dif- 
fusion of education, the construction and repair of school-houses, 
the establishment, maintenance and inspection of schools and the 
training of teachers. In rural townships the funds may similarly be 
devoted to the support of the patshalas or indigenous village schools 
but in both cases only after payment of the first charge on the fund 
for rural police. 

Such are the means by which the local Government hopes to’ 
solve the problem of elementary education for the masses of Bengal, 
a problem which was set by the Court of Directors in 1814 and 
1825, which has since been the subject of a periodical and almost 
continuous correspondence of inconceivable bulk, and of which the 
solution, so far as the rural community is concerned, is simply the 
adoption of the measure advocated in the first educational despatch 
addressed to the Governor General in Council of Bengal in 1814- 
the improvement of the indigenous schools.* 

Thus at last by special enactment the claims of the village school 
masters have been formally recognised. But this is merely what 
Lord Moira urged in their behalf in 1815,f whereas the despatch 
of the 12th May 1870 and the correspondence that led to it and still 
more the present estimate of the importance of mass education 
promised a larger measure. 

Two points, however, should be noticed in connection with this 
Bill. The theory of the rapid and spontaneous descent of education 
from the higher classes to the masses, "the filtration theory” as it 
is usually called, which since its enunciation^ by the Committee of 
Public Instruction in 1838 has stood so steadily in the way of 
reform, has been finally overthrown and its failure explained! Mr. 
Bernard, the mover of the Bill, dwells most forcibly on the fact 
that the peasant classes in Bengal are still “timid, ignorant of their 
rights, incapable of defending themselves, and put upon by the 

* See page 6, part I [Not included in the present Selections] 

fSee page 9, Part I [Ditto] 

JPara. 2 6, Report 1838-39 


subordinate servants of Government, by the underlings of the 
zemindars, and indeed by every one with the slightest shadow of 
authority, in a way that almost surpasses belief;” and he urges that 
the only general remedy is the diffusion of some sort of education 
among them. 

Of this conflict of supposed interests the filtration theory had 
never taken account. 

The second point is that the provision of new funds by the 
people themselves* for elementary education obviously does not 
meet the reiterated instructions of the educational code that imperial 
expenditure should be mainly directed to this object. Nor is there 
any reason to suppose that the local Government contemplates the 
evil of throwing a national burden upon a small area. 

The Madras Local Funds Act IV of 1871 has a wider scope than 
either the Bengal Municipal Bill of 1872 or the Bombay Act III of 
1869. Unlike the former, it provides for a cess on lands, the rate 
not to exceed one anna in the rupee, as in Bombay, on the annual 
rent value, and it places education in the category of roads and other 
works of local improvement; and going beyond the latter, it applies 
equally to townships, in which respect it has been made complete 
by the previous Act (III of 1871, the Town Improvement Act). 
The main feature in the Act is that it recognises the all-important 
principle of working through the people in small areas or districts 
and that it constitutes in each a local funds board composed of 
official and non-official residents, similar in character to those con- 
templated in the English Education Act of 1870 and with somewhat 
similar powers and responsbilities. By this agency the Madras 
Government has been able to declare formally its intention that 
there shall be a good village school within 2J miles of every child in 
the Presidency. 

It would be premature to discuss the working of an Act so 
recently passed, but it may be safely said that in no other province 
has local legislation so completely provided for the object in view. 
Hence, therefore, we may confidently hope that in the future 
Madras and Bengal reports the proceeds from local rates will be 
shown as in other provinces to form the nucleus of a fund as the 
basis of imperial action for the education of the masses. 

As regards the other provinces, it will be observed that the cess 
being determined by the imperial land revenue demand will rise 

*t.e. If they do provide funds, but a simply permissive Act has quite failed in 
Bombay, The Bengal Bill, however, empowers the Government to compel Muni- 
cipalities to maintain primary schools. 



3*0 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

in proportion with that demand, so that the fund for mass educa- 
tion will grow with the growing prosperity of the country. And it 
may be mentioned that in the expenditure of this fund the Gov- 
ernment of India has consistently maintained two principles— (1) 
that the fund should be restricted to the benefit of the agricultural 
population by which it is paid, and (2) that it should be restricted 
to the provision of elementary education, there being no warrant 
for a local compulsory and general rate for higher education. 

How far these principles have been observed is not clear. 

(3) Municipal Assignments— It would needlessly prolong this 
Note to attempt to give any adequate account of all that has been 
done in each province on the question of municipal taxation and 
municipal expenditure; but looking to the proportion between the 
urban and agricultural population, to the great urgency of elemen- 
tary education for the former, both on its own account and as the 
only basis of technical education of which the country stands in 
such sore need, and looking to the larger facilities for establishing, 
maintaining and supervising elementary schools in towns than in 
villages, it is strange that no large measure corresponding with the 
cess can as yet show its action in any of the educational reports. On 
this point most of them are silent. The Bombay Director, however, 
maintains with undeniable force that “the absence of a school-rate 
in towns is unfair to the rural cess-payer and that a school-rate 
levied and administered by the State under legal authority is a 
better means of support for primary schools in towns than a high 
rate of fee.” 

As to the details of the existing municipal assignments in Bom- 
bay, Oudh, the Central Provinces and the Berars, the reports say 
nothing. 

It will no doubt be one result of the new scheme of provincial 
services that the educational requirements of towns and the best 
means of meeting them will now occupy the attention of local 
Governments ^s thev have already begun to do in Bengal. 

(4) Fees -As there is hardly any better test of the popularity 
and real condition of a school or college than its fee receipts, it is 
essential that they should be properly audited and shown separately 
in the reports; the proceeds should not be mixed up with fines or 
endowments, or “other local funds” as is occasionally done. As 
shown in the annexed statement there is some little discrepancy in 
the fees charged at the same kind of schools for the same kind of 


WAYS AND MEANS 

education in the different provinces; but this is a point affected by 
so many local considerations that uniformity is not desirable. The 
variation of fees in the same province is owing to schools not being 
properly graded. 

Statement showing the monthly average fee rate in Government and 
Aided Instit utions _ 

I GOVERNMENT / AIPBD 


PROVINCE 


Bombay 


N.W. Provinces. 


Rs. 3 Re. i 
to to 

Rs. i2Rs.io 
Rs. 2 Rs. 3 As* 
to to t° 
Rs.4Ra.i6 R»* 
Rs. 3 Rs. 3 
to to 
Rs. 5 Rs. 5 
As. 8 
to 

Rs. io 
Rs. 2 . . 


Central Provinces . . 


British Burmah . 


As. 2 A. i A. I 2 pie 
to to | to to 
| Rs. 5 Rs. 4 Rs.2j Rs. li 


A. I 3 P« A. l 
to to to 
Rs. 5 Rs. 8 Rs. 15 
3 pie 3 P« 6 pie 
to to to 
Rs. io Rs. 15 Rs. 5 
. . 6 pie 3 pie 

to to 

Rs. 5 A. 8 


Rs-3 As. 2 
to to 
Rs. 8 R»*3 
As. 4 


1^5— Dir. of Arch. 



312 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


The statistics of fee receipts in the larger provinces are so 
remarkable that I annex them in detail. 

Statement showing i the total number of Pupils in Government 
Institutions and the Fees paid therein as compared with 
the total number of Pupils in Aided Institutions and the 
Fees paid by them . 



Government 

pupils 

Fees 

Aided 

School pupils 

Fees 



Rs. 


Rs. 

Bengal 

23,958 

3,83,644 

131,030 

3*58*295 

Madras 

10,811 

96,704 

99*952 

2,46,166 

N. W. Provincess 

19,828* 

36,009 

15,860 

58,659 

Punjab . 

47,254 

14,346 

20,075 

30,458 

Oudh 

23,707 

15,655 

4,066 

11,611 

Central Provinces 

29,068 

14,933 

24,179 

10,884 


The inference from the Bengal and Madras figures is that larger 
fees are paid in Government than in aided institutions; and this 
is probably correct. But the inference from the statistics of the 
other four provinces is exactly the reverse and to an extent which 
is quite unintelligible. 

As the fee receipts in aided schools are (under the rules in force 
in these provinces) eligible for an equivalent imperial grant, it may 
be hoped that these figures are strictly accurate; but I cannot under- 
stand them. It is one advantage of the Bombay system that it is 
open to no ambiguity of this kind. 

In the Berars the fee receipts are so high that it is strange that 
the grant-in-aid system has not been largely developed there. Of 
the total receipts, Rs. 10,926, it may be noted that no less than 
Rs, 6,429 were paid by the 7,602 lower school pupils, whereas in the 
North-West, 82,308 pupils in schools of the same class paid only 
Rs. 512. The contrast merits enquiry. 

Whether pupils in lower class schools, maintained from the cesses 
or locally, should pay any fee seems to depend on the state of educa- 
tion in the district concerned and might be left to the decision of 
the local boards. But some fee, if possible, should be the rule, the 
amount being fixed so as best to ensure regularity of attendance 
without being above the means of those for whom the schools are 
intended.f 

♦Excludes halkabandi pupils. 

tin Bombay the fee is six pies from cess-payers* children and two annas 
Others ; in the North-West no regular fees are paid in halkabandi schools. 


WAVs AND MfcAtoS 


3*3 


On another point, however, some uniform rule seems desirab e, 
and this is that fees should be charged from all pupils alike, irres- 
pective of their being the children of Government servants or of 
their being scholarship-holders. There seems no fair ground to 
exempt the former or to add to the value of the scholarship gain 

by the latter.! 

(5) Subscriptions and Donations.- This item is interesting, as 
showing in the several Provinces the amount of voluntary contribu- 
tions to education from Government officers, eminent Native gentle- 
men and others. 

As regards Bombay, the Director remarks— 

“The first of the new endowments made during the year-a (sub- 
scription by the people of the Kolhapur Territory and *e Southern 
Maratha Country to perpetuate the memory of the late Rajah Raja- 
rama Chattrapati of Kolhapur by founding scholarships for poor 
deserving students attending the Kolhapur High School-commemn 
rates the 8 loss of a prince whose modest and earnest spirit marked him 
promising exemplar of the Indian ruler educated under the 
influence of thf British Government. His untimely death at Florence 
on hls^way home from Europe, whence he was returning deeply 
impressed Y by the strength and grandeur of high civilization, is in 
every way a calamity. 

“Minor donations are an anonymous gift of Rs. 1,000 for a prize 
for the girls’ school at Dharwar, and the endowment of two scholar- 
ships at Ahmednagar by Mr. Nilkant Bhagwant Mu e in memory of 
his wife and son. A donation of Rs. 1,000, made in 1870 by Sir Salar 
Jang for the benefit of the poor Mahomedan boys a«ending G - 
ernment schools in Belgaum, has also not been noticed before. 
(Paras 150-151, Report 1870-71.) 

Of the other items under this heading it may be noted that the 
Oudh return does not include the Talukdars’ subs-ipuon to nded 
and private schools or their annual contribution to the Canmn ^ 
College amounting to Rs. 29,355. This is shewn under private 

expenditure. 

Under this heading the reports usually mention the _names of 
those officers who have rendered valuable aid to educa ^ 
when education takes its proper place as a regular part of a D.stnct 
Oflke^s responsibility— .o carry ou. 

ment is the same kind of instrument m his hand that the Pol 
tThe principle advocated is observed in Bombay but no t in Calcutta, 



it4 selections ERom febiJCAttONAi. Records 

fe^™™»^" epre “ ion o£ ctine - it ”“>■ •* h °p* d •>»' th ' 

accuracy of the figures taken from the reports cannot be guaranteed 

rppSel 7 trUStWOTAy - “> ^ actual ilLffeS of Ss 

“ WOaM be wel < " «* «Po« » Ao» 
f “ d0Wm ““ administered by the educational depart- 
ment m each province and how the trust is fulfilled. P 

peratuitv ^ ead ! nga11 scholarships, given or bequeathed in 

Bengal ,he Ta8orc ' R ^“ aad »•-- -o™.d, 

(7) Miscellaneous — This item hardly calls for remark but the 
components of it should always be shown. 

th expenditure in Aided Schools- Having now gone 

rough the items of income actually administered by the educational 

assr* tut to f private expenditure * « 

footing 10 from ^ thl S Stands on an <^7 different 

tooting from the other items enumerated, and should I think 

w a y s e separately shown and not mixed up with local funds or 
:V nc 7 administered by the 

It is true that under the rules generally i„ force in the Bengal Prel 

oTS Gover 1VatC eXpCndltUre inclu ding fees, is one of the conditions 
of the Government grant and that returns of such expenditure Z 

^Tcemimv fo th^ ^ ** E ^ donaI De P artm «it; but still there 
Iience the Bo^h °“ e ^ ” * h DOt attainable the other and 

e ^ nditur ' qui,e 

•ure on indigenous schools is repLemed io £ kf 2 «0 5 T 
an imperial grant of Rs 48 , „ Ks 448 > 075 against 

calculations fo both cases a^e m Je "" h ^ 7 * P ° SSible that the 
to the same tests. I have theref S3me Way and sub jected 

iKm trom the 

— - 

done in -* »— » - 

which, and on which, ,he funds Ire ex^ndS!”' “ "" ^ by 


SECTION II 


3 li 


Government Agency or the Educational Departments 

The present Educational Departments were established under the 
despatch of 1854 in supersession of the Boards and Councils of which 
some account has been given in the first part of this Note. 

For the selection and duties of the Directors and Inspectors, the 
despatch provides as follows:— 


“In the selection of the heads of the Educational Departments, 
the Inspectors, and other officers, it will be of the greatest import- 
ance to secure the services of persons who are not only best able, 
from their character, position, and acquirements, to carry our sub- 
jects into effect, but who may command the confidence of the natives 
of India. It may perhaps be advisable that the first heads of the 
Educational Department, as well as some of the Inspectors, should 
be members of our Civil Service, as such appointments in the first 
instance would tend to raise the estimation in which these offices will 
be held, and to show the importance we attach to the subject of 
education, and also as amongst them you will probably find the 
persons best qualified for the performance of the duty. But we desire 
that neither these offices, nor any others connected with education, 
shall be considered as necessarily to be filled by members of that 
service to the exclusion of others, Europeans or Natives, who may 
be better fitted for them, and that in any case the scale of their 
remuneration shall be so fixed as publicly to recognise the important 
duties they will have to perform. 


“The duties of the Inspectors were to periodically report upon 
the state of those colleges and schools which are now supported and 
managed by Government, as well as of such as will hereafter be 
brought under Government inspection by the measures that we 
propose to adopt. They will conduct or assist at the examination of 
the scholars at these institutions, and generally, by their advice, aid 
the managers and shool-masters in conducting colleges and schools 
of every description throughout the country. They will necessarily 
be of different classes, and may possess different degrees of acquire- 
ment, according to the higher or lower character of the institutions 
which they will be employed to visit; but we need hardly say that 
even for the proper inspection of the lower schools, and with a view 
to their effectual improvement, the greatest care will be necessary to 
select persons of high character and fitting judgment for such 
employment. A proper staff of clerks and other officers will, more 
over, be required for the Educational Departments. 



31^ SfiLEC+IOks FROM EDUCATIONAL ftjfe o ft ffe 

“Reports of the proceedings of the Inspectors should be made 
periodically, and these, again, should be embodied in the annual 
reports of the heads of the Educational Departments, which should 
be transmitted to us, together with statistical returns (to be drawn 
up in similar forms in all parts of India) and other information of 
a general character relating to education/' 

As regards instruction, the despatch expresses a hope that for all 
classes of schools trained native agency may exclusively be used not 
only on the score of economy but also to give encouragement to that 
class which our educational measures are calculated largely to 
produce. Such a class is to be gradually collected of persons who 
possess an aptness for teaching as well as the requisite standard of 
acquirements and have been trained in normal schools which are to 
be established for this purpose in each Presidency. 

These orders have been generally confirmed by the despatch of 
1859 which, however, enjoined a careful enquiry as to whether the 
charges for supervision bore a fair proportion to the expenditure 
of Government on direct measures of instruction. Reduction was 
not, however, to be rashly decided on. 

“In considering this question, it must be borne in mind that the 
duty of the controlling officers is not merely to superintend the 
institutions directly supported by Government, but that it is the 
business of the Department to exercise a close scrutiny into all 
the agencies in operation throughout the country for the instruction 
of the people, to point out deficiencies wherever they exist; to 
suggest remedies to Government, and bring the advantages of educa- 
tion before the minds of the various classes of the community; to act 
as the channel of communication on the subject between Govern- 
ment and the community at large; and generally to stimulate and 
promote, under the prescribed rules, all measures having for their 
object the secular education of the people. It is evident that a very 
inadequate opinion would be formed of the value of the agency 
responsible for these varied duties, from a mere comparison of its 
cost with that of the existing educational institutions of Govern- 
ment, especially when it is considered that it has been necessary to 
constitute the controlling establishments at once on a complete foot- 
ing, while the establishments for direct instruction are naturally of 
slower growth. After a full consideration of the grounds 
on which the Court of Directors formerly gave their sanc- 
tion, as a temporary arrangement, to the employment of 
Covenanted Civil Servants in the Department of Education, Her 
Majesty’s Government are, on the whole, of opinion that, as a 


GOVERNMENT AGENCY OR THE EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENTS 317 

general rule, all appointments in the Department of Education 
should be filled by individuals unconnected with the service of 
Government, either civil or military. It is not their wish that offi- 
cers now in the Department should be disturbed for the sole pur- 
pose of carrying out this rule, and they are aware that difficulty 
might at present be experienced in finding well-qualified persons, 
unconnected with the regular services, to fill vacant offices in the 
Department. But it is their desire that the rule now prescribed be 
kept steadily in view, and that every encouragement be given to 
persons of education to enter the Educational Service, even in the 
lower grades, by making it known that in the nominations to the 
higher offices in the Department a preference will hereafter be given 
to those who may so enter it, if competent to discharge the duties/' 

These orders have resulted in the following establishments in 
each province:— 


Number of Officers 


I 

2 

3 

4 

5 


Direction 

Inspection 

Instruc ion 

Total 


d 

C3 

<L> 

a 

o 

<D 

> 

s 

V 

a 

o 

o 

> 

c 

<D 

P, 

O 

4> 

_i> 

§ 

<L» 

Ck 

0 

CD 

*§ 


d 

w 

a 

% 

d 

w 

a 

£ 

d 

£ 


rt 

2 

Bengal 

I 


8 

9 s 

52 

1,126 

61 

1,224 

Madras 

I 


7 

49 

39 

282 

47 

331 

Bombay 

I 


5 

35 

23 

1,409 

29 

1,444 

N. W. Provinces . 

I 


7 

78 

31 

696 

39 

774 

Punjab 

I 


7 

3 

24 

142 

32 

145 

Oudh 

I 


i 

11 

4 

144 

6 

1 55 

Central Provinces . 

I 


3 

20 

9 

249 

13 

269 

British Burmah 

I 




4 

20 

5 

20 

Cooi g 



i 


2 

32 

3 

32 

Total 

8 


39 

294 

188 

4,100 

235 

4,394 

The Berais 

I 


2 

6 

2 

388 

5 

394 

Grand Total . 

9 


4* 

300 

190 

4,488 

240 

4,788 



318 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORD 

This abstract may be thus shown in detail as regards the hi gher 

appointments 


Bengal 

Director of Public Instruction 

First Grade 

Inspector of Schools . 
Principal, Presidency College 


Number 


Minimum Maximum Years for 
salary salary reaching 

per men- per men- maximum 
sem sem 


1,500 \ 
1,500 / 


Second Grade 

Inspector of Schools 
Inspector of Schools 
Principal, Dacca College 
Principal, Hooghly College . 
Professor, Presidency College 
Professor, Presidency College 


Inspector 1 

Inspector 

Principal, 

Principal, 

Principal, 

Professor, 

Professor, 

Professor, 

Professor, 


Third Grade 

of Schools . 
of Schools . 
Krishnaghur College 
Berhampore College 
Patna College 
Presidency College 
Presidency College 
Presidency College 
Presidency College 


Fourth Grade 

10 Professors on 500 . 

8 Assistant Professors on 500 
Assistant Professor, Madrassa 
Additional Inspector, Patshalas 

Total 

Grand Total 


Cost per annum 


27*250 37*ooo 

12 12 

3,27,000* 4,44,000 


. Including the officers not within the classified list, and the Medical College 
appointmeirtSjnthe Bengal Cwil list shows 84 educational appointments that cost 
R s « 5,67,900 annually or about 30 per cent, of the net imperial grant. This is ex- 
clusive of salaries in the ordinary schools. 6 1 ms is ex 




320 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


North-Western Provinces 
Directoi of Public Instruction 
Inspector, ist Circle . 
Inspector, 2nd Circle . 
Principal^ Agra College 
Principal; Bareilly College 
Principal, Benares College 
Inspector, 3rd Circle . 
Inspector, Kumaon Circle 
Joint Inspector, 3rd Circle 
Professors, Agra College 
Professors, Bareilly College 
Professors, Benares College 

Total 


Punjab 

Director of Public Instruction 


Present Scale 


Minimum 
Number ! salary 
per men- 
sem 


Inspectors . 


Principal, Lahore College 
Principal, Delhi College 
Inspector . 

Professor, Delhi College 
Professor, Lahore College 

Total 


Central Provinces 
Director of Public Instruction 

Inspectors .... 

Head Master, Saugor High School 
Head Master, Raepore High School 

Total 

Oudh 

Director ..... 
Inspector ..... 
Inspector (Native) 

Total . 

Berars 

Director of Public Instruction 
Inspector ..... 
High School . . . . 

Total 

British Burmah 


14 


Rs. 

2.000 
1,250 

1.000 

r 750 
•< 750 
t 750 

350 
500 
500 
500 
500 
1,000 
1,000 

10,850 

i,5°° 


Maximum! 

salary 
per men- 
sem 


Rs. 

2.250 
1,500 

1.250 
i,oco "] 
1,000 j 
1,000 J 

350 f 
750 ! 
750 J 
750 } 
750 \ 

I,5°° ' 

1.500 J 


/ 1,000 

\ 1,000 

f 750 
750 
750 

500 
500 
500 


I 

1 


7,250 


{ 


1.250 

750 

750 

500 

500 

500 


14.350 


2,000 

1,250 

1,250 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

750 

750 

750 


9 ) 75 ° 


4,250 


1,000 

750 

500 


2,250 


1,250 

750 


2,000 


1,000 


1,500 

1,000 

1,000 

750 

500 

500 


} 

} 

} 


5,250 


1,250 

1,000 

750 


3,000 


1,500 

1,000 


2,500 


L250 


GOVERNMENT AGENCV OR THE EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENTS 3 2 1 


Abstract 


. 

- 


1 

Minimum 

Maximum 




Number 

salary 

salary 




I 

per 

per 

Years for 
reading 
maximum 



1 

mensem 

mensem 




Rs. 

Rs. 



Bengal * 


38 

27,250 

37,00c 



6 

Madras . 


*4 

11.500 

i5,coo 

3 



3 

Bombay 


16 

i 3 j 5CO 

I7>750 

4 

North-Western Provinces . 

0 

M 

10,850 

i4 5 350 


Punjab 

• * 

9 

7 j 2 50 

9;75° 


Central Provinces 

• * 

6 

4,250 

5,250 

5 



q 

2,250 

3,oco 


Oudh • 


D 


Berars . 

• • 

2 

2, COO 

2,500 


British Burmah . 

• * 

I 

I,CCO 

L250 

5 

Total . 

• • 

103 

79.850 

12 

1,05,850 

12 

3 

a 

Cost per annum 

• 


9,58,200 

I 2 , 70 , 20 C 


The toal cost of these establishments, as proportioned to the 
total annual expenditure in each province, may be thus shown in 

detail *— 


Director of Public Instruction 



322 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

atement showing the percentage that direction, inspection , and 
ruction bear respectively to total educational expenditure 


Province 

Total 

Jlducationa 

expenditur 

E XPENDITURE 

ON 

Percentage of 

1 

a 

.2 

0 

<L> 

U 

3 

~ * 

Inspection 

* 

Instruction, including 
all charges not coming 
under columns 3' & 4 

Column 3 on column 2 

Column 4 on column 2 

Column 5 on column 2 j 

' 

2 

3 

4 

5 


Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 



— 

Bengal 

31,98,821 

49,337 

2,63,981 

28,85,503 

i*54 

8-25 

90-2 

Madras 

21 , 47,997 

37,184 

1,34,742 

19,76,071 

1*7 

6-3 

92.0 

Bombay 

24,13,630 

43,778 

1,72,525 

21,97)327 

1*8 

7 *i 4 

91*04 

N. W. Provinces 

19,39,452 

38,440 

1,87,071 

17,13,941 

1 9 

9*6 

88-5 

Punjab 

10,18,640 

36,110 

1,02,342 

8,80,188 

3*5 

10 05 

86*4 

Oudh 

4,37,648 

19^220 

44)749 

3,73,679 

4-4 

10*2 

85*4 

Central Provinces 

5,i3, i39 ; 

20,399 

62,512 

4,30,228 

3-98 

12 * 1 s 

83.84 

British Burmah . 

1,51,786 

16,351 


I )35)435jio- 77 


$9*22 

Berars 

2,78,553 

22,005 

28,047 

2,28,501 j 

7-89 

io-o6 

32*03 

Coorg 

15,033 


1,344 

13,689; 


8 94 < 

?i*o 5 

Total . 1 

, 2 i,i 4 , 699{2 

[ 

1,82,824 

9,97,313:1,08,34,562; 

l ! 



** 


Ihe variation in the ratio of cost is trifling, and 
prescribed in the educational code to test it by. 


no standard 


is 


GOVERNMENT agency OR The EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENTS 323 

The percentages of charge are usually shown as above, but the 
real point is what proportion the charges for graded appointments 
bear to the net imperial grant in each province. This may be thus 


shown:— 


1 

2 i 

3 

4 

5 

Province 

Total 
number 
of gradedap- 
pointinents 

Total 
maximum 
cost per 
annum 

Net 

imperial 

grant 

Percentage 
of column 
3 on 

column 4 

Bengal 

38 

4,44,000 

18.65.985 

00 

m 

rM 

Bombay 

16 

2,13,000 

9.48,038 

22'4 

Madras 

14 

1,80 ,ccc 

10,83,085 

16 1 6 

M. W. Provinces 

M 

1,72,200 

1208,862 

14' 2 

Punjab 

9 

1,17, coo 

6,46,845 

18 • 1 

Oudh 

3 

36,000 

2,15:933 

16 6 

Centra! Provinces 

6 

63 ,000 

2,76.982 

22 *7 

British Burma h 

1 

15)000 

72 984 

20-5 

The Berars 

2 

30,ccc 

2,37.433 

12*6 


103 

12,70,200 

65,56,057 

19 '4 


It may be here noticed that the higher grades of the Bengal 
Service were placed on their present footing in 1864, a measure 
which was not introduced into the other Provinces until 1870, and 
that in revising this scale the object of the Government of India 
was to open two parallel and equally attractive lines of duty to 
Inspectors on the one hand and to Principals and Professors on the 
other, each leading up to the Directorship, should the Local Gov- 
ernment think fit to choose the Director out of the department. 

In colleges the professorial staff has generally been selected by 
the Secretary of State from the English Univeisities, and although 
the Government has thus secured a body of officers of eminent calibre 
and distinctions, there is some little doubt whether the material 
they have to work upon is not, as a rule, disappointing. 

The duties of the Directors and Inspectors are clearly defined in 
the extracts above given. Jndging from the reports it would seem 
that some Directors attach more weight to moving about their 
districts and seeing things for themselves than others; and as regards 
Inspectors, there seems in some Provinces to be a tendency to 



324 SELECTIONS FkOM EDUCATIONAL RECOftftS 

overload them with office work to the detriment of their regular 
duties.* If stationery and printing were departmental charges, and 
the required report on each school were to be restricted to a sheet 
of ordinary paper containing printed questions against which the 
answers have to be written, f office work might be reduced. It 
would certainly be an improvement if the reports of Inspectors were 
worked up in the annual report as contemplated in the code, instead 
of being appended to them. The reports generally would be more 
interesting if they were less departmental— especially in Madras 
and Bengal— and told more of the results of education upon the 
people. In the method and arrangement also of the reports there 
is much discrepancy, as might be expected from the nature of the 
subject. But I would still venture to suggest some principles of 
uniformity which would be of much use for general comparison of 
results. What seems wanted is (1) is a statement of facts in sections, 
in such order as may be approved, each section being separate, and 
appendices only being added when necessary, not in place of, but 
in illustration of the Director's own remarks; (2) that the Director s 
own remarks should conclude each section or statement of facts and 
not be mixed up with them, as it is sometimes hard to distinguish 
fact from opinion. If a uniform series of forms were added in sub- 
stitution of the present very bulky J statements which no Director 
could prepare himself, it would be a great help. Rough sketches 
of the standard plans of school buildings, with the average cost, 
would also be interesting and useful. 

On one point, however, there seems to be a difference of practice 
that calls for notice. In Bombay inspection means examination by 
prescribed standards, with a record of the number of pupils in each 
school that pass or fail. Such a record is a crucial test of the state 
of a school. But this practice is not invariable. In some Provinces 
it would seem from the reports that a few of the pupils are 
examined, and a general opinion so formed is recorded on the state 
of the school. Hence we find such remarks as “good/* “bad,” 
“middling,” “very bad,” etc., remarks which, though no doubt valu- 
able to the local head of the Department, are somewhat indefinite, 
and do not enable the result to be tested by comparison with other 
Provinces. Of course examination is a troublesome and expensive 

♦See, for instance, Mr. Woodrow’s report. Bengal Report, p. 2 54 . 

j*This is the Bombay practice. 

Jin the Bengal Report there are pages of statistics like this : Name of school 
“Jagadel,” grade “in different”, attendance “6” imperial grant “Rs. 240 other 
income “Rs. 30”. It is difficult to conceive a more unsatisfactory explanation of the 
expenditure of public money. 


GOVERNMENT AGENCY OR THE EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENTS 3^5 

process, but there is really no other way of making inspection 
thorough and uniform without it. 

I would also suggest that every educational report should give a 
numerical list of its staff for direction, inspection and instruction, 
with their emoluments, showing the proportion of Europeans to 
Natives in appointments over and under Rs. 250 a month, the limit 
below which a discretion to create new appointments is vested in 
the Local Governments by the provincial services Resolution ol 
December 1870. As yet the Natives form a small element in the 
higher grades, a point upon which I annex an extract from a Reso- 
lution of the Government of India, which will be found in the 
Parliamentary blue book of the 29th July 1870 already referred to * 

“The Governor General in Council desires to record his appre- 
ciation of the ability and devotion which many educational officers 
have shown in the cause, and of the marked success which has 
attended their efforts. But from this very success it is clear that, 
although a very large European element in them was necessary at 
first, the same necessity can no longer exist. Every year has added 
to the supply of Natives available for a course of duty for which 
many of them are naturally, and by good training singularly, wel 
fitted; and to encourage Native talent in the higher educational 
oosts is not only a natural result of our educational system, but a 
duty of Government which His Excellency in Council believes will 
be attended with great social and political advantages. In some 
Provinces it is supposed that a supply of Natives has now been 
trained, fully competent to perform those duties which have hitherto 
been entrusted to the far more expensive agency recruited irom 
English Universities.” 

School Committees 

It is to be regretted that the report give so very little information 
about this part of the Government agency. 

School commitees are, briefly, local boards of which the Civil 
Officers and the Inspectors of Education are the presiding members 
and on which Native gentlemen of position, interested in education, 
are invited to serve. For the general powers and duties of these 
boards, as instanced in Bombay and the North-Western Provinces, 
I must refer to my Note of 1866-67. No agency can be of more 
importance in uniting the Government with the people in the pro- 
motion of education, and it is by such associations of Natives with 
Europeans in the administration of affairs that the Government of 

♦See page 307, 



3^6 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

India in sanctioning the provincial services arrangement trusted to 
“enlist the assistance and sympathy of many classes who have 
hitherto taken little or no part in the work of social and material 
advancement.*" 

The Bengal, Bombay and Madras reports are silent on the sub- 
ject. The North-Western Provinces report simply says that the 
committee have shown zeal and activity and have given valuable 
assistance to the Inspectors. The Punjab Director on the other hand 
says that the 

“local committees of Public Instruction disjday little or no 
activity, though individual members in different localities have 
shown an interest in education. The Inspector hopes that by a 
thorough reorganization a little more life may be infused into 
these committees / 7 

From Oudh the account is fuller. 

Educational committees may be fairly placed amongst the con- 
trolling agencies. When the Department was first formed, educa- 
tional committees were established in every district in Oudh. But 
during the year under review it was thought advisable to bring the 
influence of committees to bear on each individual school. There 
is now, I believe, no Government boys’ school in Oudh that has not 
its working committee. The rules for the guidance of school com- 
mittees are suspended in every school-room, and each member has 
received a copy and a letter of appointment. The sub-committees 
are not all thoroughly at work. But if inspecting officers, on their 
visits of inspection, make personal enquiries regarding the members 
of the committees, and see that some at least have relatives attend- 
ing the school, their influence will be felt. The town school com- 
mittees are not so active as the village committees. In every school 
there is a minute book for the use of the school committee, and 
members are desired either themselves, or through the Head Master 
of the school, to record visits and proceedings. If these expressions 
of their opinion receive due attention, and the members really feel 
that they are not a nonentity, but that their supervision is prized, 
and their advice gladly received, they will, I am humbly of opinion, 
be of considerable service/* 

In the Central Provinces the Director briefly remarks that 
certain committees “have actively interested themselves in the 
responsibilities committed to them by the administration/* 

I venture to think that a complete system of primary schools 
adequate for primary education iq totyns and villages, supervised 


rRiVate Agency Or tHE gRant-iN-aiI) sYsxtAi 

by tested or trained masters, aided and encouraged by the State 
but managed in a great measure by the people themselves through 
such local boards, should be the first and great object of our edu- 
cational policy. Such a system would be congenial with the indi- 
genous institutions of the country and of incalculable benefit to it. 
And if by such agency instruction in morality and those great 
truths that are common to all religions could be introduced* the 
most urgent problem in our educational system might find a 
solution. 

SECTION III - 

Private Agency or the Grant-in-Aid System 

The statistics of area and population, of available ways and 
mfeans, and of the educational departments, lead naturally to the 
necessity of a system of grants-in-aid. 

This is well put in the educational code. 

“When we consider the vast population of British India, and 
the sums which are now expended upon educational efforts, which, 
however successful in themselves, have reached but an insignificant 
number of those who are of a proper age to receive school instruct 
tion, w r e cannot but be impressed with the almost insuperable 
difficulties which would attend such an extension of the present 
system of education by means of colleges and schools entirely sup- 
ported at the cost of Government as might be hoped to supply, 
in any reasonable time, so gigantic a deficiency, and to provide 
adequate means for setting on foot such a system as we have des- 
cribed and desire to see established. 

“Nor is it necessary that we should depend entirely upon the 
direct efforts of Government. We are glad to recognise an in- 
creased desire on the part of the native population, not only in 
the neighbourhood of the great centres of European civilisation, 
but also in remoter districts, for the means of obtaining a better 
education; and we have evidence in many instances of their readi- 
ness to give a practical proof of their anxiety in this respect by com- 
ing forward with liberal pecuniary contributions. Throughout 
all ages, learned Hindoos and Mahomedans have devoted them- 
selves to teaching with little other remuneration than a bare sub- 
sistence; and munificent bequests have not unfrequently been made 
for the permanent endowment of educational institutions, 

“At the same time, in so far as the noble exertion of societies 
of Christians of all denominations to guide the natives of India in 
the way of religious truth, and to instruct uncivilised races, such 
125 — Dir. of Arch 



32® SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATION At, RECORDS 

as (hose found in Assam, in the Cossya, Garrow, and Rajmehal 
ftilis, and in various districts of Central and Southern India (who 
are in the lowest condition of ignorance, and are either wholly 
without a religion, or are the slaves of a degrading and barbarous 
superstition), have been accompanied, in their educational estab- 
lishments, by the diffusion of improved knowledge, they have 
largely contributed to the spread of that education which it Is our 
object to promote. 

“The consideration of the impossibility of Government alone do- 
ing all that must be done in order to provide adequate means for 
the education of the natives of India, and of the ready assistance 
which may be derived from efforts which have hitherto received but 
little encouragement from the State, has led us to the natural con- 
tusion that the most effectual method of providing for the wants 
of India in this respect will be to combine with the agency of the 
Government the aid which may be derived from the exertions and 
liberality of the educated and wealthy natives of India and of other 
benevolent persons. 

“We have, therefore, resolved to adopt in India the system of 
grants-in-aid which has been carried out in this country with very 
great success; and we confidently anticipate, by thus drawing sup- 
port from local resources in addition to contributions from the 
State, a far more rapid progress of education than would follow a 
mere increase of expenditure by the Government; while it possesses 
the additional advantage of fostering a spirit of reliance upon local 
exertions and combination for local purposes which is of itself of 
no mean importance to the well-being of a nation/’ 

In accordance with these views, grant-in-aid rules have been 
framed and published, adopted to the wants of each province, but 
all based on the following considerations, (I) entire abstinence 
from inteiference with the religious instruction conveyed in the 
school assisted; ( 2 ) the requirements of each particular district as 
compared with others; (3) the funds at the disposal of Government; 
(4) adequate local management, local management meaning one or 
more persons, whether private patrons, voluntary subscribers, or 
trustees of endowments, who undertake the general superinten- 
dence of the school and are answerable for its continuance for some 
given time; (5) the consent of the managers that the schools shall be 
subject to Government inspection and to any conditions* which 
may be laid down for the regulation of such grants; and lastly that 
the Government aid be to specific objects and 1 not (except in normal 

*e.$. paymeni of fees. 


private agency or the grant-in- aid system 329 

schools) in the form of simple contributions to the general 

expenses of a school. 

The present rules for each province will be found, in extenso, 
in Appendix A. 

But these are not the only grant-in-aid rules. At the instance 

Minute dated 29 th of the late Bishop Cotton and in behalf 

October i 860 G f the rapidly increasing European and 

Eurasian population especially in large towns and cities, Lord 
Canning prescribed a special set of rules that were afterwards con- 
firmed by the Secretary of State and are still in force. These rules 
will also be found in the Appendix. 

The rules for European and Eurasian schools as laid down ia 
Lord Canning’s minute are more liberal than the ordinary grant-in- 
aid rules. They offer ( 1 ) an equivalent of the amount collected as a 
building and foundation fund and of the local annual contribution; 
(2) the site, if Government property; (3) a pension for the head- 
master if a clergyman. 


The statistics of European and Eurasian schools are annexed:— 



Number of 
Schools 

Number of 
Pupils 

j Total cost 
to 

Government 




Rs. 

Bengal ... . 

17 

i,57<5 

u; 

"4 

\o 

00 

Madras 


3,996 

84,715 

Bombay 

27 

2,295 

35,585 

North-Western Provinces 

13 

554 

27,840 

Punjab 

33 

616 

44,640 

Central Provinces 

5 

5C8 

7 , 8 ®o 

Total 

% 

3 1 6 

8,545 

2,3(5,528 


The schools are not separately noticed in the reports, but it may 
be noted (1) that Lord Canning’s object was to benefit “the floating 
population of Indianized English in our large towns and stations," 
and that he anticipated “the error of constructing a scheme above 
the reach of those whom it is most necessary to benefit.” I believe 
that Lord Canning’s anticipation has been fulfilled, and that the 
schools aided under his minute are largely used by Government 



331 


330 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

employees and others of the middle Anglo-Indian class and not by 
the “profitless unmanageable community, possibly dangerous to the 
State, a reproach to Government and a scandal to the Christian 
name/* which he had in view. This opinion is somewhat confirm- 
ed by the fact of a fund having recently been raised, by the late 
Archdeacon Pratt, to render these schools more accessible to the 
poorer classes; but it is doubtful whether even this fund will reach 
the real objects of the original charity. Enquiry might be made on 
this point and the reports should show fully what is ihe real 
condition of the poorer Anglo-Indian community and what benefits 
it has actually derived from the minute of 1860; (2) as the minute 
has now been for ten )eat$ in operation, its provisions should be 
formalized into regular rules with such modifications as experience 
may suggest. 

The present expenditure under both of these rules is shown in 
the annexed table. 


Statement showing the Statistics of grant-in-aid Expenditure in 

1870-71 


■ f 

I j 

2 

i 

3 

4 

5 

6 

Provinces 

! 

Colleges 

. .....1 

Schools 

Total 
Imper ial 
Grant-in- 
aid expen- 
diture 

Total net 
Imperial 
giant for 
education 

Percentage 

i 

No. 

Grant 

No. 

Grant 



Rs. 


Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 


Bengal 

6 

-L- 

-ib 

o 

o 

3,839 

5,10,407 

5,35,307 

18,65,985 

28-7 

Madras 

7 

9,235 

3,353 

3,26,278 

3,35,513 

10,83,085 

30-9 

Bombay 

2 

6oo 

7i 

45,968 

46,568 

9,48.038 

4 9 

H.W, Provinces 

4 

2 4,033 

316 

1,77,745 

2,01,778 

12,08,862 

16*7 

Punjab . 



55i 

1,48,783 

1,48,783 

6,46,845 

23*0 

Oudh . 

I 

27,173 

j 80 

28,572 

f 

53,307 

2,15,933 

24*3 

Central Provinces 

i 

I- 


434 

1 37,919 

j 

37,919 

2,76,982 

13* 7 

British Burmah 

L 


77 

25,962 

25,962 

72,894 

35'6 

Berars . . , 

: i 


1 

900 

900 

2,37 433 

0 3 

Coorg . 



1 2 

312 

312 

15,033 

2*1 

Total 

20 

85,941 

8,724 

13,02,846 

13,86,349 

65,71,090 

21-8 


PRIVATE AGENCY OR THE GRANT-IN-AID SYSTEM 


To show in detail the work that several missionary societies are 
doing and at what probable cost to themselves and to Government 
a further statement is annexed:— 

Statement of Educational Institutions in British India under the superintendence of 
Missionaries or other Religious Associations and aided by Governmen t 


f 

Name of Missionary Society 

yj ! 

|!| 

Number of 
Pupils 

Estimated 
private ex- 
penditure 
per annum 

Governmen t 
grant per 
annum 

A 0 

Boys 

Girls 

Total 

.1 


I 

ben 

GAL 

| 

Rs. As. P. 

Rs. As P. 

Church Missionary Society 

73 

3,960 

201 

4,i5i 

54,754 9 6i 

23,153 3 

Free Churcn of Scotland 

31 

1,095 

397 

1,492 

41,824 5 1 

16,476 2 10 

or 

Free Church Mission 

18 

528 

80 

608 

1,189 10 0 

883 10 0 

London Missionary Society 

20 

669 

195 

864 

19,149 5 6 

6,565 3 • 9 

Other Christian Societies 

17 

90S 

L924 

2.902 

1,28,855 

51,753 6 6 

Established Church of Scot- 
land General Assembly’s 


86 


86 


4,200 0 0 

Institution 

I 


16,327 0 6 

Society of Jesus 

3 


374 

374 

7,273 9 0 

4,898 0 0 

American Unitarian Mission 

1 


t 37 

37 

636 0 0 

360 0 0 

Romar Catholic Institutions 

5 

97 

54 

151 

14,994 0 0 

4 ,204 0 0 

Society for Propogation on 
Go pel 

52 

1.092 

129 

1,221 

7,383 14 o' 

15*369 2 0 

American Baptist Missionary 
Society 

Baptist Missionary Society 

14 

266 

230 

496 

3,280 0 0 

3*388 80 

42 

1,276 

506 

1,728 

5,006 4 1 

4,065 8 0 

Christian Vernacular Educa- 




1,389 

1,9 6 i3 0 


tion Society 

36 

1,389 


1 1,535 8 9 

Welsh Missionary Society 

56 

1,03 

5i 

1,087 

2,7.2 0 0 

1 3 *4 5 1 0 

Total 

394 

.12,390 

! 5,248 

17,640 

3,05,352 0 2i 

1,40,303 6 ii | 


MADRAS 


Church Missionary Society . 

201 

6,309 

G53I 

7,840 

65,882 

10 

0 

26,997 

10 

6 

Society for Propagatior of 
Gospel . 

1 41 

5,171 

820 

5,99* 

65,750 

6 

0 

36,573 

3 

4 

Free Church of Scotland 
Mission . • 

18 

1,735 

725 

2,460 

40,368 

10 

c 

18,096 

3 

9 

London Missionary Society. 

20 

1,265 

606 

1,871 

20,260 

3 

0 

10,715 

11 

7 

Wesle yan Miss ionary 
Society . 

17 

1,190 

502 

1,692 

27,466 

8 

0 

; 11,100 

9 

8 

German Missionary Society. 

5 

3°9 

99 

408 

3,795 

6 

0 

L539 

10 

3 

Roman Catholic Missionary 
Society . 

39 

2,287 

1,03c 

3,317 

34,862 

8 

0 

15,468 

12 

11 

Other Missionary Societies . 

42 

2,726 

947 

3,673 

87,559 

0 

0 

33,767 

12 

5 

Total 

483 

t n 

1 

0 

1 

i 6,260 

L ! 

27,252 

3,45,945 3 

0 

i, 54,25« 

9 ic 

5 


♦This statement does not include unaided Mission aiy Institutions about which co 


returns are received. 



332 


SELECTIONS FROM EPU CATION AX- RECORDS 


Name cf Missionary Society 

i 

1 

Number of 
schools 

Number 

Pupils 

Boys Girls 

i 

! 

OF 

Total 

Estimated 
private 
expenditure 
per annum 

Government 
grant per 
annum 

1 i 

! 


Rs. As. P. 

Rs. As. P. 


BOMBAY 


Central Division 

Free Church Mission School. 4 

Under the Roman Catholic 
Bishop .... 1 

Society for Propagation of 
Gospel ... 2 

Roman Catholic Bishop and 
Clergy .... 6 

Scottish Orphanage Com- 
mittee ... 1 

General Assembly . . 1 

Free General Assembly . 1 

Diocesan Board of Educa- 
tion . 7 

Society of Jesus . .1 

Church Missionary Society . 4 

Northern Division 

Irish Presbyterian Mission . 14 

North-East Division 

Chureh Missionary Society . 5 

Southern Division 

Cantonment Chaplain, 
Belgaum . • . 1 

Roman Catholic Chaplain, 
Belgaum . .1 

Sind 

Church Missionary Society . 2 

Total . . .51 



PRIVATE AGENC* OR THE GRANT-IN-AID SYSTEM 


333 

ti-i 

® w Number of Pupils Estimated Government 

Name of Missionary Society &•§ . private grant per 

g o expenditure annum 

P % Boys Girls Total per annum 
Z 

Rs. As. P. Rs. As. P. 


north-western provinces 

Church Missionary Society . 39 4,319 755 5 >°74 72,74° 12 049,281 0 o 

Society for Propagation of 

Gospel . . 7 909 9°9 135686 2 o 13,320 o o 

London Missionary Society 6 1,295 185 1,480 I3534 2 1 6 11,193 *4 ° 

Ladies’ Association . . 3 . . 174 174 7 A 7 & 7 0 6,360 o o 

American Presbyterian Mis- 
sionary Society . . 12 765 422 1,187 27,251 10 o 11,020 o o 

American Methodist Episcopal 

Missionary Society . 30 2,196 618 2,814 39>353 8 0 24,024 o o 

Roman Catholic Missionary 

Society .... 3 268 148 406 11,761 13 o 7,080 0 0 

Diocesan Board of Education 1 123 . . 123 4,600 4 o 6,ooo .00 

Baptist Mission . . 1 Information not given. 162 o o 

Total . 102 9,875 2,292 12,167 1590,212 9 o 1,28*440 14 o 


PUNJAB 


Society for Propagation of 











Gospel 

11 

532 

252 

784 

I 4 > 39 ° 

4 

0 

9549 ° 

0 

O 

American Presbyterian Mis- 











sion .... 

46 

3,868 

206 

45074 

3°5337 

0 

0 

21,704 

3 

9 

Church Mission 

53 

2,036 

54 ° 

2,576 

27,188 

10 

0 

20,031 

9 

0 

Church of Scotland Mission 

6 

433 

32 

465 

55151 

15 

0 

2,880 

0 

0 

Christian Vernacular Educa- 




1 







tion Society . 

1 

28 


28 

35243 

0 

0 

1,800 

0 

O 

Moravian Mission 

1 

20 


20 I 




300 

0 

0 

Total 

118 

6,917 

I 5 O 30 

75947 

80,310 

13 

0 

60,205 

12 

9 


OUDH 


American Missionary Society 

17 ; 

629 

j 174 

803 

8,302 0 0 

7,056 0 0 

Church Missionary Society . 

10 

603 

! 90 

693 

6,453 0 0 

4,252 12 0 

Zenana Mission 

1 


52 

52 

1,800 0 0 

360 0 0 

Total 

28 

1,232 

j 316 

1.548 

16,555 0 0 

i 

m ,668 12 0 


CENTRAL provinces 


Church Missionary Society . 

2 

284 

, , 

284 

45379 15 0 

' 3,600 O 0 

Free Church Mission 

4 

479 


479 

6,094 0 0 

5,600 O O 

Roman Catholic Mission 

3 

283 

144 

427 

4,216 6 0 

2,880 O O 

Bishop’s School 

1 

53 

28 

81 

3,700 4 0 

2,040 0 0 

Total 

10 

1,099 

172 

1,271 

i 

18,390 9 © 

14,120 0 0 



334 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


Name of Missionary Society 

Number of 
schools 

f Number of Pupils 

Estimated 
private 
expenditure 
per annum 

f 

Government 
grant per 
annum 

Boys | 

1 

Girls 

Total 

i 

1 




Rs. As. P. 

Rs. As. P. 


BRITISH BURMAH 


Society for Propagation of | 

t 8 

626 

115 

74i 

Information 

7.415 0 0 

Gospel 

Roman Catholic Mission 

7 

508 

317 

825 

not given in 
statement 
from British 

8,900 0 0 

American Baptist Mission . 

131 

3/43 

127 

3.770 

Burmah. 

13,414 0 0 

Total 

146 | 

4.777 

559 

5)336 


29,729 0 0 


THE BERARS 

Christian School at Yeotmahall i I 18 I . . ! 18 i 900 o o I 900 o o 


MYSORE AND COORG 


Roman Catholic Mission 

12 

769 

423 

1,192 

7,750 9 0 

5,760 0 0 

Wesleyan Mission 

11 

683 

489 

I3I72 

15,152 4 0 

6,576 0 0 

London Mission 

10 

334 

561 

895 

18,109 12 0 

2,880 0 0 

Church of England 

7 

249 

181 

430 

21,247 10 0 

8,340 0 0 

Church of Scotland ■ 

1 

67 


67 

4,721 10 0 

2,400 0 0 

German Mission 

1 

36 


36 

687 0 0 

72 0 0 

Total 

42 

2,138 

1,654 

3.792 

67,668 13 0 

i 

26,028 0 0 


Abstract Statement showing the total expenditure throughout British India in 1870-71, 
on aided Educational Institutions under the superintendence of Missionaries or other 
Religious Associations 



Number 

Number of Pupils 

Estimated 

private 

Govern- 

ment 

Province 

of 

Schools 

Boys 

Girls 

Total 

expenditure 
per annum 

grant per 
annum 

I. Bengal 

394 

12,392 

5,248 

17,640 

Rs. 

3 . 05.352 

Rs. 

1.40,303 

2. Madras 

4S3 

20,992 

6 3 26 o 

27,252 

3 . 45.945 

1 . 54.259 

3. Bombay 

5 i 

4.523 

808 

5.331 

1 . 39.544 

35,789 

4. North-Western Pro- 
vinces 

102 

9)875 

2,292 

12,167 

1,90,212 

1,28,440 

5. Punjab 

118 

6,917 

1.030 

7.947 

80,310 

60,205 

6. Oudh 

28 

1,232 

316 

1.548 

16,555 

11,668 

7. Central Provinces 

10 

1,099 

172 

1,271 

18,390 

14,120 

8. British Burmah 

146 

■ 4,777 

559 

5.336 


1 29,729 

9. The Berars 

1 

18 


18 

900 

900 

10. Mysore and Eoorg 

42 

2,138 

1,654 

3.792 

67,668 

26,028 

Grand Total . 

1.375 

63,963 j 

13,339 

82,302 

11,64,879 

6,02,445 

i 


Such, then, are the rules and such the results. 


PRIVATE AGENCY OR THE GRANT-IN-AID SYSTEM 335 

As to the way in which the several rules are worked, I must refer 
to the Note for 1865-66, but briefly it may be said that in the Bengal 
Presidency the grant is as a rule measured by the local contribution. 
In Bengal proper the grant to colleges may not exceed one-third of 
the private income which in all cases includes fees; the grant to hig 
schools may not exceed one-half; to middle class schools, in which the 
expenditure is more than Rs. 30 monthly, it may not exceed two- 
thirds of the private income; in no case may it exceed the private 
income. In the other provinces of the Bengal Presidency the grant 
to any kind of school must not exceed the local income and!, as in 
Bengal Proper, its continuance is subject to satisfactory results of 
regular inspection. 

In the Central Provinces, British Burmah and the Berars the 
payment by results system has also been applied to the lower class 
schools. 

In Bombay the large majority of the schools receive aid on the 
results system only, according to fixed standards and fixed scales of 
payment. 

In Madras, lower class schools may be aided on the results system, 
while higher schools receive teacher grants, teachers being divided 
into (1) certificate holders, who have passed a prescribed standard 
of examination and are eligible for a grant not exceeding the private 
income paid to them by the managers of the schools; and (2) not 
holding certificates;— these teachers are eligible for a grant not ex* 
ceeding half the managers' contribution. 

In all provinces special and building grants are made, subject as 
a rule to the condition that the Government grant must not exceed 
as a maximum the local contribution. 

Such, briefly, is the grant-in-aid system in India, and of it may 
almost be said, “ab exiguis profecta initiis, eo creverit ut jam magni- 
tudine laboret sua.” While no one will regret its growth, all will 
admit that the system should be watched and directed lest instead of 
being a grant for education it may become a grant to maintain the 
so-called vested interests of those engaged in education. 

How to make grants go furthest and best in the promotion of 
education in India is a difficult question, more especially when all 
kinds of education are to be encouraged and there are so many 
different stages of civilization, often in a small area, to deal with. 
The question has been discussed in files of vast bulk, but generally 

125 Dir. of Arch. — 22 



PRIVATE AGENCY OR THE GRANT-IN-AID SYSTEM 


337 


336 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

the discussion has, I think, been confined to too narrow limits, for 
it cannot be separated from the question of Government educational 
institutions or from the general principle on which the action of the 
State in establishing them is based and guided. To maintain schools 
for higher education is not, like mass education, a necessaiy State 
duty, and the State undertakes it knowing that most things are 
worse done by Government than they would be by individuals for 
themselves, as no advantage compensates for the inferior interest in 
the result* and as every fresh function is another occupation imposed 
upon a body already overcharged. Even mass education is only an 
exception to this rule, because the people who are most in need of 
it are usually the least desirous of it, and most incapable of getting 
it by their own lights. Therefore, in the matter of education, the 
Government goes further than in other things, and especially so 
when there is a wide distinction between the governors and the 
governed or any section of them. Still the Government wishes to 
avoid monopolizing the provision, but restricts itself, as far as prac- 
ticable, to aiding local effort in such a way that the aid shall not in- 
crease or perpetuate the helplessness of the people, but shall encou- 
rage and foster any rudiment of individual exertion or public 
spirit. 

Upon this principle the Government in India founds its own 
educational institutions or aids private ones, the latter measure being 
more within its proper province than the former. And so far as this 
principle is concerned, there is no difference between Government 
and private institutions. In the one case the Government takes the 
fee receipts as a set-off against its own outlay, in the other it accepts 
the private outlay; in both cases the net cost to Government of the 
pupil’s education is smaller than the gross cost, and as a rule smaller 
in the aided than in the Government institutions. Hence both 
classes of institutions must be considered together in coming to any 
decision upon the grant-in-aid system. 

But although in one sense Government and aided institutions 
are on the same footing, practically they are opposed to each other. 
They are rivals competing with each other, and the Government in 
maintaining both together is bidding against itself and is checking 
with one hand what it promotes with the other. The great obstacle 
to the grant-in-aid institutions, in Bengal at all events, is the rivalry 
of the Government institutions which carry off the best pupils be- 
cause of the prestige attaching to a more expensive staff, and though 
their fees are higher, the higher fee is readily paid for an article 
more in demand. How, for instance, can the six aided colleges in 


Bengal be expected to prosper by the side of the Government col- 
leges which attract all the best students? And it is the same with 
the schools. 

But the aided institutions, colleges and schools, are for the most 
part managed by missionaries, and it may be urged that it is unjust 
to the people of Bengal to drive them into the hands of the missio- 
naries who look upon education as a means to conversion. The ob- 
jection implies the proposition that the real demand for high edu- 
cation which the present state of civilization in Bengal ensures will 
not create a supply, and that after enjoying it for so many years, 
the Natives, if left to themselves, would not even, when aided by 
the State, attempt to supply this demand. If it be doubtful whether 
such an attempt would be made if the Government were gradually 
to withdraw from direct competition, it is hardly doubtful that so 
long as Government maintains such competition no attempt will be 
made; for it would certainly fail. It would seem, therefore, that 
the present system does not encourage and foster public spirit or 
individual exertion but perpetuates and increases the helplessness of 
the people. If the Hindu community could found and maintain an 
Anglo-Indian college for themselves in 1815 to supply an abvious 
want then, are we to suppose that if there were no other means of 
supplying this want, they would be unable to do so in 1872, when 
the want is so much more obvious? I think it would be an injustice 
to the Bengal community to suppose that the wealth and ability 
that assembled in the Town Hall of Calcutta on the And July 187C 
to discuss this very subject could not do far more ably and sucess- 
fully what their grand-fathers did before them 57 years ago. 

The obvious inference is that if the Government wishes to rest- 
rict itself to its more proper province and to promote higher educa- 
tion by the grant-in-aid system, it must retire from direct competi- 
tion with it. 

This measure was distinctly contemplated in the despatch of 
1854, but it has not as yet, I think, been anywhere acted upon. 

“We look forward to the time when any general system of educa- 
tion entirely provided by Government may be discontinued, with 
the gradual advance of the system of grants-in-aid, and when many 
of the existing Government institutions, especially those of the high- 
er order, may be safely closed, or transferred to the management of 
local bodies under control of, and aided by, the State. But it is far 
from our wish to check the spread of education in the slightest degree 
by the abandonment of a single school to probable decay; and we, 
therefore, entirely confide in your discretion, and in that of the 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


PRIVATE AGENCY OR THE GRANT-IN-AID SYSTEM 


339 


338 

different local authorities, while keeping this object steadily in view, 
to act with caution, and to be guided by special reference to the 
particular circumstances which affect the demand for education in 
different parts of India/* 

The next point is how should the aid be dispensed. 

The requirements of a perfect grant-in-aid system seem to be (1) 
that while it encourages initiatory effort there be no extravagance,— 
the State must get fair return in education for its outlay in money, 
the return, of course, being cheaper to the State than it would cost 
the State itself to produce; (2) the value of the return must be as- 
certainable by a simple, uniform and unerring test; and (3) the in- 
terest of the State must be made identical with that of the recipient 
of the grant. 

Whether these conditions are fulfilled generally in the Bengal 
Presidency is not clear,* but there is some doubt about them in 
Bengal Proper where the growth of the system is most marked. 

In 1860-61, the whole number of institutions in Bengal Proper 
receiving grants-in-aid was 289 and the annual aggregate grant to 
them Rs. 97,764. In the year under review, the institutions were 
3,845 and the grants Rs. 5,35,307. The Director himself considers 
that the existing rules secure efficient management, and that careful 
administration is all that is needed to prevent abuses, in which view 
he is supported by some of his subordinates. 

Of the Inspectors, however, one approves of the existing rules 
if but slight alterations were made/* Another declares “the system 
good for comparatively large schools having intelligent men placed 
over them as managers/* but “not adapted with all its technicalities 
to deal with small village schools.*' A third quotes the statements 
of his Deputy Inspectors, some of whom uphold the present system 
while others pronounce it radically wrong and wholly unadapted to 
the requirements of the people; one of the latter observes that “any 
one who has had anything to do with the aided schools may justly 
remark that the grant-in-aid system does not suit, this country; that 
it leads to fraud in payment which no amount of vigilance on the 
part of the Inspecting Agency can suppress and that it saps the 
foundation of morals/* A fourth Inspector strongly condemns the 
system. He declares his total want of confidence in the accuracy of 
the accounts kept by schools. 

*In the North-West and Punjab I notice that the same grants seem to be given 
year after year, and that the schools accept them as a permanent source of income. 
Th’s, I think, is inconsistent with the progressive principle of the grant-in-aid 

system. 


“This is a matter of opinion on which I know other experienced 
officers do not hold the same opinion that I do, but I have, from my 
first day in an Inspector of School's Office, considered It a grave 
defect in our grant-in-aid system that under it this suspicion can 
never possibly be cleared. The maintenance of a system of account 
so strongly suspected not to be genuine has a very prejudicial effect 
on the school-masters, on the educational officers, and on the boys 
themselves." 

The inference seems to be that in the Bengal system there is no 
absolute guarantee against extravagance, as payments are not by 
results; no simple, uniform and unerring test of the local equiva- 
lent, for the main condition is local expenditure which leads to com- 
plication and possible fraud; and that whereas the interest of the 
Government is to get the best result for the money, the interest of 
the manager is to get the largest grant he can. 

But it does not therefore follow that the Bombay system of pay- 
ment by results should be introduced. The Bombay system, though 
admirable for primary schools, is adapted only to a very low stage 
of progress in higher education; it does not encourage initiatory 
effort to which it offers only a distant and uncertain payment; and 
it is impossible that it should be long maintained in Bombay. The 
only permanent and legitimate payment by results, in an advanced 
society, for high education, is the demand for educated men. If 
introduced into Bengal, the Bombay system would result in many 
schools that are now unaided by Government getting large and 
unnecessary grants, while other schools, deserving but badly situated, 
would be starved out. 

I venture to think that the system best adapted for an advanced 
stage of progress like Bengal, for all schools above primary schools, 
would be a compound between the Madras and Bombay systems, 
taking the good points in both. It might be worked thus: (1) all 
existing grants might be commuted after due notice for results 
grants, the results being tested by examination in prescribed) stand- 
ards as in Bombay, and the payments calculated so as to approxi- 
mate roughly and at first to the present payment; (2) new grants to 
schools not yet existing should be offered on the Madras system, i.e., 
the master, if a certificated man, should get a certain salary calculated 
according to his certificate, but not according to the local payment, 
if he has no certificate either from a University or from a normal 
school, he should only get half this sum, and then only on positive 
evidence of competency to keep the kind of school he intends to 
open; this grant would of course be conditional on satisfactory re- 
sults of inspection as now; (3) after 5 years, such salary grants 



340 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

should be commuted to results grants on the system proposed for 
application to existing grants; (4) after 5 years on the results grants 
system, the Government payment might be reduced by 50 per cent; 

(5) lastly, after 5 years on the reduced scale, the Government pay- 
ment should cease altogether, as by that time, if the master is a com- 
petent man and there is a real demand for the kind of education 
given, the school ought to be self-supporting. 

The advantage of this system would be that Government would 
ensure a proper return for its money; schools if effective would 
receive public aid in proportion to their tested efficiency and would 
be kept up in a progressive stage and by the strongest stimulus to 
their best pitch; all concern of Government with private expendi- 
ture would cease: schools would be helped on to a self-supporting 
footing; the profession of school-master would be improved, for 
the best men would earn the largest grants; and lastly the Govern- 
ment would not be producing an unnatural supply of comparatively 
highly educated men irrespective of the real demand for them and to 
the detriment of the many hundreds of youths who in Bengal obtain 
high education every year for themselves without any Government 
aid at all. 

I believe that if liberal building grants were also given, there 
would be no risk of managers not coming forward to ask for salary 
grants. And it should not be forgotten that the great economy of 
salary grants is that they do not involve pensionary grants, Jf the 
latter charge could be shown, as it ought to be, the real cost of educa- 
tion, and especially of higher education, would be very much in 
excess of current belief. 

As for primary schools for the masses, the best possible modus 
operandi is already in force in Bengal and British Burmah, and only 
requires to be supplemented by testing the results as in Bombay; 
and the question of funds as the basis of imperial aid has been solv- 
ed by such Acts as the Bengal Act X of 1871, Madras Acts III and 
JV of 1871 and Bombay Act III of 1869 and the cesses established 
already in Northern and Central India. 

SECTION IV 

Educational Machinery or Schools 

INDIGENOUS SCHOOLS 

Before coming to the regular parts of the educational machinery, 
it is necessary to show what is the present condition in each province 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— INDIGENOUS 341 


of the indigenous schools, i.e., the purely native schools not improved 


up to the Government standard. 
The statistics of them are— 



Province 

Indigenous Schools 


Number 

1 Pupils 


Bengal 
Madras . 

Bombay . 

Sind 

North-Western Provinces 

Punjab 

Oudh 

Central Provinces 
British Burmah 
The Berars 
Coorg 


Total 


Not known 

Not known. 

1,210 

33=265 

273 

5=716 

4,665 

54,575 

4=133 

50,551 

507 

4=257 

227 

4>502 

3=778 

48,842 

no 

2,308 

18 

249 

14,921 

204,265 


As an account of what is being done in one province may often 
offer valuable suggestions to another, I shall now illustrate these 
statistics by extracts from the reports: — 


Bombay 

“Our lowest new vernacular standards have been madie exceed- 
ingly simple. If this is a step to meet the indigenous schools, it is 
in my opinion a step in the right direction. Nothing can be made 
of the indigenous schools without training the masters, and to sub- 
sidize them as they are would be nearly as expensive as to super- 
sede them by cheap Government schools, which latter I consequently 
prefer to do. 

“It has been said, ‘so long as a single school on the indigenous 
system is supported by the voluntary contributions of the people, 
so long there is a heavy condemnation on the present system' of 
Government education/ and it is proposed to inspect and make 
grants to the indigenous schools. This criticism was based on the 
statistical tables printed at the end of last year’s report, and it was 
satisfactory to see them weighed and commented upon by a native 
newspaper. I will now offer a table which will show the reader 
that if the Educational Department has not absorbed, or found a 



EDUCjAlioNAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— INDIGENOUS 


342 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


method of subsidizing the indigenous schools, it has at least not 
been idle during the last generation. 


184. 

Number of pupils in 
Government schools 

Number of pupils in 
indigenous schools 

Total 

1871 

Number of pupils in 
Government schools 

Number of pupils in 
indigenous schools 

Total 

Total 

6,787 j 

j29,628 

36,415 

Total 

99>470j 

1 

22,233 

1,22,703 


“There are many reasons why the indigenous school should not 
always be abandoned in favour of a Government school, e.g., pro- 
pinquity, custom, the fact that the indigenous school-master is the 
people's man, but the departmental school-master is the Govern- 
ment’s man. The indigenous schools are either worthless or they 
are not. If they are worthless, it is waste of money to subsidize 
them. If they are of some little use, they are working sidle by side 
with the Government system, in support of which the available 
public funds are fully engaged. Let it be borne in mind that while 
there are nearly 40,000 villages and hamlets in the Presidency, ex- 
clusive of Sind, there are as yet only 2,389 Government primary 
schools. 

“I have expressed myself strongly against aided primary schools 
which are not under competent managers. I fear that the present 
indigenous schools are not worth the subsidy, which would enable 
me to add them to my returns. Further inquiry respecting them 
is now in progress. But I think that more might have been done to 
consult the popular taste in the most elementary Government 
schools. This, however, was admitted last year, and measures have 
been in progress for some time to effect this improvement by open- 
ing branch schools for very elementary instruction, and by assign- 
ing more time to Modi and Mental Arithmetic in the simple lower 
standards of the vernacular school course/ — (Extract from Directors 
Report , paragraphs 49, 120 to 122). 

North-Western Provinces 

“I have made this class of schools a subject of particular inquiry 
this year, with a view of information as to their condition just now. 
There is plenty of vitality. I should say they have improved on the 


343 

whole, and that a better class of books is being read. Their aim 
and the amount of scholarship they impart are the same as they 
have been for hundreds of years probably. They are wanted by four 
sets of people chiefly— 

“(1) The sacerdotal class. 

“ (2) The amla, who chiefly care to learn Persian, and write Per* 
sianized Oordoo in the Courts— chiefly Mahomedam. 

“ (3) The upper classes of society, who dislike to allow their sons 
to go to schools with the common herd. 

“ (4) The traders, who want a little special teaching in bazar ac- 
counts. 

“Other causes, such as the reputation or amiable character of a 
particular teacher, or the want of a Government school or a free 
school in the place, make them a necessity. 

“The following information is given by the Ofhi iating Inspector 
of the 1st Circle and his subordinates:— 

“ (1) ‘In Persian schools Government educational books are not 
usually read. 

“ (2) ‘The Mussalmans especially do not like the Government 
course of study. 

“ (3) ‘There are nine schools in the Secundra Tehseel, which 
flourish in spite of the existence of the Hulkabundee schools in the 
same villages. 

“ (4) ‘The people generally regard the study of history and geog- 
raphy as a waste of time. 

“ (5) ‘Agriculturists and the lower orders send their sons to the 
Hulkabundee schools. 

“ (6) ‘In Atrowli Tehseel the zemindars are chiefly Mussalmans, 
and maintain Persian schools at their own expense. 

“(7) ‘Although all the Native gentlemen of Atrowli have a high 
opinion of the ability and attainments of the Tehseelee teacher, and 
although there is also an English school in the town, yet they main- 
tain eight private schools, the average number attending them 
being four, because they will not allow their children to sit by the 
side of those of mean birth. I am inclined to think the course of 
study is their principal objection, although it is only natural that 
men of rank should prefer either to engage the services of a pri- 
vate tutor, or to send their sons to a school where gentlemen's sons 
125 Dir of Arch 



EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— INDIGENOUS 


34* SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

only are admitted. And here the idea naturally arises whether it 
would not be judicious on the part of Government to establish 
a school or two of this kind by way of experiment at some central 
localities, namely, Persian and Arabic schools for the Mussulmans, 
and Sanskrit schools for the Hindtus. I do not mean either that 
Sanskrit only should be taught at these, or simply Persian and 
Arabic at those, but that a course of oriental literature that may 
commend itself to the upper classes should be introduced. Grati- 
fied in these respects, I feel persuaded that the endeavours of Go- 
vernment to spread ‘general education' will be met half-way by 
those without whose influence and co-operation all efforts to affect 
the masses will assuredly fail.’ 

The items of information afforded by the Deputy Inspector of 
Mozuffernuggur are equally interesting. 

“They are as follows:— 

(1) A person who has a school in his own house, gives the 
teacher food and from Rupee 1 to Rs. 4 a month. 

“ (2) ‘There is no settled fee in the case of other persons sending 
their children, but beginners generally give the teacher one or two 
annas a month; those more advanced, four, eight, twelve annas, 
one rupee, and so on. They generally give four annas. 

(3) ‘No Hindu keeps a school open to others in his own house. 

(4) A Hindu teacher gets a house lent him, and every week 
gives a holiday, and receives remuneration in money or kind from 
his pupils. They also pay him so much on arriving at different 
degrees of proficiency. Teachers of the Kuran do not ask for any 
remuneration, and are generally priests and callers to prayers 

(muazzans). They get small alms, however, in the shape of clothes 
and food. The lower orders proceed to mosques to read with the 
priest or the caller to prayers, but the higher classes maintain a 
teacher of the Kuran at their own homes, and remunerate him 
as explained above in the case of ordinary Persian schools. 

(5) The average monthly fee per pupil throughout the schools 
is three annas, and sixteen the average number of boys at a school. 
There are no classes, and the pupils are generally reading different 
works, or different portions of the same work. 

(6) In most schools some objectionable books, as the ‘Nairun- 
gishq. and Bahar-i-danish’ are still read, but this practice is not so 
prevelant as formerly, and most boys read the ‘Oolistan,’ ‘Bostan/ 
and ‘Selections from the Letters of Eminent MenV 


345 

(7) ‘The Deputy Inspector of Meerut states that the people 
consider the course of reading in Government schools will never 
enable their sons to write correctly and elegantly, and that they 
consequently regard it with contempt. 

“My own experience has shown me that, as a rule, the Hulka- 
bandee boys who write most correctly are those who write Oordoo 
and who have been educated for various periods at these Desi 
schools. 

“(8) A very small proportion of the boys in this class of schools 
read the Government educational books. 

“ (9) There are eight female schools in the District of Moradabad 
and there are 180 girls attending this class of schools in Shajehan- 
pore. 

“ (10) In the District of Saharaunpore there are twenty Desi female 
schools. 

“All the girls are of the Mussalman persuasion and are receiving 
religious instruction.’ 1 - {Extract from Report , 1869-70, paragraphs 
206 to 209.) 

“The indigenous schools are far more numerous than the Hub 
kabandee schools, yet the latter contain on an average three times 
as many boys as an indigenous school. No grammar is taught, and 
no classification of the boys is attempted, each pupil receiving singly 
his modicum of instruction. The attendance is irregular, the in- 
struction very elementary, and the teaching poor. The Inspector 
proposes that these schools should be assisted, encouraged and im* 
proved on the grant-in-aid principle. Without local knowledge I 
speak with hesitation, but the plan does not appear to me to be 
immediately practicable. I do not think it likely that the Pundit 
will at once give up their primeval mode of teaching, and quality 
themselves for giving instruction in the books which are used 1 in 
our schools.”— (Extract from Report , 1870-71, paragraphs 164-166.) 

Punjab 

“According to the statistics supplied by district officers, on which 
however, very little reliance can be placed, there 
Indigenous schools ar e 4,133 indigenous schools which receive no aid 
from Government. They are supposed to con- 
tain 50,551 boys, of whom 29,084 are Muhammadans. As I have 
reported on former occasions, there is no machinery in existence by 
means of which reliable information regarding the statistics of indi- 
genous schools can be obtained. A very large proportion of the 



34^ SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

boys learn the Quran by rote, a considerable number learn the mul- 
tiplication table and banias’ accounts, and many study Persian 
which is generally taught in a most unintelligent manner, though 
there are of course some schools where a sound knowledge of the 
language can be obtained. Urdu is very seldom learnt in indige- 
nous schools, as the boys trust to obtaining a sufficient knowledge 
of the vernacular by means of their Persian studies.”— ( Extract from 
Report 1870-71, paragraph 145.) 

Oudh 

“I am afraid that the statistics of these schools, now presented 
for the first time, are somewhat incomplete. The number of insti- 
tutions is returned at 507, their pupils at 4,257, and the average 
attendance at 2,699. As no registers are kept by the masters, the 
inspecting officer merely counts those boys that he finds present at 
each visit, adds the product and divides the result by the number 
of visits, so that the average attendance is very roughly calculated. 
In the same way the total cost of these schools, entered at 
Rs. 11,433, is scarcely reliable. They are very thinly attended, ex- 
cepting three which contain 80 pupils, one of these last schools 
aims to teach Kaithi and multiplication tables; anything beyond 
this is considered useless. In others, old Persian and! religious books 
are taught, such as Kareema, Mamukeema, Gulistan, Bostan, Diwan 
Ghani, Kuran, 8cc., 8cc., which they repeat by rote, without under- 
standing the sense. Grammar and arithmetic are altogether neg- 
lected; and the knowledge of history, geography, and mensuration, 
taught in our village schools, is considered to be useless. I always 
try to introduce our school books into these muktubs. In a muktub 
at Abdullah Nuggur held at the door of Suttar Hossain, zemindar, 
I awarded a copy of Wakiat-i-Hind and Huqaiq-ul-Moujudat to his 
son, and explained to him their usefulness. On my next visit, I 
found both of those books were studied by the son of the zemindar, 
and I then advised him to take up geography and arithmetic, and 
I hope he followed my advice. 

“Of the 4,000 pupils, upwards of 2,000 learn Persian, 1,000 Hindi, 
256 Sanskrit, and 242 Arabic. The Sanskrit and Arabic schools may 
be regarded as religious schools, or schools for Jotishis and Bhats, 
it will not be difficult to bring these indigenous schools within 
the scope of the Government system, provided Sub-Deputy Inspec- 
tors are appointed to each district. If aid were given under the 
payment-by-result system, not only would the schools increase but 
they would improve. Great care would be necessary; and unless 
Sub-Deputy Inspectors were entertained, the systenj could not be 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OK SCHOOLS— INDIGENOUS 347 

carried out. For at present both Inspectors and Deputy Inspectors 
have quite as much as they can possibly accomplish.”— ( Extract from 
Report , paragraph 176.) 

Central Provinces 

“Of purely indigenous schools unaided ( i.e ., unassisted by any 
annual or monthly grant but in some cases desirous of aid under 
the system of payment-by-results) there has been an aggregate in- 
crease of 50. For my own part I should like to see a gradual with- 
drawal of all permanent aid, whether from provincial revenue or 
from cess, from schools of this class, and the substitution of the 
capitation system of aid. Captains Lugard and Saurin Brooke and 
Mr. Chisholm are, however, of a different opinion, I append an 
extract from the last-named officer's report which clearly explains 
that view of the question: ‘It is clear that village schools support- 

ed by the Cess Fund must, in comparison to the wants of the people, 
always be few; but what is required is that these few village schools 
should be thoroughly efficient institutions, and that they should be 
surrounded by rudimentary indigenous schools, the most promising 
pupils of which might be drafted into the nearest Government 
schools whenever feasible. In all cases when an intelligent land- 
holder has a son, and there is no vernacular school, he usually en- 
tertains a literary character of some kind. Pandit or Prohit, to 
teach his boy; such being the case, it is easy to arrange that other 
boys receive instruction at the same time, and a foundation is laid 
for a regular indigenous school. This is the system now started 
in the district, and it is proposed to grant from Cess Fund aid 
hereafter to such of these (indigenous) schools as exhibit a tendency 
to improve, ft is obvious, however, that the standard at first can- 
not be a high one; but if we can utilize the existing agency of 
Pandits and Prohits, a great point will be gained.”— {Extract from 
Report , paragraphs 51 & 52.) 

British Burmah 


“32. Under this head it will be proper to explain the nature and 
, , objects of the plan for the advancement of verna- 

schools cular education which was laid before Govern- 

ment last year, and received sanction shortly be- 
fore the close of the year under report. 

“33. The main feature of the measure prescribed by the Govern- 
ment for trial in this Province was the improvement of the nume- 
rous indigenous schools, especially those attached to the Buddhist 



34& SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

monasteries throughout the country, and that it was not their in- 
tention that any new institutions of primary instruction should be 
established until a systematic effort had been made in this direction. 

“34. The number of such schools, however, enormously exceeds 
the number upon which it will be possible to work by means of 
the limited funds at our command from the local cess. It was, 
therefore, necessary that a selection should be made of the schools 
most capable of improvement, and it was hoped that the schools 
so selected would, in the course of a few years, become models for 
imitation in each district, and thus raise the general standard of 
instruction in elementary schools. 

“35. The plan which has been adopted proceeds upon the prin- 
ciple that the aid to be given by Government to any school shall 
be proportionate to its efficiency, and the details of the scheme were 
adopted from the system which obtains in the Central Provinces. 
Four standards have been laid down for the examination of pupils 
in primary schools, in reading, writing, and arithmetic, under cer- 
tain restrictions of age; and a fixed capitation grant is offered for 
each pupil passing by the respective standards (double grants being, 
for the present, offered to girls). The rules will be found publish- 
ed at length in the appendix to this report. 

“36. The great difficulty in adapting a system of payment by 
results to the circumstances of this Province lies in the peculiar 
status of the majority of primary schools, which are conducted solely 
as a work of religious merit by members of a religious order who 
are bound by a vow of poverty, and cannot be influenced by any 
offer of pecuniary reward. Although forbidden, however, to touch 
or posses money, nothing debars the Buddhist monk from accepting 
presents for the enrichment or endowment of his monastery; it is, 
therefore, competent to the teachers of monastic schools to receive 
presents of books, and in the rules now under notice it has been 
specially provided that the grant may be made in the form of books or 
money at the option of the teacher. 

“37. All that is asked, therefore, in a monastic school is that the 
monk will consent to an examination of his pupils by certain pres- 
cribed standards, in return for which a gift of books is offered to 
the monastery, varying in value according to the number and attain- 
ments of the pupils. It is also optional for the examiner to make 
the grant in the form of prizes to the boys themselves, the majority 
of whom are lay pupils, instead of as presents to the institution. 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS—INDIGENOUS 349 

“38. It has been thought advisable at the commencement to allow 
all possible latitude in the conditions required. Thus the mainten- 
ance registers of admission or attendance in the selected schools has 
not been insisted upon, and even the rule requiring that pupils shall 
have attended school six months before the examination cannot be 
strictly enforced; the offer of aid has, therefore, been made condi- 
tional only on the attainments of certain standards of instruction. 
The standards themselves are also extremely low, but, moderate as 
are the requirements in this respect, especially in a Province where 
the whole rural population has the reputation (not, I think, so uni- 
versally deserved as is sometimes imagined) of being able to read 
and write, the standards laid dbwn in arithmetic will for some time 
prevent the realization of the higher grants offered. 

“39. One special object of the plan has been that no exclusive 
favor should be shown to any particular class of primary schools; 
but that all such schools, under whatever management, whether 
monastic, secular, or missionary, should be, as regards the aid offered 
by Government, placed upon the same footing. 

“40. By these means it is hoped that during the course of a few 
years it may be possible to effect a general improvement in the stan- 
dard of instruction in primary schools, and thus to prepare the way 
for the employment of the trained Vernacular masters and mistresses 
for whose instruction the Rangoon Training School has been estab- 
lished, and of whom a considerable number, as will be seen below, 
are now under formal agreement as students of the Training School. 

“41. The question of the best method of utilizing the teachers 
when trained, is deferred until the plan of payment by results shall 
have been fairly put into operation. No teachers will be turned 
out from the Training School until it has been two years in opera- 
tion, and in the meantime the results of the practical working of 
the plan above referred to, will be a guide in determining the precise 
method to be followed in the employment of the teachers. Should 
success attend the plan, and the schools selected for aid exhibit 
marked improvement, it will be a question whether it is more advis- 
able that our trained teachers should open independent schools 
where they may be needed, or should be appointed to existing 
schools where the managers are willing to receive them. In the 
first adoption of measures so purely tentative, it seems unavoidable 
that the progress should be slow, and regulated from time to time 
by circumstances which are not to be wholly foreseen. 

“42. The sanction of Government to the measure which has now 
been described, was received in January last, and a circular was sub* 



35 1 


350 SELECTIONS PROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

sequently issued upon the subject to the several District Local Com- 
mittees of Public Instruction, in which the course to be fol- 
lowed in the selection and examination of schools was laid down in 
detail, with instructions for the guidance of the examiners employed 
upon the duty. 

“45. In the Akyab District, Mr. A. B. Savage, second master of 
occasioned by the necessity of special sanction for 
plan” 5 ° the the re-arrangement of the Local Funds Estimates 
sanctioned for the year, in the absence of which 
the Local Committee were unable to act. The time was also too 
short to admit of the translation and! circulation of the rules. Thus, 
in the majority of the districts, it was not possible to put the plan 
into operation before the close of the year under review. 

“44. In the Districts of Akyab, Moulmein, and Bassein, how- 
ever, a practical commencement was made, the results of which are 
at once interesting and instructive. 

“45. In the Akvab District, Mr. A. B. Savage, second master of 
Akyab District the Government School, was deputed by the Local 
Committee for the duty of visiting and examining 
schools. The tour of the schools occupied one month, at the close 
of which Mr. Savage submitted to the Committee an interesting re- 
port, of which the substance is as follows:— 

“46. The number of schools visited was 8, of which all but one 
were Buddhist monasteries. In only one school, however, of the 
whole number was any grant made, no pupils being prepared to 
pass by even the lowest standard in arithmetic. In reading and writ- 
ing, the majority were qualified to pass creditably. The main part 
of the examiner's duty in this case was to ventilate and clearly ex- 
plain to both monks and people the intentions of Government, and 
the nature of the plan adopted; to note the manner in which it was 
accepted; and to ascertain the prospects of future success and the 
desirability, or otherwise, of modifying the scheme as drawn up. 

“47. There seems to be every reason for satisfaction with the 
way in which Mr. Savage carried out his instructions, and I am 
disposed to regard the result as sufficiently hopeful. The people 
clearly understood and appreciated the object of the plan, and in 
numerous cases the monks were not unwilling to fall in with it; 
while in those cases where objections were made, they may be traced 
to the natural suspicion of an ignorant class, jealous of an influence 
which has already greatly diminished under British rule, and fear- 
ing a further loss of power. To overcome these suspicions must be 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— INDIGENOUS 

at all events a work of time, and the only reasonable prospect of 
success seems to be in the following up of the beginning which has 
been made by an active prosecution of the plan. The rules have 
now been published in the vernacular, and circulated to all districts 
in anticipation of the coming season. It is also proposed to distri- 
bute to the selected schools a limited number of vernacular school 
books gratis. 

“48. The Commissioner of Arracan and the Local Committee 
of Public Instruction at Akyab are at issue with me as to the con- 
clusion to be drawn from Mr. Savage’s report. They observe that the 
only way in which the monks can be roused to exert themselves is 
by pressure from the people by whom they are entirely supported, 
and they consider such pressure to be unadvisable. 

“49. I am not disposed myself to concur in this view. One obvi- 
ous reason for the indifferent nature of the instruction now given 
in indigenous schools, is the absence of any motive to exertion on 
the part of the teachers. The incentive of pecuniary reward is 
powerless, and even the offer of gifts to the institution is hardly in 
itself an adequate incentive. But the influence of the laity, to whom 
they look for support, seems to me a perfectly legitimate engine to 
bring to bear upon the indolence of the priestly instructors of youth; 
nor does there seem to be any ground for their exemption from the 
natural law of demand and supply. Let all primary schools be plac- 
ed on an equality, and let the natural preference of parents for the 
institutions where the best article is to be had be the stimulus to 
urge those teachers who have hitherto been indifferent to exert 
themselves to meet the demand. 

“50. It is unquestionably desirable that all caution should be 
used and every allowance made for existing prejudices, especially in 
institutions of an almost unique kind; but it is also possible to be 
carried away by a too great regard for prejudices which belong in 
reality to human nature, and are only disguised under the mask of 
religious usage. So far from regarding Mr. Savage's report as in any 
way disappointing, I am disposed to see in it a fair promise of the 
results which were contemplated in the scheme which we are attempt- 
ing to carry out. 

“51. Inthe district of Bassein, twenty -seven shools were axamin- 
ed before the close of the year, and grants amounting to Rs. 106 
Bassein District were made to 54 pupils. The Local Committee 

has not furnished any detailed report upon the subject; but a satis- 
factory commencement has at least been made, with what prospect 


125 Dir. of Arch. 



3 52 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


EbtlCAtlOiSTAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— INDIGENOUS 


353 


of the permanent improvement of the schools selected, the coming 
season will show. 


“52. The operations in this district were unsatisfactory. The 
time for inspection was extremely short, and many of the schools 
selected were found to be either closed, or so poorly attended as 
hardly to deserve the name of schools. The 
Moulmein District twelve schools visited were also all secular 

institutions, and no attempt was made to bring monastic institu- 
tions under the influence of the rules. During the ensuing 
season a fresh selection will be made and special provisions made 
for including in the list the best institutions of that class. 


“53. From the beginning which has thus been made in three dis- 
tricts during the last month of the year, some conclusions may be 
drawn for future guidance, though it will belong to a future report 
to record the results of the full operation of the plan. 


“The first result which appears is, that in these, and probably 
in all districts, the knowledge of arithmetic, except after the Burmese 
method, is so generally wanting, that, although in other respects the 
majority of schools would be eligible for grants of books or money, 
very few will be found able to pass pupils by even the lowest of the 
prescribed standards. As a first step to remedy this defect, it is pro- 
posed to distribute gratis to the selected schools a limited number of 
copies of a Burmese manual of arithmetic some time before the date 
fixed for the examination. 


“56. It remains to notice the operations of the circuit teachers 

attached to the establishment of this 
Circuit Teachers, Rangoon 0 ffi ce of the two teachers employed in 

the monasteries of Rangoon, one died during the year, and in view 
of the adoption of the plan which has been noticed above, his 
appointment was not filled up. The services of the second teacher 
were also at the close of the year transferred to the establishment 
of the Training School. The number of monasteries visited at 
the close of the year was ten, with twenty-nine students. 

“57. The two teachers employed in Moulmein have continued 
Moulmein their operations under the general supervision of 

the Local Committee of Public Instruction. The number of monas* 
teries in Moulmein visited by them was at the close of the year 
thirteen, and the number of students twenty-one. The Committee, 
however, concur with me in thinking it desirable that the services 
of these teachers should now be dispensed with, and a proposal to 
that effect has been submitted to the Chief Commissioner, 

“58. The employment of those officers was professedly only a 
temporary measure, preliminary to the adoption of a systematic 
plan for the improvement of primary schools. Their operations 
have, as before reported, been conducted in a very desultory way 
in the absence of any regular supervision, and the time seems fully 
to have arrived when their services should be either dispensed with 
or employed in the prosecution of the sanctioned plan.”— (Extract 
from Report , paragraphs 32 to 58.) 


“54. The Moulmein Committee remark, that the principal at- 
tendance in indigenous schools is during the rainy season; this is 
undoubtedly the case in most instances, and although the worst 
season for travelling, it may be possible in future, at least where 
Deputy Inspectors are appointed, to hold the examination during 
the south-west monsoon. 

“55. But it is obvious that to send an examiner once only in the 
year is not sufficient, at least until some progress has been made in 
the knowledge of our school-books. It has been proposed, there- 
fore, to appoint at once a permanent Deputy Inspector of Schools in 
each of those districts where the cess is able to afford the charge, and. 
from recent instructions received from the Government of India, it 
is hoped that where the yield of the cess is wholly inadequate to the 
requirements of a district, it may be possible to provide for the 
working of the plan from imperial funds. 


The Berars 


“During the year there has been for the whole Province 

Schools and pupils on 31 st an increase of 17 schools and of 
March 18/0 and 1871 253 pupils. 


District 

Marathi 

Hindustani 

Total 

Schools 

Pupils 

Schools ! 

! 

Pupils 

Schools 

Pupils 

r 1870 . 

Total -? 

72 

1,705 

21 

350 

93 

2,055 

I1871 • 

82 

1,824 

28 

484 

110 

2,308 


“75. Increased attention has been yearly given to these schools, 
with a view to bringing them ultimately under regular Government 
inspection with the free consent of their masters. The inspecting 
Officers have been directed to give every encouragement to these 
schools by advice and by gifts of the most elementary books, and 



354 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY Ok SCHOOLS— INDIGENOUS 


especially by distributing among the masters and pupils copies of the 
Berar Modi first book, which is well adapted to the requirements of 
the masses, mid inducements are held out to their masters to go 
to the Normal School that they may improve themselves, not only in 
knowledge, but in the manner of keeping their schools, and particu- 
larly of instructing their pupils in classes, instead of teaching them 
one by one. But the improvement of these schools will require time 
and continuous attention, combined with much kindness, from the 
educational officers. 

“76. The inspecting officers have been further asked by me, dur- 
Proposed system i n g the P ast Y ear > for their views as to the best 
of grants-in-aid means of methodising the instruction of the indi- 
genous schools, without fundamentally altering its characteristics. I 
have also consulted on the same subject those masters of the middle 
class schools who are the most intelligent and the most popular in 
tiieir towns, and with the indigenous master; and I have talked over 
the subject, in the freest manner, with the indigenous masters them- 
selves, and the fathers of their pupils whom I called to their schools. 
I wish to record that I found the best teaching in the indigenous 
schools to extend generally to about half of Standard I of the studies 
of our Government schools. Having given the matter a very full 
consideration, I submitted, near the close of the year, a system ot 
rewarding the indigenous masters according to the results of examina- 
tion, of which the following are the chief features. 

' (1st). It would be sufficient at present for pupils taught in the 
indigenous schools to bring up to examination the following very' 
moderate courses: — 

A. IN MARATHI 

Arithmetic— ( a) Numeration and Notation up to 1000. 

(b) The Multiplication Tables of whole numbers, 
up to 20 times 20. 

(c) Addition, 

Marathi — (a) Reading Berar Modi First Book. 

(b) Writing syllables and easy words in Modi. 

B. IN HINDUSTANI 

Arithmetic— (a) Numeration and Notation up to 100. 

(b) The Multiplation Table up to 10 times 10. 

(c) Easy sums in Addition. 


355 

Hindustani— (a) Reading Berar First Hindustani Book (after 
the manner of the Berar First Modi Book). 

, (b) Writing syllables and easy words. 

“ (2nd.) For each pupil who passed a good examination, and who 
had not received any education in a Government school, the indi- 
genous master might receive one rupee as a reward. Such pupil 
should not be allowed to present himself from the indigenous school 
for examination a second time, but should rather be encouraged to 
carry on his education under the superior teaching of the Govern- 
ment school in his town, which he would thus join with a know- 
ledge of the elements (see paragraph 36 above) 

“ (3rd.) The inspecting officers on their tours would hold the 
examinations generally; but in the larger towns, which had middle 
class schools of grades I, II, and III, it appears to me more expedient 
that the examinations be held regularly twice a year,— in the latter 
halves of December and June,— so that the boys who had won the 
rewards for their masters might join the Government schools on the 
1st of January and the 1st of July. That these examinations might 
be carried on simultaneously throughout the Province in those larger 
towns which had such middle class schools, I think their head masters 
ought to be the examiners. I have reason to believe that a healthy 
connexion would thus be produced in every large town between the 
indigenous schools and the Government schools, which would be for 
the interest of both of them. The inspecting officers should, when 
examining the Government schools, call for the boys who had come 
from the indigenous schools, and examine them more particularly 
with a view to ascertaining if they had possessed the required amount 
of knowledge to entitle the indigenous master to the pecuniary re- 
wards / 1 (Extract from the Report, paragraphs 74 to 76.) 

Coorg 

“The course of instruction, all in Kanarese, comprises reading, 
writing, and arithmetic; a brief geography and history of Coorg 
and of India; reading manuscript papers, and the composition of 
business letters. These subjects have made the schools popular; the 
people readily purchase the necessary books, and pay the cost of 
repairing the school-houses, which were originally built or provided 
by themselves. Eight of the schools are mentioned as having attain- 
ed a higher position than the others; but the work accomplished 
during the year in all is thought to indicate satisfactory progress.”— 
(Extract from Report, paragraph 26.) 



35^ SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

The statistical table and the extracts given above show very fairly 
the position of the indigenous school in the educational scheme of 
each province. The difference of treatment is remarkable, the more 

Paras.6o-69> so as the educational code* expressly orders that 

^^Ltespa tch 4 "i 85 ^ these schools should be subjected to “minute and 
constant supervision/’ that “the greatest possible use should be made 
of them and of the masters to whom, however inefficient as teachers, 
the people have been accustomed to look up with respect/' and that 
“our present aim should be to improve the teachers we find in pos- 
session and not to provoke their hostility by superseding them where 
it is possible to avoid it.” It is clear that these instructions have 
not been uniformly observed; on the contrary it will generally be 
found that where the educational departments are the oldest the 
indigenous schools are of the least account. In the Bengal and 
Madras reports no statistics or information is given, and in Bombay 
the Director does not seem to attach much importance to the esti- 
mation in which such schools are held by the people or to hesitate 
to recommend their supersession. From the first part of this Note 
it will have been seen how it was that these schools were not made 
the basis of the Government system in the older Provinces, and why 
they have not shared in the general progress, but are probably very 
much in the condition described about 40 years ago, when special 
enquiries about them were instituted. No doubt they have even 
deteriorated in number and quality, because the intelligence of the 
country has generally deserted them for the superior attractions of 
the rival system. In Bengal a systematic attempt has been made 
during the last ten years on a very small scale to bring a few of these 
schools into the Government scheme, and reports have recently been 
called for as to their present condition throughout the whole country. 
I am given to understand that the lowest estimate makes them six 
or seven times more numerous than the schools and colleges con- 
trolled by Government, and that the majority of the pupils in Gov- 
ernment or aided schools have commenced their studies in a patshala. 
This is very probable, because in Bengal the Government system 
has never gone low enough on any large scale to disturb the indi- 
genous schools which in Bombay and in Northern India generally 
have been retiring before obviously superior rivals. In the Punjab the 
Director is content to ignore them. In the Central Provinces and 
in the Berars, and also to some extent in Madras, a system of pay- 
ment by results has been specially introduced to bring these schools 
into the Government scheme, and hence there is some ambiguity 
as to where the line should be drawn in each case between the purely 
indigenous and the aided lower class schools. The same measure 


educational MACHINERY or schools— indigenous 357 

1 / contemplated in Oudh and in the North-Western Provinces 
where the information is tolerably complete. On the other hand, 
in British Burmah, the youngest of the educational departments the 
Director of Public Instruction has been expressly appointed to de- 
velop these schools, which are to be the basis of the Government 

on e e Tnd° r P ° P “ lar educatlon - The experiment is a most interesting 
, and m ust be watched m future reports. The difficulty is that 
whereas m India the system of payment by results is gladly acceded 
by the indigenous school-masters, in Burmah sucl/payments^re 
opposed to monastic prejudices and repudiated. Hence other in 
uences must be brought to bear; and this can best probably be done 
by local committees acting through the people and raising the de 
mand for an education more suited to the times. In reviewing the 
last report the Chief Commissioner bears testimony to the decMedly 
benefical influence, religious and secular, of the monastic schools? and 
s rong y eprecates their possible supersession (if they fail to* fall 

a r ws °v =overn " ,en,) * **. - -L- 

stabhshed all over the country, -a measure to which, as in other 
provinces, the local educational department seems somewhat inclin 
ed. But even if funds were available for this purpose, and if there 
were any prospect of the secular schools taking up the position Z 

fiTmte 7 - f? m T aStK SChools ’ k ma y be h °P ed Slat so much use- 
ful material for education may not be lost, and that the local autho 

nties may be able to support the determination of the Chief Com 
missioner to prevent if practicable the deterioration and u timaTe 
dtsappearance of an institution to which, with all our effm“ 
can as yet show no parallel in India. ’ WC 

It is probable that if the Government were at this Ha*. 

mendng upon ,he work of education, the principle „ hich 
followed in British Burmah would have been the rule thro,! 
out, and that in each province the indigenous schools, instead 
being ignored or considered rivals, would be improved into thl 
basis of a far more national system than exists at present Even 
now it may not be too late to recognize the position they stiU 
hold m nattve society and the use to which they may be turned^ 
and I think that the Government of India, in accordance with the 
orders quoted above, may properly require that future reports fri 
a provinces shall give more precise and uniform infomation as 
o the number and condition of these schools and of the wans Ze * 

oiT:^ y ":;‘° 0 ' ,hcm - r such 

ought at any rate to possess, for it regards a most important part 
of the statistics of India, and a true estimate of the native ndnd 
and capacity cannot well be formed without it.”* 

‘Lord Win. Bentinck’s Minute dated 20th January 1836 



358 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


Lower Schools 


We now come to the three regular steps in the educational 
ladder, common to all provinces alike, lower, middle and upper 
schools. But before giving their statistics it is necessary to notice the 
want of uniform and scientific classification, a want so serious that 
anything beyond broad and general conclusions from the statistics 
must be accepted with caution. In my note* for 1866-67, I pointed 


♦Paragraph 89 


to the confusion arising from the use of such 
denominations as “taluk, zillah, tahsili, and 


halkabandi schools;” “high” schools, which are higher than 
“superior schools”; “inferior,” “rate” schools and the like. But 
the defect has not yet been remedied, and we must therefore adhere 
to the nomenclature still in force. The common designation of 
“lower and middle class” schools, prescribed in 1865> is also un- 
fortunate. It involves a confusion of ideas (often apparent in the 
reports) as though lower and middle class schools were intended 
for, or necessarily connected with, the similarly called classes of the 
population. But in this country especially it would be difficult to 
define what are these classes, because the definition might proceed 
on the basis of caste, wealth, learning or position, each involving a 
possible difference as to the individual components of the classes 
so arrived at. What is wanted is clearly an uniform classification 
based not on agency or locality, but solely on the standard of edu- 
cation given in each class of school. And it is well known that 
school education is naturally divided into three standards. There 
is, first, the primary school designed to give the elementary edu- 
cation that every child requires, from about the age of 6 to 10 or 
12, and that comprises good reading, good writing and good simple 
arithmetic, with if practicable some equivalent knowledge of history, 
geography and the common facts of nature; then the “secondary 
or middle school” or school of the second grade, that ordinarily 
takes up a child) about the age of 12 and keeps him till about 14 
or 16, and comprises, speaking generally, the education starting 
where the primary school leaves off and continuing to where the 
high school standard or direct preparation for the University 
commences. This designation is adopted in most educational 
systems in Europe, i.e., primary, secondary or middle, and 
high schools, and might be employed in India in substitution 
of the present designation. It is true that the distinction of schools 
by classes corresponds roughly with the ordinary gradations of 
society as defined by wealth., because those who can afford to pay 
more for their children’s education will also as a rule continue that 


education for a longer time. But this does not affect the obvious 


educational machinery or schools-lower schools 

oi scho <* based entirely on an eduT 

country, because! is not possible in this 

overlap and compete with each other “ ^ SCh °° h in Indi * 

largely gi Ven j n high school, and second' T* 7 educati °n being 
schools. This is true in som , secondary education in lower class 

" hi . Ch *■ <■*« and noublTTn iCtoT' “ * «« ^ 

ST, as h J been ”d7 s l g yarded 

P^ce of which any length cut at d d ' 18 not onc continuous 

boy who leaves school at 12 J \eell T “ ** * a ^ole. a 

needs a sound knowledge of "he ! T com P lete in itself. He 
be is not able to read, write Id T" e,ementS ° f Nation. K 
himself, he will very sol Wet alT a b T ^ ***** ° f “ 
to combine in one school the education' J JL N<W W “ "“possible 
who are intended to leave school at aH \£' * Sectfons of b oys 
th ye Is a great disparity in the age of T T " ta I9 ‘ W here 
cation cannot be carried on progressively ' ** W ° rk ° f edu ‘ 

ciphne suited for one age are u^Tm, C Instructio " and dis- 
division of labour ^ There * “o 

necessary of course to have separate h P ° Wer ‘ Jt is not 

acquirements, but it is necessary to b b dln,?S for boys of different 
teachers. If not . either a { j* have ^rate classes and separate 

pohse the teaching power to the nelctlfrh ^ ** ^ mono ' 
power is employed upon material ouftT l or the Aching 
only be the smaller section o h! Unworthy oi it: and as it wil! 
higher education, it & aImost 'J^^*** desire the 
properly graded, the education of foe h it ^ Schoo,s are “ot 
neglect for the benefit of the few Th ° f the pUpi,s be 
m India where the high school itself^ * eSpeciaI,y IikeIy to occur 

Jfined“7cem,rdSS 0 ,^5 h ^ "°‘ re8 "' ar ' y 

pensive and to raise the Ttamb!?l°fo! aS !? *° . become more ex- 
become unsuited to the wants of fo education - and thus to 
primarily instituted. Take the h lht ^ ^ vbidi they were 
Western Provinces. These schools^ - SCh °° Is of the North- 
agncultural classes and the standard^!' Lf rimanIy desi gned for the 
founder, Mr. Thomason, was to read i ™™ aimed at by their 
yand putwaris’ accounts. But these 11'° Wite and to nnder 
and hence » a recent report I find tn 8™** 

nnd an Inspector stating that he 


125 Dir. of Arch. 



360 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

looks to them to give “considerable attainments in science and 
language,” and that in one district the pupils had read eleven books 
of Euclid and up to quadratic equations; and it is mentioned as a 
subject of congratulation that in one circle many halkabandi schools 
have been raised to the standard of tahsili schools. As a natural con- 
sequence, this statement is followed by a demand for more pay for 
halkabandi school teachers. In the current year's report it will 
be seen that the Director notices this tendency. 

And not only is a proper classification of schools essential in the 
interests of education but of economy. The cost of high school 
education appears low in many provinces, because it is spread over 
the whole school in which the majority of the boys are in some cases 
only receiving primary education. Whereas if high school educa- 
tion were calculated by the number of boys who are really receiving 
high education, the charge in most provinces would be enormous. 
It is clear therefore that if each school were confined to its proper 
grade there would be fewer schools of the more expensive kind, and 
thus a large saving would be available for more schools of a lower 
and cheaper kind. This, however, will be more apparent as we go 
on. 

Annexed is the statement of the comparative statistics of lower 
class schools, which should be considered in the light of the extracts 
from the educational code quoted in the first part of this note. 



Comparative Statistics of Lower Class School in 
India in 1870-71 





EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— LO#fcS| - r 

^t)OLS 


Schools in India in 1870-71 


Private and 
inspected only 


inspected oniy f T , | i 

‘1 er n“” 1 " 


J 0 *®* e xpendi- Proportion of expenditure on Low- 

Class Aided r , Schools * Government 

Scwi. d nd ^ lded ’ to tQ taI expenditure 
Schools on education during the year 


2,198 60,113 4,479 

288 6,686 10,036 

2,755 62,666 3,902 

45 1,632 


*T3.2 » 

Sft’Sa- 

eg^Ss 




Rs - Rs. Rs. R St 

1,195 119,902 84,035 1 
609 59,8:8 98,071 J 3I,98#8ai, | 

75,913 147,543 f 


2,980 12,210 I J 


156 6,007 2,561 139,774 177,841 5,22,522 1,545 

36 1,076 211 8,772 9,114 32,985 3,724 


7,543 f 

,2x0 j 2I > 4 ^7jj 

j‘ 2 4,i3,63o{ 




Rs. 

2,09,611 

1,68,534 

2,27,358 

f 

15,190 

7,01,908 ; 

45,823 


3,327 93,406 117.947 2 j99 , 161 2,478 2,402 1 r 4j2I>9gg ) 

499 7,894 27,025 932 16*46 24,030 \ I9 ‘ 39 ’^ 2 \ ^ 

1,257 52,658 16,865 1,50,084 25,828 32,449 I r 2,25,22 6 22*1 

465 12,169 6,336 7,930 29,778 36,813 ! IO,l8,64 °{ ’ g0j ’ g57 7 . 9 

617 18,146 ... 70,543 4,32? 7,611 1 r g2>4gl l8 . g 

84 1,366 4,919 1,940 2,428 4,095 J 4,37, 48 { 13 382 I 3-0 


2,25,226 22*1 
80,857 7*9 


617 18,146 ... 70,543 4, 3 2 7 7,611 

84 1,366 4,919 i, 940 2>42g 4 , 095 


82,481 18 -8 

13,382 3-0 


16 238 1,096 38,067 23,006 1,24,235 20,589 42,735 1 r 

2 58 I 4 0 2.470 2.232 I T -7 rtc, „ 75 j-S.XS.W-l 


58 l 140 2,570 3,232 17,059 

50 

• * 270 9, 68 r 75,579 28,943 

27 667 2,176 7,234 

30 1,295 3,732 14 


H 2 > IO *565 41*0 

L * 20,441 3.9 


172 6,245 14,161 475,806 423,351 11,96,697 251,002 317,712 

— ^ I>7 ^° 41,768 62,982 68,689 1x3, 264 177,079 


1 1,51,786/ 

— 1 f 1 

| 2,78,553 j 

937 \ r 

J X5,033-J 


108 *07 


,04,522 

37*5 

9,4x0 ! 

3*4 

4,995 

33*2 

144 

*9 

.88,762 

18*07 

22,014 

3*6 

10,776 

21*7 





3&4 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

This table is very instructive. It shows that the several Goverii- 
ments in India have altogether a control, direct or indirect, over 
about Rs. 1,21,14,699 annually for education, and that of this sum, 
Rs. 26,10,776 are devoted to lower class schools, the result being 
15,921 schools with 5,17,574 pupils, of which 1,760 are girls* schools 
with 41,768 pupils. The table also shows a remarkable discrepancy 
in the amounts which each Local Government assigns to this object, 
with of course a corresponding discrepancy in the result effected. 
In Bengal the amount spent on lower class beys schools represents 
a percentage of six on cne educational fund, in the North-West the 
percentage is twenty-one, and in the Central Provinces forty-one. 
And yet the educational code is equally applicable to all provinces 
alike, as also are the orders of the Home Government of 1862 and 
1864 and the more recent orders of 1870, which declare that the 
bulk of imperial expenditure should be mainly directed to the 
provision of an elementary education for the mass of the people. 

Hitherto there has been some ambiguity about the real purport 
of these orders, but this has been removed by a Resolution of the 
Government of India of the 11th February 1871, upon which the 
Bombay Director of Public Instruction remarks as follows:— 

I have re-printed with much satisfaction a declaration by the 
Government of India of its policy on the subject of primary educa- 
tion issued in February 1871: “The education of the masses has the 
greatest claim on the State funds. The Government of India desires 
to maintain this view, but the grant-in-aid rules have in practice been 
found so unsuitable to primary schools, that, except in special 
cases, such grants-in-aid are seldom sanctioned from the general 
revenues. It has, moreover, been repeatedly affirmed that we must 
look to local exertion and to local cesses to supply the funds 
required for the maintenance of primary schools. These standing 
orders may seem inconsistent, but they really are not so. The fact 
is that primary education must be supported both by imperial funds 
and by local rates. It is not by any means the policy of the Govern- 
ment of India to deny to primary Schools assistance from imperial 
revenues; but, on the other hand, no sum that could be spared 
from those revenues would! suffice for the work, and local rates 
must be raised to effect any sensible impression on the masses. Local 
Governments are therefore to assign from the provincial grants funds 
in aid of schools mainly supported by contributions from local cesses 
or municipal rates, and the State contribution is limited to one- 
third of the total cost, with an exception in favor of poor and 
backward districts.” 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— LOWER SCHOOLS 365 

Nothing could be more satisfactory than this most definite 
statement of policy, which entirely confirms the system followed 
in Bombay for several years past.— Paras. 83, 84, Report , 1870-71. 

The next point to notice is the ratio the schools and pupils 
bear to the area and population in each province. I annex this 
comparison in detail, and it will be found at once to dispose of the 
question of compulsory education occasionally raised in the reports. 


Comparative Statistics of Area , Population , and Lower Class Schools 

and Pupils * 


Province 

Area in 

Population 

Lower Class 

Propor- 
tion of 

Propor- 

tion 

square 

miles 

School 

■ Pupils 

schools 
to area, 
one to 
square 
miles 

of pupils 
to total 
population, 
one to 

(i) Bengal 

239.59I 

40,352,960 

2,486 

66,799 

96-3 

604*0 

(2) Madras 

141,746 

26,539*052 

2,800 

64,298 

50-6 

412*6 

(3) Bombay 

142,043 

12,889,106 

2,772 

1,48,546 

51*3 

86*7 

(4) N.W. Pro- 







vinces 

83,785 

30,086,898 

3,826 

1,01,300 

21*9 

297-0 

(5) Punjab 

102,007 

24,060 

17*506,752 

1,722 

64,827 

59-2 

271-4 

(6) Oudh 

11,220,747 

701 

19,512 

342 

575 '0 

(7) Central 

84,162 

7*985,411 

1,236 

40,637 

68 - 1 

196-5 

Provinces 
(8) British 



Not 

1,977*6 


Burmah 

98,881 

2,463,484 

5 o 

. . 

t (9) Berars 

16,960 

2,220,074 

297 

given. 

10,348 

57*1 

214 '5 

(10) Coorg 

2,400 

112,952 

31 

1,307 

77*4 

86 *4 

Total 

935,628 

1,51,467,436 

15,921 

5,17,574 




Looking at the proportion between the amount of school accom- 
modation provided and the population, it is clear that in no pro- 
vince is there any adequate system of elementary education. The 
same conclusion is obviously derived from the second test of the 
adequacy of the system, the proportion between the number of 
children at school in each province and the population. In Europe 
the school-going age from 6 to 16 is generally calculated* to 
embrace one-sixth of the population. But in India, looking to 
the great preponderance of the agricultural and artizan classes for 
whom under the most sanguine estimate primary education must be 
ample, and looking also at the age at which girls are married and 

♦This statement excludes indigenous schools with which Burmah is far better 
provided than any other Province. 



3®® SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

enter on the duties of wives and mothers, it is clear that the 
European estimate must be largely reduced. Still if it were reduced 
by one-half, the enormous disparity between the children who ought 
to receive primary education and the children who do receive it, 
is the great and startling feature in the statistics. 

I have seen it urged that irrespective of any consideration of the 
duty of Government or of the requirements of the Indian Educational 
Code, the bulk of the population is in this country agricultural, and 
that for such a community, education is not only unnecessary but 
injurious, as by current tradition the “man of the pen” is incapa- 
citated from agricultural work. This argument has, however, long 
since been abandoned in Europe before evidence that agriculture 
as much as any other industry requires skill and intelligence, and 
that increased dexterity, superior trustworthiness, quickness in dis- 
covering or applying a new industrial process, are some of the 
many advantages which education has over ignorance. The contrast 
between the Scotch peasant and the English peasant, or between 
the Burman and the Bengali is an example in point; and as to the 
alleged tradition, it appears to be current only in some districts of 
Lower Bengal where it may be but too easily accounted for. 

The third test of the adequacy of the provision for primary 
education is the proportion between the children who attend school 
and those who are tested by examination to come up to the primary 
standard. But this, unfortunately, cannot be shown. There are no 
uniform standards applicable alike to all schools in all provinces, 
and the want is far more serious than the want of a proper classi- 
fication of schools. In Bombay only have standards been prescribed 
by which all schools are tested and the result recorded in such a 
way as to show the exact progress of the pupils. Such information, 
however, as is forthcoming in each report will be given below. 

But to return to the statistics:-It will be observed that indi- 
genous schools are not included in this statement (although thev 
# are entered in the returns from the North-Western Provinces) 
because the education which they give, when unimproved, does not 
come up to the minimum standard of. our schools. But where any 
indigenous schools have been aided and improved up to this 
standard, as in Bengal, the Central Provinces, Madras and the 
Berars, there the return includes them. 

With these general remarks, purposely confined to the broad 
features in the statement, I will now proceed to notice each province 


educational machinery or schools-lower schools 3 6 7 

,he »y 

Bengal 

. In . n ° Pr ° vince do the statistics of primary schools seem so 
mconsistent with the declaration “that Government exp ndTtu e 

for'h. 1”" f Ihe 1 ~ ‘ he PrOVi!, ° n ° f eduction 

Go,e« p r; “ rs le r the r d,y 

the 2,152 aided schooIs are illcIuded 1 695 i oyed ; nd - 

schools, or native schools in which the master has gone through the 
Zell™ “ a GOT ™- “bool; the £££ £ 


Division 


(Number of Number 
: mproved on the 
indigenous rolls 
schools (monthly 
average) 


Expenditure 

from 

Government 

grant 


Expenditure 
from Local 
Funds 


Central 

South-East 

South-West 

North-East 

North-West 

North-Central . 

Total 


5.463 

197 

14.797 

10.364 

420 

13.863 


10.746 o 
210 o 
26.630 6 
26.343 6 
632 15 
26.230 14 


8.114 i 3 o 

401 5 o 

16.269 6 11 

10.748 14 6 

674 8 o 
17.692 14 6 


* I Ij69 5 45.104 90.793 10 1 53,901 13 n 

.. This tabIe is very encouraging. It shows that a primary school 
thoroughly congenial with the wants and habits of the people and 
ye improve up to the standard of European requirements, onlv 
costs the Government about 53 rupees a year. And there is little 
question that if these schools were established in populous centres 
and not rivalled by more attractive Government schools that pur- 
port to be of a higher class but still give primary instruction, the 
average attendance of pupils might be doubled at each, especially 
if the cheap expedient of pupil teachers were adopted to aid the 
teaching staff. In the current report the Director complains that 
the further extension of these schools has been stopped bv the 
orders of the Government of India prohibiting additional imperial 
expenditure upon them until such expenditure can be provided 
rom the local cess then in contemplation. But the Director does 
125 Dir. of Arch —24 



368 EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— LOWER SCHOOLS 

not notice the subsequent Resolution (of February 1871, quoted* 
above) under which the Local Government is enjoined to carry out 
the undoubted educational policy of the Home Government. 

In other respects the only noticeable feature is the excessive 
average cost of education in Government gills' schools, a point 
which has, no doubt, attracted the attention of the Local Govern- 
ment. 

The Director's report contains nothing further specially worthy 
of record on this subject. 

Madras 

This province has naturally followed the example of Bengal in 
the general allotment of its expenditure, and is so far open to the 
same remark. But whereas the total available income is much less 
than that of Bengal, the expenditure on lower class boys' schools is 
actually larger than in Bengal. And, as already noticed, a very 
large measure of educational reform has been projected with the 
especial object of giving to this province a really national system 
oh elementary schools. The details of this measure, however, are not 
noticed in the report for the year. 

It will be observed that the Government lower class schools in 
Madras are, as in Bengal, insignificant both in numbers and cost; 
but a special interest attaches to the application of the results' 
system to the lower class aided schools, upon which the Directors 
remarks as follows: 

“Private schools of the lower class are, for the most part, aided 
on the system of results' grant; thus, of 2,916 
Results’ Grant schools of that class, only 296 drew salary grants 

Schools during the past year. Of 1,606 schools, for which 

results' grants were mentioned in 1870-71, 1,475, attended by 39,697 
pupils, belonged to the lower class; of the remainder, 130, with 
5,544 pupils, were of the middle class; and one was a normal school 
with 58 pupils. For lower class schools the aggregate grant sanc- 
tioned was Rs. 60,332-3-5, and that drawn was Rs. 65,685-12-1; for 
middle class schools the amounts were Rs. 17,591-13-0 and 
Rs. 19,823-5-0; and for the normal school, Rs. 252-4-0 was sanctioned 
and drawn. 

“The following table gives the number of schools with their 
attendance which worked on the results' grant system in the several 


*See pages 36 1-65 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 369 

districts of the Presidency during the year under review; it also 


Divisions 


Average 
grant per 
school 


First 

Second 

Third 

Fourth 

Fifth 

Sixth 


Rs. A. P. 
42 8 7 

2 5 15 5 
45 2 9 

40 i 7 
53 7 9 
79 14 o 


W tu . ? . 6AVCa a nummary or the figures, showing 

, h * ev ^ ra J educatlonal divisions, the number of children passed 

^rams. * ° f ^ ° f the f ° Ur standards for results^ 


Passed in vernaculars 


Passed in English 
or extra languages 


L5H 13^141 8,990 10,4761 8,812 


M34 5,527 
35.387 2,116 


65788 5,714 
2 59I3 L973 1,229 
1,088 460 562 


L554 959 I5O53 4 

555 523 514 279 


“Taking these figures, the percentages of pupils passed to those 
presented, in reading, writing, and arithmetic, are as below:- 


Standard 


I 

Writing I Arithmetic 


™ ... rou^/o, me percentages in reading are below those in 
■writing; this is only what might be anticipated, as reading includes 
explanation, while the pupils in the village schools are notoriously 
deficient in accurate knowledge of the meanings of words and 



370 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— LOWER SCHOOLS 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


phrases. For the first three standards the percentages in arithmetic 
do not differ much from those in reading, but the case is different 
for the fourth standard. This agrees with the previous year’s results,, 
and may be ascribed to the questions in arithmetic for the highest 
standard necessarily involving some little thought. 

“There are, no doubt, evils attendant upon the system of results'* 
grants; but, upon the whole, it appears that there is at present no 
better mode of dealing with the education of the masses. It seems- 
likely that ere long all elementary schools will have to be aided 
by payment for results.” ( Paras 108-116, Report , 1870-71.) 

Beyond the absence of any Government girls’ schools, there is- 
nothing further noticeable in the Madras statistics. 

Bombay 

The statistics of Bombay show a remarkable contrast with those 
of Bengal and Madras. 

The Local Funds Act III of 1869 has made education for the 
masses a reality and has placed Bombay in a few years far ahead in 
this respect of the other older provinces. This Act gives the means 
of rating for local objects all persons who occupy assessed lands, and 
the rapidity with which the schools have been established under 
its operation is a remarkable instance of the readiness of the people 
to accept education. On two points, however, the Act requires to be 
supplemented; (1) by a corresponding measure in towns, as the 
agricultural population comprises only 10k of the 13 millions in the* 
province; and (2) by the introduction of some system similar to> 
that adopted in Bengal for the improvement of the indigenous 
schools which have been somewhat overlooked. From these two* 
measures a vast extension of primary schools might certainly be 
anticipated without any material increase of cost to Government. 
The local Government has not yet declared its educational policy, 
and it remains to be seen whether even the present proportion of 
imperial expenditure on lower class schools is deemed sufficient to> 
satisfy the requirements of the educational code. 

On these two points the following extract is quoted:— 

“The year 1870-71 has added 238 primary schools and 8, 898- 
pupils to the numbers of 1869-70. Applications for schools have 
been made by 164 villages in the Central Division, 14 in the: 
Northern Division, and 25 in the North-East Division. 

“I offer the following table, important in many ways. It shows- 
how readily the agricultural cess-payers, who form hardly 60 per 
cent, of the population, avail themselves of the schools provided 
from their rates, without any compulsion, but because the schools* 


371 

:are there and paid for, and they have the good sense to use them. 
It reminds us that, while about six lakhs of the cess-payers’ money 
are spent on the schools, this sum is met by only about two lakhs 
of public money, and not a quarter of a lakh of municipal funds; 
that the absence of school-rates in towns is unfair to the rural cess- 
payer; that a school-rate levied and administered by the State under 
legal authority is a better means of support of primary school* m 
towns than a high rate of fee:— 


Total (Presidency) 

Xurrachee 
Hyderabad 
S hikarpore 

Total (Sind) 

Second Grade Anglo- 
Vernacular Schools 

Primary Schools 

Total 

Number 

cn 

Rolls 

Cess 

payers 

Propor- 
tion 
per cent 

Total 

Number 

on 

Rolls 

Cess- 

payers 

Propor- 

tion 

per cent. 

8,704 

3.945 

45 

105,920 

68,967 

65 

373 

239 

339 

68 

8i 

62 

18 

33 

18 

1,227 

2,539 

3.330 

89 

278 

590 

7*25 

10 

17 

951 

211 

22 

7,096 

957 

13 


“The total of cess-payers’ children is 74,080. The total of the 
last year was 66,221, and of the year before, 59,975.” (Paras. 88-89, 
Report , 1870-71.) 


North-Western Provinces 

Here the statistics correspond more nearly with those of Bombay, 
and it would be interesting, if the reports permitted it, to contrast 
the halkabandi and) tahsili schools of the former with the cess 
schools of the latter. But it must be borne in mind that the Bombay 
system dates from 1864 whereas the North-Western system dates 
from 1845; and hence it is clear that Mr. Thomason’s intentions 
and first success have not been carried out in the spirit in which 
they were begun. In 1854 there were 3,770 halkabandi schools and 
49,037 pupils, and the total expenditure on education was about 
two and a half lakhs a year. The current report shows 3,327 schools 
with 93,406 pupils, when the total expenditure on education was 
Rs. 19,39,452. No doubt the present schools are superior in quality 
to those of 1854; it is possible that they are even somewhat above 
the requirements of the masses. But what Mr. Thomason aimed) at 
was, by the extension of such schools, to remove “the standing 
reproach which an illiterate population brings upon the Govern- 
ment. It is clear, therefore, that the North-Western educational 
department has to some extent been warped from its original braf 
and that the present allotment of expenditure is not consistent with 



-Educational machinery or schools— lower schools 

Mr. Thomason's policy or the subsequent orders of the Home 
Government. This is more remarkable as in the review of the 
current report it is distinctly admitted that “the first claim on public 
funds is for elementary education;'’ and yet the percentage of pub* 
lie funds devoted to elementary education is only 21, and this in 
the province which first set the example of education for the masses.- 

It is probable that the measures suggested above for adoption 
in Bombay might be equally applicable to the North-West, more 
especially as regards the introduction of some system whereby the 
indigenous schools could be systematically raised to the Government 
standard. 

The extract given above about indigenous schools shows that 
the first step necessary for the introduction of such a measure has, 
been already taken, and that the Local Government has full infor- 
mation to go upon. 

The following extracts from the report are worthy of record:— 

Fever has been prevalent in some districts, and schools have 
been abolished for want of funds to maintain them. But perhaps* 
the schools have gained in quality what they have lost in numbers. 
They show fewer pupils in the aggregate, but the attendance in the 
higher classes has increased. The Assistant Inspector considers the 
state of instruction to be, in spite of drawbacks, very satisfactory; ancf 
many of these schools, especially in the Boolundshuhur District, are 
said to be fast rising to the status of good tehsili schools. The 
people are throwing aside their suspicions, and the schools are 
gradually growing popular. The zemindars seem to take a pleasure 
in attending the Inspector's al fresco examinations. The more 
learned of their number can sometimes hardly be restrained from 
taking an active part in the proceedings, and eagerly attempting to 
answer questions themselves; and an examination seldom ends* 
without an application for the establishment of another school. 

The Inspector of the First Circle is of opinion, and many Deputy 
Inspectors will agree with him, that the scheme of study for halka- 
bandi schools is too extensive, especially since the introduction of 
the study of Persian, and he would confine the instruction in history 
to the first two classes. I am inclined to think that many of these 
schools attempt to reach too high a standard, and are really above 
the work which they were intended to perform. The higher 
classes are taught at the expense of the neglected lower ones. I 
think that if these schools will teach the village child to write a 
legible and concise letter, to read well enough to enjoy the first 
enjoyable book it may be his good fortune to discover, if they will 
give him a moderately extensive but throughly sound knowledge 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


373 


of arithmetic, with perhaps some idea of geography and the outlines 
of the history of his own country, they will then have done all as 
far^ as book-learning is concerned, that should fairly be expected. 
If in addition to this a boy can be taught that it is better for him 
to speak the truth, to be honest, to master his temper and passions, 
to be neat, orderly, obedient, and as clean as he conveniently can 
be, I think little is left to be desired.” (Paras 60, 61, Report 
1870-71.) F * 


Punjab 

The Punjab statistics are very similar in character to those of 
the North?West, and so far are open to the same remarks. It is 
clear that the present expenditure on lower class schools is not in 
accordance with the original policy declared 1 in the first administra- 
tion reports or with the despatches of the Home Government. 
Here therefore the same three questions deserve the attention of 
the educational department,— (1) the appropriation to lower class 
schools of a larger share of the imperial allotment; (2) the necessity 
of municipal contributions for primary schools in towns; and (3) 
the improvement on the Bengal or some other suitable system of 
the indigenous schools. 

The following extracts deserve notice:— 

Government Town Schools 


“’According to the existing system, vernacular schools are of two 
grades:— town schools and village schools. 

the ^stogsystemare ctassed 7^? Scheme of studies is the same for 
as town and village schools both, and provides for eight classes; but 

, , , . * n great majority of schools some 

of the higher classes are always empty. A school which contains 
boys who have advanced as far as the 3rd class, which has an 
average attendance of 50, andl in which more than 20 boys are 
a ove the 6th class, is entitled to rank as a town school. Some 
of the existing village schools fulfil these conditions, but have not 


been raised to the higher grade, because a new system of classifica- 
an "En^^h introduce d- To both' town and village schools 

d J atJhS ’ “ PP ° ned °" Sraminaid 


“In future, vernacular schools will be distinguished as primary 


Their future classification 
ss primary and middle class 
schools 


j and middle class. The former will 
contain four classes, and the latter six. 
The scheme of studies in middle class 


vernacular schools will not differ mate- 


rially from that hitherto in use, but the arrangement of classes will 



374 EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS-LOWER SCHOOLS 

correspond closely with that of middle class zillah schools. A uni- 
form system of examination, by which the progress of every boy will 
tested at certain points in school career, will stimulate the 
exertions of both pupils and teachers, and will afford a clear and 
certain indication of the annual progress that is made. Where 
there is any demand for higher education in the vernacular, upper 
class schools will be established. 11 


Government Village Schools 

“There were at the close of the year 1,087 village schools. 
Statistics of ithe village containing 43,080 boys. They were 
Sc °°' s maintained at a cost of Rs. 1.66,088-5-3. 

P Sid ‘ h ' imperial 

s. 1,40,605-2-10 from the one per cent, cess, and Rs. 9,479-3-8 
rom other sources. Rs. 4,593 were collected as fees. There has 
been on the whole a reduction of 41 village schools, and the 
number of boys borne on the rolls is less by 406 than at the com- 
mencement of the year. The fees have increased by Rs. 266, and 

year t0tal ^ ° f ^ SCh °° ls is more b y Rs - 842 than in the previous 


That considerable progress has been made during the year may 

Percentage of pupils in be inferred from the fact that the number 
each class of village schools of boys in the five upper classes has risen 

from 5,497 to 6,475. The following 
table shows the percentage m each class at the close of 1869-70 
and 1870-71, respectively: — 


Percentage of 
scholars at the 
close of 

1 st 

2 nd 

3rd 

4 th 

5 th 

6 th 

1 

7 th 

8 th 

Pupils 

reading 

English 

only 

1869-70 

*005 

•06 

*9 

2*8 

8-9 

16*8 

19*4 

5i*i 

.02 

1870-71 

•004 

■12 

i‘3 

3*9 

9-6 

17*18 

19*19 

48*5 

•02 


Mr. Cooke, who saw the schools for the first time, found that. 
Progress of study in village in both town and village schools, but 
, S ? 001S m °re specially in the latter, few boys 

could work out a sum with any neatness or method; that in history 
the facts related in the text-books were known, but no oral explana- 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


375 


tions had been given in addition; and that in geography also the 
teaching was weak. Of the existence of the faults above-mentioned 
there can be no doubt, and I have myself indeed brought them 
prominently to notice on former occasions. When, however we 
compare the present condition of these schools with their state 
twelve years ago, when they had been recently established and I 
saw them first, the progress already made is certainly remarkable 
Histones and geographies and text-books of every kind were learnt 
y rote without a thought as to the meaning, and the boys were 
.generally quite incapable of reading a book they had not seen 
before or even their own text-book which they knew by heart 
unless furnished with some clue as to the first few words. Instead 
of coming eagerly from neighbouring villages to the Inspector’s 
examination, the boys were, in some cases, secreted by their mothers 
-on my approach, under the impression that the school was an 
ingenious device to obtain possession of their persons, and that the 
Government would send them to Calcutta for some sinister, though 
.unknown, purpose. ^ 


“Mr. Alexander brings to notice that it is now a common thing 

In many distri; s of he m ^ny of the districts of his circle for 
Lahore Circle the people offer the people of a village to offer to nav 

half salary o£ a 4^ in orde W 

secure the establishment of a school. He 


-in t u • re ported last year the case of a village 

he Lahc * e Dlstnct > where a school on the Government system 

“Tt en , tirdy by fhe P e °P ,e ^mselves. During hif la” 

tour m the Gurdaspur District, the lambardars of a village where 
the school had been reduced, informed him that they stilf retained 
h teacher, and requested that their school might Ve viSS by 

tha ' ,he G ~»« 21 % 
gut oe adhered to and proper progress insured. 


"The employment of competent District Inspectors will. I 
More finds require ! -"or hope, do much to improve our village 
district? cducation in some sc hooIs. The scale of salaries recent! 

sanctioned is sufficiently liberal, though, 

■ as ahready stated it has not yet been fully introduced in the districts 
with this and other inducements I believe a superior class 
of young men will offer themselves for training at 0 o ™! 

schools with the view of becoming teachers. 7or the Tide Hx- 
rean° n h ° P nmary educatl °n in districts where the people are 
urSil/f °q"“r!d. '° aPPredaK adv “ ta ““- *■»* a- 



376 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— LOWER -SCHOOL 


Lower Class Aided Schools > 

“There were, at the close of the year, 166 aided schools of the* 
lower class, containing 9,984 boys. The 
General statistics average number on the rolls was 10,191,. 

and the average attendance 8,168. At the end of 1869-70 there 
were 167 schools, containing 9,781 boys; the average number on the 
rolls was 9,872, and the average attendance 7,671. Of these schools 
30 are village schools in the Dera Gazi Khan District, which receive: 
a special grant equivalent to the subscriptions raised in excess of 
the one per cent. cess. The other schools, with very few excep- 
tions, constitute the lower departments of zillah schools, or the 
branches of Zillah Anglo-vernacular Mission schools. 


“There are 11 primary schools under Kotgarh Mission, which 3 

, contained at the close of the year 165’ 

Schools at Kotgarh . , , , 

boys, and! had an average daily atten- 
dance of 126. They are certainly doing useful work; but on a 
recent occasion when I had an opportunity of seeing them, I found 
that they had hardly made the progress that I expected/*— Paras* 
102-120, Report , 1870-71. 


Oudh 

This province in respect of lower class schools seems to be follow- 
ing the example of the Punjab and the North-West, rather than 
of Bombay and the Central Provinces. And this is the more 
remarkable as the late Director of Public Instruction declared with 
the full approval of the Local Government and the Government 
of India that his great object was to place a good elementary 
school “under a well trained and fairly paid teacher within 21- 
miles of every child in the province/* It is clear that this object 
can never be attained under the present allotment of the expendi- 
ture, and I would suggest that here also the same three questions 
require attention as in the Punjab. 

The following extracts from the report deserves notice:— 


Vernacular Town Schools 

“The schools have increased from 27 to 33, the pupils from 
2,428 to 2,709, and the cost to Government has fallen. 

“The average attendance is, however, not quite so good as it 
should be, and is 2 per cent, less than it was last year. An attempt 
must be made to improve the attendance. 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 377 

“The comparative progress of these schools may be thus shown: — 

! 1 I ^ I I H It! ei i « I I k I , 1 


is B « 

3 • u 

g&e s 

g e B "a 

l £ '§ o| 

C S'” D G 

HI £ 


t per pupil 


Cost to 
Total Govern- 
Cost ment 







Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

1864-65 

15 

901 

. . 

554 

188 

5,853 

4 > 77 i 

1865-66 

15 

1,082 

839 

665 

79 373 

8,315 

7,298 

1866-67 

15 

1,028 

954 

767 

80 472 

8,217 

7,104 

1867-68 

14 

1.324 

I.ioo 

843 

76 461 

8,716 

7,358 

1868-69 

20 

2,152 

2,034 

1,632 

80 768 

12,161 

8,911 

1869-70 

27 

2,474 

2,428 

l, 9 U 

78 913 

14,191 

9,320 

1870-71 

33 

2,709 

2,706 

2,061 

76 939 

15,395 

9,878 


“The six additional schools of this grade are all situated in 
Lucknow. They are supported by the Municipality and by a grant 
of one-third of their total cost from the Educational Imperial 
Budget allotment. 

“The usual annual examination was held in June 1870, and 
scholarships were awarded to 26 pupils, at a cost of Rs. 86 per- 
mensem. 

“I very much desire to introduce into these schools the study 
of the elements of Natural Philosophy. But at present there is 
no good text-book, and before translating a text-book the permis- 
sion of the author must be obtained. 

Village Schools 

“The usual statement is as follows:— 


P. « . 
3 O u 

auS 

Uh 

O rt 0 

f 2% 

2 CJ 


g f 1865-66 6l 2,004 

•g 1 1866-67 264 7,462 

CO J 1867-68 381 13,707 

8) ] 1868-69 483 18,261 

I 1869-70 542 21,433 

!5 l 1870-71 575 23.270 


JB o « 

3 g O 
G O rC 
to ' M 

be 

os p .r 1 

k a J 


1,236 

6,758 

11,228 

16,313 
20,210 
21,445 ! 


Average daily at- 
tendance during 
the year 

0 

0 J 

^ g. 

Total cost to 
Imperial Fund 


Rs. 

L094 

5,082 

55294 

10,570 . . 

8,871 

335753 • . 

12,910 

47,061 . . 

16,13s 

60,963 . . 

16,562 

70,543 . * 


~ Ph Average A verage 
3*5 cost per cost per* 
^ *g School pupil 


Rs. As. p. Rs.A. p. 
83 o 0 4 10 4 

40 0 7 1 15 11 

88 9 5 3 0 1 

97 6 n 2 14 I 

112 7 7 3 0 3 

122 11 1 3 4 7 



37^ EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— LOWER SCHOOLS 

“The schools have increased from 542 to 575, the pupils from 
51,433 to 23,270, and the average attendance from 16,135 to 16,562. 
The number of pupils in 1868-69 per school was 37; in 1869-70 it 
was 39; and now it is 40. Attention has been paid during the 
year to the proper location of schools both with regard to the popu- 
lation of villages and to their situation. Lists of all villages 

numbering from 1,000 to 5,000 inhabitants have been procured, 
and schools situated! in small villages, where the average attendance 
was below 20, have, in some cases, been removed elsewhere. 

“It will not fail to be observed that the cost of each village 
school has steadily increased since such schools were first establish- 
ed. But the cost of each pupil is only six pence a year higher 

than it was in 1867-68, and is not nearly so high as it was in 1865- 
66. Now, the reason for this increased cost per school, but 

diminished cost per pupil, is very apparent. When the schools 
were first opened, no good masters could be obtained. Men were 
appointed without certificates on wretched stipends of Rs. 5 or 6 
per mensem. Thus each school was, undoubtedly, cheap enough. 
But each scholar's instruction, as comparatively few boys attended 
schools, was clear. It was also not good of its kind; for no depen- 
dence could possibly be placed on school-masters drawing, even 
with the fees, hardly more than the pay of chaprassies. 

“The average cost per school is now Rs. 122, and this gives, 
including the fees, a portion of which is spent on contingencies, 
hardly Rs. 10 to each master. In fact it does not give so much, 
for rent is also included in this item, and some village schools are 
still rented. Moreover, some village schools have two masters. 

“The pay drawn by village teachers may be thus tabulated:— 


Village Sshool Teachers at 


Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Re. 


10 

9-8 

9 

8 

7 

6-8 

6 

5-8 

5 

4 

3-8 

3 

2* 

1-8 

1 

e2 

53 

| I 

76 

130 

65 

2 

179 

1 

87 

61 j 

1 

28 

24 

35 

5 

848 


“It will thus be seen that there are 346 school-masters in 
Oudh drawing less than Rs. 8 per mensem. I do not hesitate to say 
that all masters in charge of schools, not being branch schools, 
whose masters are frequently pupil teachers, who draw less than 
Rs. 8 per mensem, are under-paid. Village education will not be 
in a satisfactory state until the village school-master is well edu- 
cated, and can earn as a school-master more than he can as a writ- 
er or a day-labourer. At present the Educational Department 
frequently. I believe, lose their best village teachers because of the 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— LOWER SCHOOLS 379 

small pay they receive, and those that remain hardly, so far as my 
observation has extended!, care to retain their appointments. It 
is true that the people of Oudh are poor. But for that reason the 
Educational Department should hardly offer wages that are inade- 
quate. It is not proposed to make any sweeping change; but a 
wise administration of the Educational Department (will hardly 
tend to reduce the average cost per school, though it should, un- 
doubtedly, reduce the average cost per pupil, not by under-paying 
school-masters, but by employing good men who will fill their 
schools with pupils. One school costing Rs. 12 and! having 60 
pupils is better than two schools costing Rs. 6 each, and haying 
but 40 pupils between them. 

“The pupil-teacher system tends to cheapen primary education;: 
but this system is rather applicable to large schools under at least 
one master of experience than to schools widely scattered, whose 
masters are not very frequently inspected. 


“The accompanying statement shows the relative success of 
village school education in Oudh: 


Year 

x> 42 

II 

Number of Pupils in Classes 

S 

x> u 

s 0 

2 43 
n ”-1 « 

3 § 

Tj 'tj 

Percentage of 
attendar ce 

T 3 

O 

tj 

JJ „ 


— i C/J 

H° 

I 

II 

III 

IV 

Total 

So g Q 

< 

s! 

8 * 

< 

O 

<ZJ , 
8 

ft ■ 

1869-70 

542 , 

i ,545 

3)528 

4)879 

11,481 

21,433 

20,210 

16,135 

79 

Rs. 

5,164. 

1870-71 

575 

1,897 

4 >oo 5 

5 ) 56 i 

11,807 

23,270 

21,445 

16,562 

77 

5)653 


Lower Class Aided Schools 

“The comparative progress at schools of this kind may be thus- 
shown:— 


Years 

Schools 

Pupils 

I Av 3 

/ attendance 

I Total 
cost to 
Govern- 
ment 

| Cost to 
Govern- 
ment 
of 

educating 
each 
Pupi t 


1869-70 

23 

1,342 

M 35 

Rs. 

4>077 

Rs. a. p. 
2 15 11 


1870-71 

24 

1 * 

1,674 / 

1,240 

4 , 32 i 

2 12 0 



“There has been improvement. None of the schools require 
particular notice/' (Paras 72-95, Report , 1870-71.) 


Central Provinces 

These statistics seem to correspond most nearly with the require- 
ments of the despatch of 1854, and it may be hoped that in accord- 



3^0 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Alice with those orders the Local Government may consider the 
propriety of devoting to lower class schools the same proportion 
of the imperial assignment proper as it already devotes of the total 
available income. Such an appropriation, employed on the system 
already in force in these Provinces of eliciting the largest practicable 
local contribution to meet each imperial grant-in-aid, would no 
doubt in a short time ensure a high standard of primary education. 

The following extracts from the reports deserve record:— 
Town and Village Schools of the Lower Class 


“The following statement exhibits the statistics of primary 
schools for boys for the last two years: 



SCHOOLS 

PUPttS 

Average 
DA iLy at- 
tendance 

Average cost of educating 

EACH PUPIL 








1869-70 

1870-71 


o 











o 

Os 

VO 

oo 

w 

b- 

t- 

00 

M 

t" 

1 

o\ 

VO 

00 

1 

O 

r- 

00 

M 

i 

r- 

\o 

00 

1870-7] 

Tota 1 
cost 

Cost to 
Govern- 
ment 

Total 
cost 1 

Cost to 
Govern- 
ment 

Lower *1 

Town V Total. 
Schools J 






! 

Rs. A. P. 

Rs. A. P. 

Rs. A. P. 

Rs. A. P. 

59 

58 

5,873 

5,590 

3,681 

3667 

658 

425 

694 

4 0 10 

Lower 

village f Total. 
Schools j 

588 

600 

29,64-i 

31,320 

17,472 

18,982 

3 14 IO 

046 

3 12 2 

013 

Gran d Total . 

647 

658 

35,515 

36,910 

21,153 

22,649 

4 5 10 

0 11 10 

4 3 2 

0 11 1 


A plentiful and comparatively healthy year has raised the 
numbers enrolled by 1,395 and the average daily attendance by 
1,496. The total average cost per head and the average cost to 
Government per head have thus both slightly fallen; the former 
by 2 2/3 annas, and the later by J of an anna. The town schools 
of the Southern Circle are still generally superior to those of the 
Northern. The attendance in the schools of the Eastern Circle 
has greatly improved, being indeed higher than in the other 
circles; but, as far as the instruction imparted is concerned, the two 
best are but just beyond the village standard, a fact which my own 
'observation leads me to believe is equally true in the Northern 
Circle. 

“The return of the examination of village schools will be found 
below. The sub-divisions of the prescribed standards are as 
follows. It should be remembered that the numbers 1, 2, 3, etc., 
do not represent the same subject of study in every standard: thus 


educational machinery or schools— lower schools 381 

in Standard I, 3 represents the Multiplication Table, whereas in 
-Standard V, Interest and Decimals are indicated by that number: 


1st Standard 

2nd Standard 

3rd Standard 

4th Standard 

5th Standard 

1. The Alpha- 
bet. 

2. Forming 
compound 
letters. 

3. The Multip- 
lication Table 1 
to 10. 

i 

1. Reading. 

2. Writing 
simple words. 

3. Tables of 
weights and 
measures; in 
the Multi- 
plication Ta- 
bles to 20, 
and, in Ta- 
bles of fracti- 
onal parts to 
2 i only. 

1 

1. Reading. 

2. Writing 
from dicta- 
tion simple 
sentences. 

3. The first 

[ four simple 
and com- 
pound rules. 

4. Geography 
of the Cen- 
tral Provin- 
ces. 

5. Parts of spe- 
ech. 

1. Reading. 

2. Writing 
from dic- 
tation. 

| 3. Arithmetic 
to Rule -of- 

Three and 
Vuglar Frac- 
tions in- 

clusive. 

4. Geography 
of India. 

5. Parsing. 

i 

1. Reading. 

2. Writing 
from dicta- 
tion. 

3- Arithmetic 
to Decimals, 
1 including In- 
terest. 

4. Geography 
of Asia. 

5. Parsing. 

6. History of 
India, Maha- 
rashtra. 


General Statement showing the result of the Annual Examination of All 
Village Schools in the Central Provinces 



'The circular of the Chief Commissioner, in which the system 
of examination shown in the table was enjoined, directs also that, 
after such examinations have been held, the salaries of village 
school-masters shall be revised and re-distributed according to the 
success or failure of their schools. The Inspectors of the Southern 
and Eastern Circles have not reported on this new application to 
•cess schools of the system of payments by results, probably because 
the adjustment of stipends had not been completed when their 
reports were sent in. The number of changes (81), a great pro- 
portion of which would probably not have been carried out but 



382 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

for the new system, shows how advantageous its introduction has 
been. I append the table: 


Teachers 


Total 

Promoted 

Degraded 

Removed 

Changes 

5 i 

23 

7 

81” 


(Paras. 31-34, Report , 1870-71.) 

British Burmah 

In British Burmah the indigenous schools which have been fully' 
noticed above are really the lower class schools and the educational 
department is in too early a stage for any fair deduction of policy 
or intention to be formed from the statistics. The 50 aided schools 
are small schools for boys and girls, chiefly in the hands of the 
Missionaries. 

The Berars 

Here the statistics take their natural position between those of 
^Rupees 75,579 Bombay and those of the Central Pro- 

f „ 28,943 vinces, and the measures suggested for 

adoption in the former province seem equally applicable here. 
Indeed the proportion which, the imperial expenditure* proper 
bears to the local expend! turef on lower class schools clearly 
shows that the people do not yet do enough for themselves, and 
that the further extension of elementary schools must be carried 
out by gradually enhancing the fee receipts, the cess or municipal 
contributions until the imperial grant proper bears a ratio to the 
local contribution more nearly resembling that in the Central 
Provinces. Admitting that primary schools have the first and 
largest claims on imperial funds, the proportion of imperial charge 
in each should not exceed one-third. 

The following extract deserves record: - 

“The schools are progressing in studies slowly but surely. Irr 
Akola District the lowest classes of these schools multi- 

plication tables (integral and fractional 
are taught; and when these tables are learnt by heart, the boys begin 
to learn to read and write Modi. After this, Balbodha reading,, 
geography, arithmetic, etc., are taught. All the boys that are admit- 
ted into the schools do not attain this last stage. Some people are 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— LOWER SCHOOLS 383 

quite contented after their boys are able to count numbers up to 
one hundred. I heard of one person in a village having taken away 
his son from the school as soon as he was able to count up to 
twenty-five, because, he said, that was the highest number of cows 
that his son would ever have to count. Some people take away 
t eir sons from the schools after they have learnt the multiplication 
tables, and are able to write names in Modi. The people have 
however, now begun to appreciate learning. Now there are many 
people who wish that their sons should be able to read books and 
learn geography and the higher branches of arithmetic. 

“In the nine lower class Hindustani schools 292 boys are taught. 
Hindustani Schools The masters have begun to teach a little 

of arithmetic and geography in their 
schools. Candidates from the Hindustani schools at Akola (citvl 
Khamgaum, and Akote appeared at the recent competitive exami- 
nations. One boy from the Akola School and one from the 
Khamgaum School were elected exhibitioners. 

The falling off in attendance in the lower class schools (from 
Oomrawuttee District 2,292 to 2,250) is owing to the exclusion 

, . ^ lc sons °f the poor men, who are 

!" f mamtain themselves properly, from being admitted to 
the school free of any charge: to the competition kept up by 
certain indigenous schools with Government schools: and to the 
[^7 of agricultural and trading classes to withdraw their sons 

utZ ™ r? a$ SO ° n as they are able to read and wite a 

, I daiJ y av erage attendance in all the schools has 

decreased from 2,460 to 2,239 for three reasons, viz., 1st, the harvest 

in^the 9 VT™ of the agricultural classes are employed 

monV fid fi ds: , 2nd '. th , e cele hration of a good many marriage cere- 

of thT’fah i°ff P 311 ° Ver thC di3trict: and 3rd ’ the holding 
of the fairs m different parts of the district, three of which continu 

ed successively for about a month and a half. These causes had 
the effCCt ° £ grCat irrCgularity in attend ance in most of 

P ettinro e n al,y f r aking L a,m ° St 3,1 thC lower cIass ^hook are 

k • g S th< " y ou ght to do. I was favorably impressed! with 
their progress Most of them were supplied with books, furniture, 

mapS ’ and m l examination of them has convinced me that, 
pon the whole, the masters in charge of them have satisfactorily 

lI T r d ! meS ' A few of ‘he lower class school-masters 
ve to work under the following difficulties: bad school-houses, 
the competition of indigenous school-masters and the prejudices of 
125 Dir. of Arch - 25 



384 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

the illiterate men with regard to the teaching of grammar, geo* 
graphy, history, and in fact everything except reading and writing* 
The masters have coped with these difficulties well. 

“The lower class schools generally acquitted themselves well at 

Woon District the annual inspection. There is a decid* 

ed improvement over the results of the 
past year, and two of them would do well to be promoted to the 
rank of middle class schools. These lower class schools are divided 
into E ngl ish-M ara thi and Marathi. In the former a little of 
English is taught. But care is taken that this little English should 
in no way prejudice a sound! and more useful knowledge of Marathi 
and arithmetic. Until lately they exclusively devoted their time 
and attention to literature, and looked with ignorant contempt 
upon the more useful subjects, such as arithmetic, geography, etc. 
This year’s examination, however, shows that they have made a fair 
beginning in the teaching of the neglected subjects. The schools 
at Darwa and Nair sent up a few pupils each to contend for ex- 
hibitions at the competitive examination, and, though unsuccessful, 
the latter passed one of its pupils among 60 that were selected for 
admission to a further examination for scholarships for proficiency 
in Urdu. 

“The lower class schools show a very small increase in the 
number of pupils. Of the 41 lower class schools, 25 may be said 
to be well attended. In the remaining 16 there is 
Bassim District room for improvement. I have already proposed 
the transferance of some of the masters of these 
schools with the view of putting them under better management. 
The difficulties of the school-masters in getting a sufficient number 
of boys in the schools may be seen from the fact that almost all of 
our village schools are placed in small villages, the largest of which 
scarcely exceeds 1,500 in population, which is generally of the 
Koonbee caste. The progress in study in these schools has been 
Very satisfactory. The number of boys studying the second and 
the third standard has increased from 463 to 532, and that studying 
the fourth and the fifth standards has increased by 32. The require- 
ments of the agricultural classes are satisfied by the third standard, 
and when that is attained the masters find great difficulty in inducing 
them to continue their children in school. Some of the best schools 
have been teaching up to the fifth standard, but this has been done 
only where the masters could afford to devote additional time to the 
teaching of the higher standards. In this way the efficiency of the 
other classes studying in the lower standards is not impaired, and 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— LOWER SCHOOLS 385 

the results of the examinations have shown that the instructions to 
■devote particular attention to the teaching of the lower standards 
before taking the boys to the higher ones have been well attended 
to. The number of boys studying English without coming up to 
standard V of the vernacular study has been almost reduced, and thus 
the studies may now be said to be carried on with greater regularity 
than before. The Bassim Hindustani School succeeded in passing 
-one of its pupils at the competitive examination in November last 
in the other two schools the want of trained masters is much felt. 


“There were on an average 39-66 pupils in every lower class school 
Elhchpore District receiving instruction; and seeing that there is 
only one teacher in every school of this descrip- 
tion, with the exception of the Devalvada and Unjangaum Schools, 
I am of opinion that we cannot with justice expect more 
oys in these schools. The lower class schools are doing well and 
gaming popularity m the villages they are located in. The m asters 
are diligent and painstaking. There is a want of assistant masters 
in most of these schools in the district, owing to which they could 
not enrol more boys.” (Paras. 43-47, Report, 1870-71.) 


Coorg 

The statistics of this small province are less notable, inasmuch as 
-during the current year the Government of India has sanctioned a 
scheme for a very complete system of elementary schools supported 
m fair proportions by imperial funds and a local rate. This will 
more than treble the present school accommodation, but its working 
must be shown in future reports. 6 

The following extract is, however, annexed:- 


Elementary Kanarese Schools 


There are 24 separate elementary or' nad-schools, but since there 
is, except at the Hindustani School, a purely Kanarese class at the 
central school and at the Anglo-vernacular schools at Virajapete and 
Hudikere, the total number is 27, with 1,339 pupils and an average 
daily attendance of 903. Of the whole number of 1,329 pupils, 
1,018 are Coorgs, and amongst them 81 girls, 228 Hindus of other 
castes, 19 Brahmans, 3 Musalmans, and 1 Christian. Classified 

according to the occupation of their parents, 115 are the sons of 

officials, 1,156 of ryots, and 56 of others. 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


386 

'Divided over the six talooks, the number of elementary schools 
and pupils and their cost to Government are exhibited in the 
following table:— 


No. of 

No. of 

No. of 

Total 

Cost to 

Schools 

Boys 

Girls 

No. 

Govt. 

Total i 

[ 



Rs. 

27 1 

1 ; 

i,M9 i 

89 

1,329 

1 

3 >i 03 


“The course of instruction in all these schools comprises the 
following lessons:— the I, II, and III Books of Lessons, and the 
Smaller Anthology which the scholars learn by heart; the four simple 
and compound rules with the current weights and measures, the 
usual tables of multiplication, writing from dictation, and copy- 
writing, reading manuscript papers, a short geography and history 
of Coorg and of India, the map of the world, and composition of 
business letters. 

“This course of instruction seems to please the people, and they 
have no objection to their buying the necessary books which are 
supplied by the Government Branch Depot. 

“Having but lately examined every school, the work accomplished 
during the past year indicates on the whole a satisfactory progress. 
The shortcomings of some of the teachers, adverted to in my last 
report, have in some instances been amended, in others they found 
their solution by the resignation of the respective teachers. On 
re-organizing the elementary schools since 1863, I was anxious to* 
retain the services of the existing village teachers; but in doing so, 
it could not be avoided to get men who were either not sufficiently 
qualified for their duties, or who from long habit could not easily 
find themselves into the new order of things. All the masters had to 
pass an examination, but in the beginning it was not a difficult 
task. As, however, new schools were established, and younger can- 
didates offered themselves, the standard of their examination was- 
raised, and the old teachers were requested to work up to it, and 
at the periodical conferences had to give an account of their self- 
improvement. Making the increase of their pay dependent on their 
efforts, several teachers of independent means who disliked further 
study preferred to resign their posts and to revert to their farm work- 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS — LOWER SCHOOLS 


387 


“The school-houses which are built and kept in repair by the 
ryots have in some places been neglected; but a temporary transfer 
of the teacher to some other locality until the needful repairs were 
accomplished had a salutary effect. 

“Except at the Central School no fees have been raised at any 
of the other schools for reasons stated in my last report. 

Aided Schools 

“There are three grant-in-aid schools in this Province, the 
Homan Catholic Anglo-Vernacular School and Girls’ School at 
Virajapete and the German Mission School at Anandapura in 
Ammatnad. The first school receives a grant of Rs. 15 per mensem, 
the second Rs. 5, and the third Rs. 6. I inspected these institutions 
•several times during the year.” (Paras. 23-34, Report , 1870-71.) 

Girls' Schools 

Such is the information given in the reports about the 14,161 
boys’ schools shown in the statement. We now come to the 1,768 
girls’ schools, which comprise almost all that is at present done for 
female education in India. 

Bengal 

The ordinary girls’ schools have decreased in number, and the 
attendance at them has also fallen. Nor is there any reason to hope 
that the schools have improved in efficiency. One of the Inspectors 
remarks: 

“Female education cannot be forced. We must look to the 
educated Natives to initiate all progressive measures, without whose 
thorough support Government attempts will prove abortive. Such 
support will be given as soon as it is the interest of the educated 
classes to give it, and not till then. However, the existence of the 
Zenana Education Society in Ducca, the desire springing up among 
the educated! to have educated wives (the married have commenced 
instructing their wives, while the unmarried, to quote the Deputy 
Inspector of Dacca, 'in their selection of brides have come to consider 
beauty without education defective’), the encouragement given gene- 
rally to female authorship, the manifest pride a husband takes in 
his wife s literary productions, these are all indications of the direc- 
tion in which the dispositions of the educated classes are tending as 
regards the education of their wives and daughters.” 



3 88 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Bombay 

In Bombay there is nothing notable about the few existing 
schools; the efforts of the department seem to be mainly confined 
at present, and wisely perhaps, to the attempt to train school 
mistresses, and wliat has been done will be shown below under the 
heading of Normal Schools. 

Madras 

In Madras, on the 31st March 1871, the total number of girls, 
connected with the department was 10,185,* while the number at 
the close of 1869-70 was 9,421. 

“English was studied by 2,810; Tamil by 5,788; Telugu by 1,397; 
Malayalum by 703; Kanarese by 221; Tulu by 25; and French bf 
7; 229 of the schools attended by girls were aided under the ordi- 
nary Salary Grant Rules, 334 worked under the Results’ System,. 

4 were aided from other than Educational Funds, and 56 received 
no aid. 

“The figures above given do not include certain Caste Girls” 
Schools maintained by the Maharajah of Vizianagram and others. 
The Maharajah s schools at Madras were, however, inspected at 
the request of the Committee of Management by the Superintendent 
of the Female Normal School and the Deputy Inspector of Schools 
for Madras, and copies of the inspection reports were furnished tn 
the managers. The schools are four in number, their total cost 
in 1870-71 was Rs. 5,629-12-4, and their total average attendance 
268. The managers state that, in the past year, marked improve- 
ment took place in the daily attendance, at the same time they 
admit that there is still room for much more improvement. It has- 
been arranged that the Superintendent of the Female Normal 
School shall periodically inspect and report upon the schools. This 
is m accordance with the plan of action originally proposed for the 
Superintendent, and is calculated to link together the Normal 
School and the Girls’ Schools, and to extend the sphere of the 
Superintendent’s usefulness.’’ (Paras. 119-120; Report, 1870-71.) 

North-Western Provinces 

The number of schools is large, and owing possibly to the 
difficulty m the way of inspection, the notice of them is scanty. Of 

’In female schools ... „ 

Mixed schools . . ! ’ ' ' 

Lower class boys’ (village school) ’ 

Normal schools , • . . 792 

• • • • 05 


Total 


10,185 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— GIRLS’ SCHOOLS 389 

Government schools it is said that good trained teachers are 
urgently required:— 

“Much work, therefore, remains for the Normal School to 
accomplish. The want of suitable books is much felt, and there 
appears to be no regular course of study in these schools. Many 
of the girls read fairly, and know a little arithmetic, but marriage 
draws them away from their studies before they have had time to 
acquire much information or even gain a taste for reading. Some- 
thing, however, is being done, and much more might be done if 
more money were available. Good teachers cannot be obtained on 
the present allowance of Rs. 4 or Rs. 5 a month, as the present 
supply is very small and tlie aided subscription schools offer larger 
salaries.” 

The Agra Circle contains the largest number of schools, 187 
with 3,465 pupils. 

But of these, 2,978 are in the 7th class, and unable as yet to read 
and write. The cost of instructing each pupil has been Rs. 3-9-3, 
all of which is borne by the Government. 

“In the Allahabad Circle the education of girls has made no 
very striking advance in the last year, but the progress and state 
of the schools may be considered satisfactory. There is a decrease 
of two schools and an increase of 36 pupils, the total number of 
schools being 87, with an aggregate of 1,554 girls; of these, 1,051 
are in the lowest class; 1,022 are Hindus, and 533 Musalmanees; 
888 are the children of agriculturists, 1.026 read Hindi, 44 Persian, 
and the rest Urdu. The cost of each girl’s instruction is Rs. 4-5-6, 
the cost to the Government Rs. 3-13-10; these figures for last 
year being Rs. 3-13-11 and Rs. 3-11-4. Mrs. Graves reports favorably 
on the Benares schools, though the attendance has been somewhat 
irregular. All the teachers of these schools are women, four of them 
having been trained in the Benares Normal School. The majority of 
the girls can read and write and are acquainted with elementary 
arithmetic.” ’ 

Aided female schools are also numerous and in the aggregate 
receive a considerable grant from Government. They are under 
the management of societies or of private committees, and those 
seem to be most successful in which English ladies undertake the 
superintendence. Each school is separately noticed, but there 
is nothing specially worthy of record in the list. The Director 
hopes that, as such schools cannot be regularly inspected, the mere 
fact of their existence may be considered to entitle them to a 
continuance of the grants. 



390 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


Punjab 

“The number of Government female schools has been reduced 
Statistics of the from 164 to 138, and the number of pupils attend- 

lesSf Fema ' ing them haS faIlen from 3 > 496 lo 3,174. A few 

of these schools are doing good work, but in 
the majority the progress is far from satisfactory. It may be ex- 
pected that those in the Lahore Circle, which now come under regu- 
lar inspection, will gradually improve; but their condition will never 
be really satisfactory till they are provided with regularly trained 
female teachers. Out of the total number, 2376 of the girls are 
Mahomedans, and 571 Hindus.” 


Private Female Schools 

"There are two aided female schools which it has been customary 
Punjab Girls’ include in the middle class— the Punjab Girls’ 

cww-Pinch Schoof 6 " School and the Murree-cum-Pindi School. The 
former contained at the close of the year 38 
pupils, and the average number borne on the rolls was 33. The 
average cost of educating each pupil was Rs. 17-5 per mensem. In 
1869-70 it amounted about Rs. 20. It may be observed that since 
the close of the official year the number of girls has risen to 46. 
The Inspector gives a favourable report of the results of his exa- 
mination. The Murree-cum-Pindi Schools contained at the close 
of the year 23 pupils, and the average number on the rolls was 34. 
It is attended by girls and little boys; at Murree, in the hot season, 
the attendance is generally much better than at Rawal Pindi dur- 
ing the cold weather. The school is well taught, and is a very 
useful institution. 


There are two European girls’ schools of the lower class,— the 
Anarkali School and the American Presbyterian Mission or Lahore 
Two schools at Christian Girls’ School. To the latter both 
Lahore for Europ- Europeans and Natives are admitted. The former 
ean Girls was well taught, but plain needle-work has been 

neglected; the latter has made satisfactory progress during the year, 
and the number of girls has increased from 22 to 35. 


“There were at the close of the year 323 aided schools for native 


Reduction in the 
nmuber of schools 


girls containing 8,523 children, of whom 
5,880 were saindus, and 2,323 Mahome- 


dlans. The number of schools has been 


reduced by 64, and the number of girls whose names are borne on 
the rolls is less by 1,065 than at the commencement of the year. 
Very large reductions of schools have been made in the Jullundhur, 
Kangra, and Siyalkot Districts. This was owing partly to the in- 


TSDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS — GIRLS* SCHOOLS 39I 

ability of the municipalities to contribute any longer to their support, 
.and partly to the somewhat unsatisfactory character of the work 
performed in many of them. 

“There are 42 primary female schools in the city of Amritsar. 
Tliey are under the supervision of Mrs. Rodgers, Lady Superinten- 
Female School at dent, of the Female Normal School. The 10 
.Amritsar and Lahore Urdu schools, and 6 of the 32 Hindi, are schools 
reported to be in good order; but in some of the 
latter little else than religious books are read, and the education 
-appears to be merely nominal. When the female pupils now in the 
normal schools take the place of the present masters, and not till 
then, it may be expected that the condition of all the primary schools 
will be really satisfactory. The primary schools at Lahore do not 
appear to have made much progress. 

“ Amongst the female schools under the management of district 
-officers, those in the Siyalkot District are by far the best. The 
schools in the Rawal Pindi and Jhelam Districts, under Bedi Khem 
Female schools Singh, are believed to be simply religious schools, 
in the Siyalkot, Ra- in which very little real work is done. It is desir- 
arn Districts** a ^ e that some arrangements should be made for 

bringing them under inspection, and for gradually 
organising them, if possible, on a more efficient basis. 

“Some of the female mission schools are really useful institutions; 
and are much better managed than the generality of those which 
Female mission have been opened under the auspices of Govern- 

schools ment officers, who were for the most part unable to 

make proper arrangements for their supervision 
The S. P. G. female schools at Delhi are most favorably reported 
on, and the Rawal Pindi and Peshawar schools promise well, though 
the numbers have somewhat fallen off in the former.” 

Oudh 

Here the report is very full and is given in extenso to show some 
of the difficulties in the way of the movement, 

“As there have been some inportant changes in the management 
and control of girls' schools in Oudh, it is perhaps advisable to give 
a brief resume of what has been done since girls’ schools were first 
opened. The Government of India, in July 1867, were pleased to 
sanction a grant of s- 380 per mensem for the promotion of the 
education of women in Oudh. Of this sum, Rs. 120 were to be 
expended on a normal school in Lucknow, and Rs. 260 on the 
education of girls. The scheme was only sanctioned experimentally 



390 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

Punjab 

“The number of Government female schools has been reduced 
Statistics of the from 164 to 138, and the number of pupils attend- 

le°SchS!ls nt FCma ' ing them haS faIlen from 3 > 496 to 3,174. A few 

of these schools are doing good work, but in 
the majority the progress is far from satisfactory. It may be ex- 
pected that those in the Lahore Circle, which now come under regu- 
lar inspection, will gradually improve; but their condition will never 
be really satisfactory till they are provided with regularly trained 
female teachers. Out of the total number, 2*576 of the girls are 
Mahomedans, and 571 Hindus.” 


Private Female Schools 

"There are two aided female schools which it has been customary 
Punjab Girls’ to include in the middle class— the Punjab Girls’ 
Sm-Pinch Schoof 6 " School and the Murree-cum-Pindi School. The 
former contained at the close of the year 38 
pupils, and the average number borne on the rolls was 33. The 
average cost of educating each pupil was Rs. 17-5 per mensem. In 
1869-70 it amounted about Rs. 20. It may be observed that since 
the close of the official year the number of girls has risen to 46. 
The Inspector gives a favourable report of the results of his exa- 
mination. The Murree-cum-Pindi Schools contained at the close 
of the year 23 pupils, and the average number on the rolls was 34, 
It is attended by girls and little boys; at Murree, in the hot season, 
the attendance is generally much better than at Rawal Pindi dur- 
ing the cold weather. The school is well taught, and is a very 
useful institution. 


There are two European girls’ schools of the lower class,— the 
Anarkali School and the American Presbyterian Mission or Lahore 
Two schools at Christian Girls’ School. To the latter both 
Lahore for Europ- Europeans and Natives are admitted. The former 
ean Girls was well taught, but plain needle-work has been 

neglected; the latter has made satisfactory progress during the year, 
and the number of girls has increased from 22 to 35. 


Reduction in the 
nmuber of schools 


“There were at the close of the year 323 aided schools for native 
girls containing 8,523 children, of whom 
5,880 were saindus, and 2,323 Mahome- 
dans. The number of schools has been 
reduced by 64, and the number of girls whose names are borne on 
the rolls is less by 1,065 than at the commencement of the year. 
Very large reductions of schools have been made in the Jullundhur, 
Kangra, and Siyalkot Districts. This was owing partly to the in- 


'EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS — GIRLS* SCHOOLS 39 X 

ability of the municipalities to contribute any longer to their support, 
.and partly to the somewhat unsatisfactory character of the work 
performed in many of them. 

“There are 42 primary female schools in the city of Amritsar. 
TThey are under the supervision of Mrs. Rodgers, Lady Superinten- 

Female School at dent, of the Female Normal School. The 10 
.Amritsar and Lahore Urdu schools, and 6 of the 32 Hindi, are schools 
reported to be in good order; but in some of the 
latter little else than religious books are read, and the education 
-appears to be merely nominal. When the female pupils now in the 
normal schools take the place of the present masters, and not till 
then, it may be expected that the condition of all the primary schools 
will be really satisfactory. The primary schools at Lahore do not 
appear to have made much progress. 

“’Amongst the female schools under the management of district 
officers, those in the Siyalkot District are by far the best. The 
schools in the Rawal Pindi and Jhelam Districts, under Bedi Khem 
Female schools Singh, are believed to be simply religious schools, 
in the Siyalkot, Ra- in which very little real work is done. It is desir- 
arn Districts^ ^ el “ able t3iat some arrangements should be made for 
bringing them under inspection, and for gradually 
organising them, if possible, on a more efficient basis. 

"Some of the female mission schools are really useful institutions; 
and are much better managed than the generality of those which 
Female mission have been opened under the auspices of Govern- 

scbools ment officers, who were for the most part unable to 

make proper arrangements for their supervision 
The S. P. G. female schools at Delhi are most favorably reported 
on, and the Rawal Pindi and Peshawar schools promise well, though 
the numbers have somewhat fallen off in the former." 

Oudh 

Here the report is very full and is given in extenso to show some 
of the difficulties in the way of the movement, 

“As there have been some inportant changes in the management 
and control of girls’ schools in Oudh, it is perhaps advisable to give 
a brief resume of what has been done since girls’ schools were first 
opened. The Government of India, in July 1867, were pleased to 
sanction a grant of s* 380 per mensem for the promotion of the 
education of women in Oudh. Of this sum, Rs. 120 were to be 
expended on a normal school in Lucknow, and Rs. 260 on the 
education of girls. The scheme was only sanctioned experimentally 



3 g& SKLKCTIONS TOM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

The late Mr. Handford, in September 1868, submitted a report on 
the working of the experimental scheme* and solicited an additional 
grant— 

(1) for a second training school for Hindi school-mistresses, 

(2) for additional girls' schoofc, 

(3) for an European Inspectress. 

“The Government of India, in October 1868* whilst sanctioning 
the continuance of the experiment on the existing scale of establish- 
ment, were of opinion that sufficient co-operation on the part of the 
native community had not been obtained, so as to warrant any 
increased grant. Subsequently, the grant was increased by 
Rs. 235 per mensem, but no European Inspectress was appointed. 

“In the last annual review of education in Oudh, the Chief Com- 
missioner was pleased to concur in the opinion that none of the 
women at the normal school should be sent out to teach schools,; 
until there was an Inspectress. This was the state of affairs up to 
last January. There was a normal school with ten pupils, six of 
whom were qualified for employment, costing Rs. 120. per mensem; 
there was an additional grant of Rs. 235 per mensem for the 
establishment of new schools, and there was the well considered 
opinion that to send out from the normal school the six trained 
mistresses tq open fresh schools would be merely to invite scandal. 
Accordingly it was suggested that the normal school should be 
closed for a time; that the mistress should be made Inspectress off 
girls' schools in Lucknow and its suburbs, and that with the savings 
thus effected, amounting to Rs. 70 per mensem, additional schools 
should be opened. It was also proposed to open normal school 
classes for Mahomedans and for Hindus. All this was done, save 
that the Hindu normal class could not be opened for want of a 
trained teacher. 


“The normal school at Lucknow never trained any women Taut 
Mahomedans. The results of the year*s. operations are as follows:— 


Schools. 

Pupils 

Average daily 
attendance 

Total cost of edu- 
cating each pupil 

18.69-70 

1870-71 j 

1869-70 

1870-71 

1869-70 

: 1870-71 

1869-70 

1870-71 > 

38 

69 

879 

1,369 

j 714 \ 

1,056 

5-6-3 

5-4-10 

/ 


“Thus the schools have increased by thirty-one and the pupils; 
have risen from 879 to 1,369, or have increased by 490. The average 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OB SCHQOL$~~<URL$’ SCHOOLS 393, 

attendance per school is now about twenty; last year it was twenty- 
three. The apparent decrease i& owing to the breaking up of the 
large school at Fyzabad into two schools. The mistresses quarrelled, 
and it was necessary to give them separate institutions. It might 
seem from the above table, as if very great improvement had been 
Schools and effected, and that the girls’ schools in Oudh were 

edf butTtTs 'Sffiojlt CVery res Pect progressing. But, indeed, the edu- 
to ascertain the ex- eatIon of girls in Oudh is beset with difficulties 
act progress made Here not only do school-mistresses object to having 

r , , , their P u P ils seen or to be seen themselves, but 

many of them object to male inspection even from behind a screen. 
Some say that not only must not a man be seen, but even his voice 

Tha T* hCard ' Conse< l uentl y> th ere are some girls’ schools that 
whose S ? en ° r examm ed even from behind a screen, and of 

whose condition I can form but the faintest idea. Moreover the 
girls will sometimes not come to school without a palanquin, and the 

SHLoST ^ r bearm aCtU3lly ’ “ S ° me Glances, \reater than 
tne amount spent on tuition. 

“I may remark here that at Fyzahad, where the palanquin expen- 

““*8““. ®y'our of the s.LJ are Ze 
Jildren Of Government servants; about twenty-seven belong to 

servanTs TshouTd’ a " d . twe "^ ix are ‘he children of private 

abTet wit ,lm 11,6 mai ° ri,y » <* 


mv tt'l 8 r ,T ld be T re lms « istaa »T' The refusal to allow of 
SfaXT T P t' S ” ay “* h ' ar a ™ice seems 

“There are six school, under the immediate management of the 

f e ° f " hich d ° " w al '°» ■» 

Massih mat do not P ect mem , but one that contains only light nunik 
SZ*"* , h “ ™m,l y established, i/is ^.resZed! 

Pupils. . WOUld aII ° W ° f my ‘nspection, since no dooli has, 

1. Model School 16 been sanctioned for this school 

2. Chowk * 16 

3. Newazgunj ' 16 

4. Patanala # 16 

5. Raja.ka. 

Bazar * 18 




394 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

“In fact, I have not sanctioned a single palanquin for any 

No dooli has school newly opened, except in one instance, where 
heen sanctioned for it was very clearly shown that by so doing I should 
schools increase the attendance, introduce a superior class 

into the school, and provide for the advanced education of branch 
school girls. The report of the Lucknow Inspectress of female 
schools is meagre and where it not for the kindness if the lady who 
visited on several occasions the school in Lucknow that would not 
tolerate my inspection, I should have but little to record. 

“I must say that I grudge to spend the limited funds placed at 
my disposal for the education of girls, on bearers. The people of 
Lucknow lend no assistance to schools for girls, and do not in any 
way co-operate with the educational department in the matter of 
female education. Even the schools that are provided with dbolis 
are but poorly attended, and the girls make but little progress. I 
should like to see each school managed by its own local committee, 
composed of the fathers of the girls sent to read. But I am inform- 
ed that the idea is, under the purdah system, impracticable, and the 
schools would collapse if the attempt were made. 

“In his report the Deputy Inspector attempts to show that in 
cities much progress in the education of girls cannot be expected. 
For, in his opinion, none of the better class of Mahomedans or 
Hindus will ever approve of the education of women, inasmuch as 
native gentlemen think that such education tends to emancipate 
Mahomedan and Hindu ladies from the seclusion they now enjoy 
or suffer, and that the lower classes will not regard with favour the 
education of girls, inasmuch as they do not care even for the instruc- 
tion of their sons. Thus, female schools are, in his opinion, only 
likely to succeed in outlying towns and villages, not in such a city 
as Lucknow. To a certain extent his opinion is borne out by 
facts. That is to say, it is both easier and cheaper to maintain 
a school for girls in a village or town than in Lucknow.” 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS — GIRLS* SCHOOLS 


395 


Private Schools for Girls (Aided) 
ided rivate Female Sch00ls The customary statement is as shown below:^ 






1 


Rs. A. P. Rs A. 

P. Rs. 

A. 

P. Rs. A. f| 

Middle Class 

1 1869-70 

1 

80 

40 

6,508 14 3 2,430 

0 158 

12 

0 4 

Girls* Schools 

J 1870-71 

1 

71 

53 

11,005 7 11 2,880 0 

0 155 

0 

1 40 9 0 

Lower Class 

1 1869-70 

10 

291 

193 

5,419 10 1 2,693 9 

r r 

13 

10 11 5 10 

Girls* Schools 

J" 1870-71 | 

15 

316 

257 

1 

1 6,522 8 0 2,427 12 

0 19 

15 

2769 

Of these schools 

five belong 

to the Anglican 

Church 

Mission, 


and eight to the American Methodist Mission, and it is said generally 
that the attainments of the girls are not equal to those of the 
Government pupils. There is also a Zenana Mission Agency, whose 
work is thus recorded by the Lady Superintendent:— 


“As it is now nearly a year since Government sanctioned a grant 
of Rs. 30 per mensem in support of the very important work of 
Zenana teaching in Lucknow, it may perhaps interest you to have a 
brief account of this branch of education and its progress in the 
city during the past year. 


“When we use the term ‘Zenana teaching' you will at once 
understand this to mean the education of native ladies of the upper 
classes, and I believe it is now almost universally allowed, that if 
India ever takes a worthy place, as a nation, among the civilised 
nations of the world, it will be through the influence of her 
daughters rather than her sons. In any case, it is clearly our duty 
to do what we can to raise the moral and intellectual condition of 
the women in India, and there is, I think at least in the present 
state of native society, no more effectual way of doing this, than 
the present system of daily visits from house to house. Each lady 
thus learns, in her own home, the art of working and reading, sitting 
and speaking, and making herself and her family happy in an intel- 
ligent manner. Had I the necessary funds, I should be glad to- 
employ several teachers in this way, and have no doubt there would 
be plenty of work for them all. 


“At the beginning of last year, we had about 30 pupils, and they, 
increased every month until June, when there was a kind of panic* 



-396 SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 

and nearly all the Zenanas were dosed; and in October 1870 we 
only about seven houses open. Now, in April 1871, we have 28 
ouses open and upwards of 50 pupils under instruction.” (Para- 
.graph 113 et seq. Report, 1870-71.) 

Central Provinces 

This report shows 137 schools with 4,494 pupils on the rolls, and 
an average daily attendance of 2,489 pupils, educated at an annual 

average cost of Rs. 4-7-1. But the account given is not favorable; 
the Director writes — 


The number of schools has increased by 3, and the average 
attendance by 110, though the number of names registered has 
fallen by 65; this decrease is due to the removal of the names of 
persistent absentees from the registers. Generally the schools are 
not promising, only children of the very lowest order (except in 
Sambalpur) attend; a few minutes every second or third day is the 
most regular attendance that can be insisted upon; marriages take 
away girls who are just beginning to make progress; teachers are 
secure wit t e very greatest difficulty, and a thousand obstacles 
present themselves at every step. 


Still more unfavorable is the state of aided girls’ schools 
Lower class aided girls’ schools.- The Government grant is Rs. 30 


Kamthi Female Orphanage 


Fees Number Average I 
- of pupils daily of pupils daily 

a n tte ° da - m 3 ist atteuda-! 

noe March ncc 


per mensem, but through 

some oversight on the part of 

the Managing Committee, the 

whole amount for the year has 

■ n °t been drawn. The total ex- 
penditure has been Rs. 2,167, 
~ — more than half being for board 
as a nd clothing.” 


The Deputy Commissioner of U pper Godaveri District writes thus 


Bhadrachalam Aided Girls’ School" 


1869-70 1870-71 


™^i ber v° f ,Avera § e daily [Number of Average daily 
U?*? att€fldance pupils on attendance 

31st March 31st March 

, 22 12 * 30 ! ~ 23 


of this school: — “The master is 
five months’ pay in arrears from 
[the town, and nothing that I 
can do appears sufficient to in- 
duce the people to pay up; but 
even if the institution should 


die, which 1 believe more than probable, it would, I think, not be 
matter for much repet. The girls are for the most part menial 
servants of the Rani, whose slaves they profess to be, and the lives 
they are destined to lead are neither virtuous nor hopeful." (Paras 
Report, 1870-71). 1 i V ’ 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS-— GIRLS’ SCHOOLS 397 

The Berars 

The Director reports 27 female schools with 671 pupils, of whom 
:277 are Muhammadans, costing Rs. 9,411, of which about two-thirds 
are paid by the cess and municipal funds, thus reducing the annual 
average charge to Government per pupil to 4 annas 4 pies. 

A notice is given of the state of the schools in each district, but 
there is nothing especially worthy of record. As a sample I give an 
extract from the report of the Oomrawuttee District. 

"Female education is gradually gaining ground, though it is not 

Oomrawuttee District making a rapid progress. The 

people are being familiarisedi with 
, ds idea. Most of the girls attend- 

ing the female schools belong to pure Berarees. As soon as girls 
are betrothed in marriage, they cease attending the schools and go 
to live in their step-fathers’ houses. This is a great difficulty in 
the way of the progress of the female schools. No exertions are 
spared in inducing the people to send their girls to the schools. 
The Female Marathi School at Oom^wuttee i sthe most advanced 
•of the female schools of this district. It is attended by 25 girls 
and its daily average attendance is 15. The first and second classes’, 
consisting of three and four girls respectively, read Marathi Fourth 
and Third Books well. The girls write from dictation and can add 
and write easy sums. They are well up in Oojalnee and elementary 
■Grammar. A little of the geography of Asia and India is also taught 
to them. There are nine girls in the third class, who can read 
Marathi First Book well and write easy words from dictation. The 
rest of the girls are alphabet learners, six advanced girls of this school 
have been betrothed in marriage, and they have therefore left 
the school. The Hindustani Female School at Oomrawuttee con- 
tains 24 girls, 18 of whom attend daily. They are divided into 
four classes. Four girls in the first class can read six pages of 
Bagh-o-Bahar with fluency, write from dictation well, and) add 
•simple sums tolerably. Seven girls in the second class learn Hin- 
dustani First Book and distinguish and write alphabets. The rest 
of the girls are mere tyros.” (Paras-Report, 1870-71). 

In another district (Buldanah) it is reported that the Muham- 
madans, who form a considerable portion of the population, have 
come forward with better spirit than the Hindus. 

British Burmah 

There are no Government girls’ schools in this province, and the 
aided schools are few* The Director reports: 



398 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


“The returns of aided girls’ schools are incomplete. No grant- 

in-aid having been received by the 
Female Schools Convent School at Moulmein, the 

Superintendent declined to comply 
with the request for a report upon the institution for the past year; 
and the usual returns of the S.P.G. Girls' School at Rangoon were 
not received in time for this report. The pupils of the Convent 
School at Rangoon showed creditable progress at the last general 
examination. 

“In addition to the two Convent Schools, the female department 
of the Rangoon Diocesan School and the Town School at Moulmein 
supply the demand for middle class education. Primary education 
for girls has hitherto been afforded only in the indigenous schools 
conducted by lay teachers, many of which will, it is hoped, come 
under the operation of the plan of payment by results. 

“Hereafter, should the female department of the training school 
meet with success, a permanent advance in this direction may be 
looked for; but at present the obstacles to the extension of female 
education among the Burmese are many. A Ladies Association for 
the purpose of extending the means of education to the female 
population has been recently established in Rangoon in connection 
with the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel." (Paras— Report, 
1870-71). 

Coorg 

In Coorg, we find the peculiarity common to the Madras Presi- 
dency, that girls attend the elementary Government schools, although 
the proportion of girls to boys, 89 to 1,249, is very small. 

There are only two aided schools: one under Roman Catholic 
superintendence, with 25 girls aged from 6 to 14, receiving a Gov- 
ernment grant of Rs. 5 per mensem; the other under the German Mis- 
sion with 16 girls, receiving a grant of Rs. 6 per mensem. 

Both appear to be in a very elementary stage. 

From all these extracts the following conclusions seem deducible: 
(1) that only in Bombay and the Central Provinces do the statistics 
of primary education at all approach the requirements to the educa- 
tional code, and that even here the provision though promising is 
inadequate; (2) that in the other larger provinces, and especially in 
Bengal, the present application of funds is inconsistent with the code 
and with the recognised) duty of the State in the matter of education; 
(3) that as regards female education no real advance can be expected 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS GIRLS' SCHOOLS 399 

until women can be trained as school-mistresses and inspectresses, 
-and that if mass education is to be a reality, primary schools must be 
frequented by boys and girls alike, as is already the case in those 
parts of the Central Provinces where mass education has been most 
successful; and lastly that it is unnecessary, and perhaps very impoli- 
tic, to project further schemes for the provision of fresh funds, so 
long as existing funds are not appropriated in accordance with the 
clear requirements of the code. If this were done, natural growth 
would supersede forcing and all its attendant evils. 


325 Dir of Arch — 25 



401 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS- MIDDLE SCHOOLS 

Middle Class Schools 

The next step in the educational ladder brings us to middle schools. 
The statistics of them are annexed. 

Comparative Statistics of Middle Class Schools in India m 1870-71* 


it) 


Province 


Bengal 

fBoys . 
\ Girls . 

Madras 

f Boys . 
t Girls . 

Bombay 

fBoys . 
1 Girls . 

N.W. 

Provinces 

f Boys . 
\ Girls . 

Punjab 

f Boys . 
\ Girls . 

Oudh 

^ Boys . 
\ Girls . 

C. Provinces 

f Boys . 
\ Girls . 

Burmah 

''Boys . 
t. Girls . 

The Berars . . 

fBoys . 
t Girls'. 

Coorg 

fBoys 
1 Girls . . 


Boy* 

Girls 

Total 


(2) 

Government 

i 

(3) i 

f 

Private and Aided | 

0 (4) 

Private and ' 
inspected 
only (ex- 
cluding in- 
digenous 
Schools) 

(5) | 

] 

Total number j 
of 

(6) | 

Total expenditure 
on Government 
Middle Class 
Schools 

(7) | 

Total expenditure 
on Middle Class 
Aided Schools 

(8) 

Proportion of expenditure on Middle 
Class Schools, Government and 
Aided, to total expenditure on 
Education during the year 

Schools 

42 

1 

ft. 

Average annual cost 
per pupil to 

Schools 

Pupils 

. _ - 

Average annual cost 
per pupil to 

Schools 

Pupils 

| 

1 

i 

I 

! 

i 

Local 

Imperial 

Local 

Total expenditure from 
Imperial and Local 
Funds on education 

(a) 

Total expenditure from 
Imperial and Local 
Funds on Middle 
Class Schools 
i (*) 

Percentage of column 
b on column a 

(O f 

Imperial Funds 

Local Funds 

-a 

ft 

2 

Uh 

"oS 

*u 

0 

ft 

a 

1— i 

Local Funds 

Schools 

Pupils 

Imperial 



Rs A. 

P. 

Rs. A. 

P. 



Rs. A. 

P. 

Rs. A. 

P. 





Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 


217 

11,931 

5 it 

1 

3 5 

0 

1,320 

56,847 

4 12 

7 

7 9 

0 


* • 

1,537 

68,778 

67,924 

39,571 

2,72,354 

4,29,954 

1 .of 

8,09,803 

25*3 

















. . 



.. 

y 31,98,8214 



68 

4,667 

9 0 

9 

3 4 

5 

433 

21,335 

7 8 

0 

9 13 

6 



501 

26,002 

42,243 

15,312 

1,60,715 

2,10,015 

1 r 

4,28,285 

19 *9 


























•• 


•* 


90 

5,259 

4 1 

2 

10 7 

3 


.. 

90 

5,259 



21,425 

54,987 

J l 

76,412 

3-5 

157 

18,151 

4 9 

1 

8 13 

1 

23 

2,174 

13 7 

9 



17 

1,268 

197 

21,593 

83,003 

1,60,074 

29,315 


1 * f 

2,72,392 

io’8 


























•• 


*• 


7 

561 

7 3 

4 





7 

561 



4,045 


J l 

4,045 

*17 

14 

895 

37 12 

0 

7 14 

11 

162 

7,299 

13 8 

8 

16 11 

7 



176 

8,194 

33,799 

7 ,ioi 

98,860 

1,22,079 

i r 

2,61,839 

13*6 





















> 19,39,4524 





•• 


*• 


30 

882 

23 11 

6 

46 13 

9 



30 

882 

* * 


20,920 

41,334 

J l 

62,254 

3*2 

97 

8,956 

12 I 

3 

3 5 

7 

39 

3,422 

12 11 

7 

19 15 

5 



136 

12,378 

1,08,172 

j 30,002 

43,547 

f 68,310 

1 a. f 

2,50,031 

24 '5 

. . 


+ t 






. . 







. . 

.. 


.. 


10,18,6404 

J l 

. . 

. . 

5i 

3,739 

7 13 

9 

3 1 

2 

22 

1,610 

10 3 

11 

11 12 

9 



73 

5,349 

29,211 

1,490 

16,499 

18,997 

l c J 

76,197 

17*3 





















r 4,37,6484 




•• 



•• 


1 

53 



•• 




I 

53 

* * 

• * 

2,880 

8,125 

J l 

11,005 

2*5 

44 

3,484 

17 4 

1 

10 3 

7 

8 

749 

12 7 

5 

14 9 

11 



52 

4,233 

60,121 

35,630 

9,335 

10,958 

1 r 

1,16,044 

22*6 





















t 5,13,1394 



•• 


•• 


•• 


1 

139 

9 4 

10 

21 13 

9 



I 

139 

* * 


1,200 

2,820 

J l 

4,020 

•78 

4 

129 

71 10 

3 

6 4 

10 

16 

1,127 

12 II 

9 

34 I 

2 



20 

1,256 

9,242 

813 

14,353 

38,504 

1 oJ 

62,912 

41*4 





















J- 1,51,7864 





•• 


•• 


4 

178 

10 7 

2 

37 6 

3 



4 

178 

*• 


1,860 

6,656 

J l 

8,516 

5*6 

44 

3,747 

18 0 

2 

0 2 

6 

1 

18 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 



45 

3,765 

67,501 

588 

1 

900 | 

( 

900 

1 0 f 

69,889 

25*6 





. . 






. . 






. . 


1 

1 

j- 2,78,5534 


. . 

3 

108 

13 9 

7 











3 

108 

1,469 




l f 

1,469 

9*7 

*_J 




















^ 15,0334 



699 

55,807 





2,024 

94,581 





17 

1,268 

2,740 

1,51,656 

5,02,685 

3,00,581 

6,45,878 

8,99,717 


23,48,861 

I9'3 







133 

7,072 






" 1 

133 

7,072 



52,330 

1,13,922 

•• 

1,66,252 

1*2 

699 f ; 

55;8 o 7 





2,157 

101,653 


•• J 

17 

1,268 

1 2,873 , 

1,58,728 ! 

5,02,685 

3,00,581 

6,98,208 

10,13,639, 

1,21,14,699 

25,15,113 

20*7 



EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS — MIDDLE SCHOOLS 403 

These statistics are illustrated as before by the annexed extracts* 

The Bengal and Bombay reports do not treat separately of this 
class of schools, and the Madras report, while noticing each school 
in detail, does not contain anything of general interest. 

Of the 14 Government schools in the North-Western Provinces, 
the Director remarks— 

'These schools are still upon their trial, but there appears to be 
every probability that the experiment will be crowned with success. 
The number of students is increasing, the instruction is improving, 
they are gradually beginning to send on under-graduates to the col- 
leges, and they are attracting in greater numbers the more promising 
students from the Anglo-vernacular and other schools of the districts 
in which they are situated. All these schools have been visited by 
the Inspectors, who have, in general, been satisfied with their condi- 
tion.^ 


There is some little ambiguity in the Director’s treatment of the 
126 aided schools. It would seem that many of them are under 
Missionary Societies; 76, however, are said to be under the manage- 
ment of the Inspectors, and of these the Director remarks— 

These schools owe their existence chiefly to the desire of 
parents to qualify their sons for employment by giving them some 
knowledge of English. A monthly subscription is raised by Govern- 
ment officials and other inhabitants of a town or large village, and 
the Government supplements the income with a grant-in-aid. I 
expect to see" a considerable diminution in the number of these 
schools in the present year, and I confess I shall not lament the 
extinction of the worst of them. Some of them are doubtless in a 
satisfactory state and are doing the work for which they were estab- 
lished; some of them supply students to the zillah schools and col- 
leges. But it is impossible to procure competent English teachers 
for the small salaries offered in the poorer schools; and the spread 
of bad English, villainously pronounced, will be the chief result of 
their teachin g.”— (Paras. 53 and 146, Report , 1870-71). 

Punjab 

"Zillah schools of the higher class comprise, with their branches, 
three departments, -the upper, middle, and lower school. The lower 
department usually consists of several schools located in different 
buildings, and is maintained, with a few exceptions, entirely on the 
grant-in-aid system. 



SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


404 


“Before a boy is allowed to enter the middle school, he must 
pass the lower school examination, by which his knowledge of read- 
ing and writing the vernacular and of arithmetic to compound 
division is tested. After completing the course of study for the 
middle school, which extends over four years, the pupil is required 
to pass the middle school examination, which embraces translation 
from English into the vernacular and vice versa , grammar, arith- 
metic, geography, the history of India, Urdu, and Persian. In the 
upper school, where the course of study extends over three years, 
the pupil is prepared for the Entrance Examination of the Calcutta 
University. 

“The three departments are regarded as separate schools; 
students of the upper department only are shown as belonging to 
schools of the higher class, and in like manner students of the 
middle school only are included in schools of the middle class. It 
is, as I pointed out last year, very important that this fact should 
be borne in mind in any comparisons which may be madle between 
Government schools of this province and aided schools or Govern- 
ment schools in other parts of India. 

“I was convinced that the reduction of upper schools, and the 
consequent employment of better teachers in many of the middle 
class schools, must produce in time a great result, especially with 
regard to English instruction. I was not, however, prepared for the 
very great improvement that the middle school examination has 
brought to light. In 1869-70 only 68*6 per cent, of the candidates 
from zillah schools obtained more than 30 per cent, out of the 
maximum number of marks allowed for English, 14*3 obtained more 
than 40 per cent., and only one boy more than 50 per cent. During 
the year under report 80 1 per cent, of the candidates obtained 
more than 30 per cent., 39*6 more than 40 per cent., and 11*9 more 
than 50 per cent. A very great improvement must still take place 
in most of our middle class schools before they reach the high 
standard, to which I expect them to attain in the course of a few 
years, but the result above recorded is certainly most encouraging. 

“The schools that constitute the lower departments of the middle 
class zillah schools are supported almost entirely on the grant-in- 
aid system. The general progress of these schools is highly satis- 
factory, and the majority are rapidly improving. 

' The schools differ very much in different localities; there are 
still some that are far from efficient, whilst others are really excel- 
lent. It is of course essential to their success that sufficient funds 
should be available to secure competent teachers. Much, however. 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS — MIDDLE SCHOOLS 4°5 


depends on the locality where they are situated, more especially 
because it is seldom expedient in schools of this class to employ 
strangers; much, too, depends on the head master, and on the degree 
of attention that is bestowed by himself and his assistants on the 
supervision of these schools.” — ( Paras . 73 to 101, Report, 1870-71.) 

PRIVATE SCHOOLS OF THE MIDDLE CLASS 

“There are two European aided schools for boys,— the High 
School at Lahore and the Henry Lawrence Memorial Asylum at 
Murree. 

“The Lahore High School has made satisfactory progress during 
the year. It contained at its close 31 boys, the average number on 
the rolls was 23, and the average attendance 19. The cost was 
Rs. 4,820-6-3, of which Rs. 1,854-13-2 were contributed by Govern- 
ment. 

“The Lawrence Memorial Asylum is capable of affording accom- 
modation to 150 children, but the number has been restricted for 
want of funds. The institution contained at the close of the year 
131 children, the number of boys and girls being nearly equal. The 
general management of the Asylum was successful; but the progress 
of the children in their studies was not altogether satisfactory, and 
it was found necessary to remove the school-master. 


Aided Schools of the middle 
class for Natives. 


“There were at the close of the year 32 aided schools of the 

middle class for Natives containing 
2,980 boys. Of these institutions, 16 
are mission schools, three serve as 
branches of the Government School at 
Delhi, two are Anglo-vernacular schools 
under Cantonment Magistrates,* eight-f- 
are of similar standing with Govern- 
ment town schools, and are under the management of Deputy Com- 
missioners. The Ferozepur School, which was formerly a zillah 
school, an adult school at Lahore, under Native management, and 
the 4th Gurkha Regimental School, make up the number. 


* Ferozepur 
Mian Mir 
fGurgaon 
Dera Gazi Khan 
Kasauli 


“In 1869-70 the Dera Ismail Khan School was the only mission 
school of this class which sent up successful students for the middle 
school examination. During the year under report six boys from 
Syalkot, two from Wazirabad, and two from Dera Ismail Khan 
have passed. The two former schools are reported to be in very 
good order. 

"I reported last year that the Ferozepur School was the only 
instance of a zillah school maintained entirely on the grant-in-aid 



40 6 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


system. A school has now been opened in the Gurdaspur District, 
and the scheme in force in zillah schools has been introduced. The 
propriety of giving some instruction in agriculture is under con- 
sideration. This institution is maintained by subscriptions raised 
by the agricultural population among themselves, and the money 
really seems to have been given spontaneously.”— (Paras. 136 to 141 
Report , 1870-71.) 

Oudh 


MIDDLE CLASS SCHOOLS 

“There are still eighteen Anglo-vernacular Middle Class Schools. 
Eleven of these schools are maintained entirely from the imperial 
educational grant, whilst in seven schools the vernacular establish- 
ment is paid from the Government allotment, and the English 
departments are supported partly by the State and partly from 
subscriptions according to the grant-in-aid rules. 

The statistics of these schools may be thus shown: — 


Cost per pupil 


Total 

Cost Cost to 








Rs. 

Rs. 

i 

Rs. 

Rs. 

, A. 

P. 

Rs 

. A. 

P. 

1864-65 

18 

L 548 


972 


54i 

20,344 

13,472 

20 

14 

10 

13 

13 

9 

1865-66 

19 

1,907 

L7I4 

1,424 

83 

1,056 

28,590 

19,455 

20 

1 

3 

13 

10 

7 

1866-67 

19 

2,072 

1,899 

1,593 

83 

1,186 

25,938 

17,168 

16 

4 

6 

10 

12 

5 

1867-68 

20 

2,258 

2,174 

1,716 

78 

1,581 

32,020 

23,284 

14 

11 

8 

10 

11 

4 

1868-69 

19 

2,164 

2,149 

1,775 

82 

2,043 

30,510 

22,348 

13 

15 

0 

10 

3 

4 

1869-70 

18 

1,840 

1,965 

1,599 

81 

1,945 

26,809 

20,389 

13 

10 

3 

10 

5 

ir 

I870-7IJ 

18 

2,214 

2,096j 

1,678 

80 

2,054 

25,306 

19,333 , 

12 

1 

2 

9 

3 

7 


“In the classification of pupils, there has been improvement, all 
classes save the third showing an increase. The increase in the 
highest class is especially commendable, the pupils in that class 
having in one year increased by nearly 30 per cent. But the number 
of boys in the lowest class, 952, that is, of boys not advanced beyond 
the vernacular primer, is very considerable. The Educational 
Department will do all in its power to increase the number in the 
higher classes, and so relatively to reduce the number in the lower 
classes. But so long as the natives of Oudh are content that their 
children should acquire a mere smattering of knowledge, and remove 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS — MIDDLE SCHOOLS 


407 

them from school at a very tender age, it is manifest that the lower 
classes must always be overcrowded. Inspectors can only insist upon 
the regular promotion of pupils, and see that they do not linger 
for years in the lower classes. 

“Last year it was remarked that it was not advisable to increase 
this class of schools, but rather to concentrate our English teaching 
at the high schools that now exist in every district. There is 
always a danger lest in Anglo-vernacular Middle Class Schools a 
very superficial acquaintance with English should be acquired at 
the expense of a sound knowledge of the vernacular. It is 
judicious, therefore, to postpone the study of English until a fair 
proficiency in the vernacular has been acquired. This has been 
done. 

“The want of the Province is rather vernacular than English 
-education, and I should prefer a greater expenditure on scholar- 
ships, by which the more deserving boys at middle class schools 
might attend zillah schools, rather than an increase to the English 
teaching staff at middle class schools. At the same time I may 
observe that I think English is commenced too soon, and I would 
postpone the commencement of English until the pupils possess a 
better knowledge of the vernacular than they do at present. This 
may be done at very little expense by adding a sixth class to the 
Anglo-vernacular town school. The pupils then in the highest class, 
whilst possessing a knowledge of English equal to that which they 
now acquire, may have greater attainments in the vernacular”.— 
(Paragraphs 68, et seq , Report, 1870-71.) 

AIDED PRIVATE SCHOOLS OF THE MIDDLE CLASS 


“The statistics of these schools may be thus shown:— 


Schools 

Number 

i 

pupils 

Average 

atten- 

dance 

Fee 

collec- 

tion 

Govern- 

ment 

grant 

Total 

cost 

Cost to gov- 
ernment of 
educating 
each pupil 

Total l 

l 

568 

424 . 

Rs. 

484 

Rs. 

4,053 

Rs. 

8,042 

Rs. A. P. 
700 


“The schools are all supported by the same society from the 
same funds, and, should the private expenditure on any particular 
school not equal the Government grant for that school, the balance 
is spent on some of the other ancillary schools, and thus the pro- 
portion between private expenditure and public aid is for the most 
part preserved. The cost to Government per pupil has indleed 
slightly increased since 1869-70. The schools are inferior to Govern- 
ment High Schools and superior to the majority of Government 



408 SELECTIONS from educational RECOUPS 

Middle Class Anglo-Vernacular Schools. The cost to Government 
for educating each pupil at Middle Class Anglo-Vernacular Schools? 
is Rs. 9-3-7, so that the managers of the Anglican Mission Schools- 
should aim at reducing the cost of education to Government at 
their schools to at least half this amount. This may be effected 
either by increasing the attendance or diminishing the grant. Three 
of these schools were visited and examined by me during the year. 
A fair middle class education X found to be given, and the pupils- 
generally were perhaps of average attainments. The average 
attendance at all the schools is about 75 per cent, of the number 
enrolled. The schools were visited by me in August”.— (Paragraph 
155, Report , 1870-71). 

Central Provinces 

GOVERNMENT MIDDLE SCHOOLS, viz, t ZILLAH SCHOOLS AND ANGLO- 
VERNACULAR TOWN SCHOOLS 

“The total cost of middle schools has been Rs. 98,540, of whidte 
the Government has contributed Rs. 61,990, and the people Rs. 
36,550. As the total shows no change since last year’s report, and 
the private contingent has decreased by Rs. 3,470, the Government’s: 
share of the expenditure has been correspondingly increased. This 
is due to the gradual falling off of the subscriptions in certain* 
towns of the Nagpur Division and elsewhere; in some cases the 
deficit has been so great as to necessitate the removal of the schools 
to a town in more flourishing circumstances. Fee collections have 
increased by Rs. 369, the number of boys learning English by 70,. 
and the daily average attendance by 92. 

From this class of school I think we have less to hope than 
from any other. Such as I have seen are without exception good 
vernacular schools spoiled; in almost all of the schools which I 
examined I found little children had been allowed to begin English 
before they could) read, write, and sum in their own vernacular 
Much of this fatal folly is due to the indolence of Zillah Inspectors^ 
but not all; in many places the people will not send their children 
except on the condition that they are allowed to begin English at 
once. Moreover the English masters in Anglo-vernacular School 
are a very inferior body; in many towns the aided subscriptions are 
insufficient to secure the services of a really competent master; in 
all the moiety from local funds and private subscriptions is so 
fluctuating and uncertain that good men who would take the posts, 
if the permanence of the salary were assured, cannot be induced to 
join the appointments. When a casualty, such as the change in the 
taxation of a municipality on the death of a liberal townsman, may 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— MIDDLE SCHOOLS 


409 * 


any day suddenly reduce the private contribution (and of necessity 
the equal grant from Government also) to a small fraction of its 
original amount, it is not to be wondered that candidates will not 
come forward willing to risk their fortunes on so hazardous a 
chance, especially as the Berars with their numerous middle schools- 
and liberal scale of pay lie between us and our principal market. 
For my own part I trust that the new vernacular middle examina- 
tion now under consideration by the Syndicate of the Calcutta Uni- 
versity, will cause the majority of the schools of this class to revert 
to the vernacular grade; a scheme might be easily developed by 
which in lieu of a bad Anglo-vernacular school we might have a 
first-rate vernacular school in every town. Such boys as showed airy 
singular ability might be sent as exhibitioners to the nearest zillah 
school, so that instead of a dozen-and-a-half of boys in every town 
school learning only to read and write English (not to translate or 
compose it) from a master whose isolation from all other English- 
speaking Natives makes his English pronounciation and idiom one 
hideous soloccism, we should have some three score well instructed 
in the vernacular subjects, and half a dozen reading for university 
examinations under fairly competent teachers.”— (Paragraphs 25 and. 
26, Report , 1870-71.) 

Of the nine aided schools there is nothing worthy of note. They 
are mostly under missionary superintendence. The most flourishing 
of them are the Sitabaldi Catholic School and the Kampti City 
School, of which the following accounts are given:— 


“This school is divided into two departments,— one for Europeans: 
— and Eurasians, and 

Sitabaldi Catholic School t . r , T 

the other for Na- 

^ ^ tives - The numbers 
are divided pretty 

Number of Average Number of Average equally in tile tWO 

pupils on daily Fees pupils on daily Fees . 

31st March attendance 31st March attendance sections, the average 

— attendance in both. 

Rs . Rs. 

being 132. The total 

cost was Rs. 6,208, of 

which Government contributed Rs. 1,200. The institution is one: 
of the most valuable in the Central Provinces; in discipline and order 
the classes are infinitely superior to the best Government and aided 
schools. The boys of the first class have been admirably taught 
Arithmetic, Algebra, and Euclid; and the answering of the Eurasian 
Department in all the subjects of their course was most satisfactory. 


Neat maps and drawings were exhibited on the day of examination^ 
and some 20 boys executed part-songs very pleasingly. Altogether the* 



410 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


1869-70 

1870-71 

Number of 
pupils on 
31st March 

Average 

daily 

attendance 

Fees 

Number of 
pupils on 
31st March' 

Average 

daily 

attendance 

Fees 



Rs. 



Rs. 

199 

109 

282 

246 

162 

418 


instruction provided is eminently suitable for the class which takes 
advantage of it. The Chief Commissioner has sanctioned an addi- 
tional grant of Rs. 100 per mensem from 1st April, from which date 
a Latin class has been added to the school. 

“The school, which at the close of the year under report has been 
established exactly two years, is growing in magnitude and quality 

very rapidly. It is 
The City Aided School patronised by Rajah 

1869-70 ,870-71 311(1 Nan3 

Ahir Rao, and has 

dumber of Average Number of Average the advantage of 3 . 

pupils on daily Fees pupils on daily Fees ° 

31st March attendance 31st March' attendance first-rate Committee, 

the two most active 

Rs. Rs. _ 

members of which 

199 109 282 246 162 418 

_ are Messrs. Vasudeo 

Ballal and Yeshwant Rao Anant Rao Udas, of the offices of the 
Judicial Commissioner and Chief Commissioner, respectively. Four 
hoys passed the high school scholarship examination of 1870; the 
staff is competent to teach up to the Entrance Examination standard. 
I do not think there is any school in the Central Provinces which 
promises as well as this.”— (Paragraphs 42—44, Report , 1870-71). 

British Burmah 

The four middle class Government schools are at Akyab, Moul- 
mein, Kyouk-Phyoo, and Prome. Similar schools have also been 
established during the year at Mergui and Shewgyeen, but there is 
nothing worthy of record in the report of them. 

The middle class aided schools are comparatively numerous and 
monopolise a large share of the imperial grant. They are mostly 
under missionary agency, but there is nothing noticeable in the 
remarks upon them. 

The Berars 

Here it appears that a school is ranked as middle or lower class 
according to the attainments of its highest pupils. The section 
devoted to this class of schools is, however, taken up by a long 
extract from the Director’s address at the Akola general examina- 
tion, which, however interesting in itself, is not quite relevant. 

Coorg 

ANGLO-VERNACULAR SCHOOLS 


“Three of the five Anglo-vernacular schools, which are affiliated 
to the Central School, are now established; the fourth will shortly 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS — MIDDLE SCHOOLS 4 1 * 

4>e opened at Padinalknad, and) the fifth at Kodlipete, where a 
house is available free of rent, as soon as funds are available for 
the teacher’s pay. 

“The one at Verajpete, in charge of the Coorg master, Pali- 
kanda Aiyenna, proves a great success. It numbers now 124 pupils, 
10 more than last year, but since 10 boys were promoted in January 
to Mercara; the increase over last year’s attendance is 20. The 
school is divided into two classes,-the one Kanarese, the other 
English. The former numbers 57 boys and three girls under the 
Coorg teacher, Aiyeppa, and is of the same character as the other 
elementary Kanarese schools. The examination gave a satisfactory 
result. On closing the school at Kunchalla, I transferred Aiyeppa 
to Verajpete, and his predecessor, Krishnaiya, to Padinalknad at his 
request, as his house is near the school.”— ( Paragraphs 16 & 17, 
Report , 1870-71). 

The character of the instruction given in middle schools would 
be determined at once if schools were properly graded and admit- 
tance to the middle school were only possible to a boy who had 
passed the curriculum of the primary school. The primary school 
would give a sound elementary vernacular training suitable to the 
great mass of the community and leaving a boy at the age of 10 
to 12. The middle school would be an Anglo-vernacular school, 
giving the rudiments of English and preparing for admission to the 
high school. In Bombay, the Punjab, Oudh and the Central Pro- 
vinces, the Directors are aiming at this end; in Bengal the curricu a 
are not so distinctively marked, while in the North-West it appears 
that Persian, Arabic and English have been introduced into die 
primary schools, some of which are naturally "fast rising” to a higher 
status with the natural result of the “higher classes being taught at 
the expense of the neglected lower ones”. Primary schools cannot 
be expected to increase if they are really doing the work of middle 
schools and yet the proportion in the North-West between the 
school-going and the total population shows that the increase o 
primary schools is the great want of the province. 

As a characteristic of the contrast between the Bengal and 
Bombay systems of education, it will be noUced that whereas in 
Bengal there are 46 lower Governemnt schools, 217 middle a 
hiVh schools in Bombay the figures are 2,384, 157 and P 

lively. It can hardly be doubted that the Government system would 
be sounder and more secure if its foundation were broader. 



412 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


High 


Their statistics are annexed 

Comparative Statistics of Higher 


(I) 




( 2 ) 





C 3 ) 






Government 



i 

i 

Private and Aided 

Province 




Average annual cost 

1 


Average annual 






per pupil to 


I 

l 

cost per pupil to 











l 

to 







i 


1 



■3 




Schools 

Pupils 

Imperia 

Funds 

*rt 

CJ 

O 

•-1 


1 1 Schools 

Pupils 

Imperii 

Funds 

s , 

*« 

►4 






Rs. A. P. 

Rs. A. P. 



Rs. A.P. 

Rsj\.P. 


f Boys 


53 

9,592 

22 0 0 

23 8 

0 

80 

8,532 

6 13 5 

16 13 

Bengal 

Girls 


.* 

•* 


•• 


•• 

'* 

•• 

•* 


^"Boys 


14 

3,313 

30 14 7 

7 13 

5 

39 

( 

8,904 

12 6 8 

23 6 10- 

Madras 

Girl 8 



*• 


•• 


1 

138 

906 

55 3 2 

Bombay 

JBoys 
t Girls 


12 

2,697 

26 I 3 

39 6 

I 

14 

1 3 , 2?0 

; 

10 5 9 

** 


f Boys 


13 

2,478 

69 12 3 

12 15 

4 

10 

2,373 

14 5 8 

H 

<1 

00 

H 

N.W. 

Provinces 

\ Girls 


** 

•• 

•• 

•• 


•• 

** 

•• 

** 


f Boys 


4 

211 

164 5 9 

II 14 

4 

11 

2,471 

13 r 5 

15 10 IX 

Punjab 

1 Girls 


•• 


•• 

, ** 


•• 

.. 

•• 


Oudh 

^Boys 


li 

2,139 

21 6 6 

5 4 

9 

•• 


** 


f Girls 


* * 

* * 









f Boys 


2 

234 

93 3 4 

10 6 

4 

2 

410 

16 6 3 

22 3 8: 

Central 
Provi nces 

\ Girls 



-• 

•• 





** 

** 


fBoys 


2 

284 

48 4 6 

14 2 

9 

2 

178 

28 1 5 

74 6 0- 

Burmab 

\ Girls 




•• 

•• 


•• 


•• 



fBoys 


2 

198 

7 9 11 

.. 


•• 

•- 

•• 

•• 

The Berars 

\ Girls 




•* 



•• 

*• 

•• 

•• 


fBoys 


I 

140 

57 4 1 

1 13 

11 

•• 

•• 

•* 


Coorg 

\ Girls 





** 



•- 

•• 

•• 


Boys 


IT 4 

21.286 

. . 

*■ 


158 

26,148 

•• 

•* 


Girls 





.. 


1 

138 

•• 

** 

Total 


114 

21,286 

*• 

** 

159 

26,286 

** 

* • 


EDUCATIONAL MACHINERY OR SCHOOLS— HIGH SCHOOLS 


4*3 




414 


SELECTIONS FROM EDUCATIONAL RECORDS 


415 


After dealing with the two former classes of schools, of the real 
condition of which it is very difficult, except in Bombay, to get a clear 
conception, it is satisfactory to come to a class of which the working 
and results are tested by a comparatively uniform and quite inde- 
pendent standard. The High Schools may in all provinces be rated 
by the results they shew in the University Matriculation Examina- 
tion. To prepare for this is their object, and as they fail or succeed 
in this, so may we rate them. In this view I submit the annexed 
table, which shews roughly what an under-graduate in each province 
costs the country irrespective of the cost of direction, inspection, and 
the leave and pension charges of those connected with him. And I 
have no doubt that under the present system of provincial services 
the result will receive the attention it seems to merit. 


Government High Schools 


Aided High Schools 


(I) 

(2) 

<3) 

(4) 

(5) 

(6) 

(7) 

(8) 

(9) 

(10) 

(ii) 

C12) 

(13) 

Province 

No. of schools 

No. of pupils 

Total cost to Government 

Candidates for entrance 

Candidates passed 

Average annual cost to 
Government of successful 1 
candidates j 

No. of schools 

No. of pupils 

Total cost to Government 

u 

nf 

.’H 

*3 

a 

oj 

U 

Candidates passed 

Average cost to Govern- 
ment of success ful candi- 
dates 

| 

B engal 

53 

9,592 

Rs. 

2,11,526 

610 

4i3 

Rs. 

512 

80 

8,532 

Rs. 

58,333 

523 

230 

Rs. 

25? 

Madras 

14 

3,3i3 

1,02,420 

Not 

given 

163 

632 

39 

8,904 

1,10,591 

Not 

shown 

235 

Not* 

shown 

Bombay 

12 

2,697 

70,343 

354 

86 

817 

14 

3,280 

33,991 

523 

55 

No t 

N.W. Pro- 
vinces 

13 

2,478 

1,72,892 

90 

65 

2,659 

10 

2,373 

34,060 

00 

<-n 

49 

shown 

695 

Punjab 

4 

211 

34*679 

36 

23 

1,507 

11 

471 

32,342 

37 

28 

i,i55 

Oudh 

11 

2,139 

54,147 

31 

18 

3,0 8 




. . 


. . 

Central Pro- 
vinces 

2 

234 

24,176 

11 

11 

2,197 

2 

4 IO 

6,720 

15 

Not 

shown 


Of course this table is only a rough estimate